Skip to main content

Full text of "73 Magazine (March 1977)"

See other formats


AMATEUR 



MARCH 1977 
$2.00 




YEARS AHEAD 




WITH YAESU 



rAESl 



YAESU'S NEW FT221 

FM-AM-USB-LSB-CW 



ENTIRE 2 MTR BAND! 

PHASE LOCK LOOP! 



No crystals needed! 

Phase lock loop circuit! 

3-way metering, discriminator 
zero center! 



Repeater offset— up, down, 
(standard or special)! 



Broadbanded— no transmitter tuning! 20 watts input — FM and CW! 



Full band coverage — 
144-148 MHz! 

1kHz dial accuracy 



Pulse noise blank* 



lC-DC power supplies 
lilt-in! 



Crystal calibrator! 



FM-AM-USB-LSB-CW? 



Clarifier offset tuning! 



?rm 



I. 



^FT-S&I 



No-mar feet! 



LUto-patch input! 

0.S microvolt receiver 
itivity! 



? . ' 



4r I 



V-- 



bfa ' 



V. 



• - -, 



4F * 



24 watts SSB PEP input! PTT or VOX operation! 



See yc sesu Dealer or write: 

YAESU ELECTRON fCS CORPORATION 
1 5954 Downoy Ave., P.O. Box 498 
Paramount, CA 90723 * (213} 633-4007 

YAESU ELECTRONICS CORPORATION 
Eastern Service Center. 613 Redna Terrace 
■nnati, Ohio 452 1 5 • (513) 772-1500 



Mike, plugs, connectors Plug-in computer quality 
supplied! circuit boards! 



YAESU 

The radio. 





h *> P 



Triton IV 



i 



i 



i 



Here's some of the proof . 



K4EME — This ts my second TRITON IV. They are excellent xceivers! WA8ICK — Luv it, Dynamite! W9NXU — I am very thrilled with this unit, it is great. 
I think you have scooped the field. WflOftYA — I like CW and fuJi break-in. (Beautiful) K3TFU - I love the unit. WA3VEZ — Rig is just great. Comb fried with 
your service makes a super transceiver. WNOSEO — Beautiful radio to use. Magnificent CW fHter! Just a pure Joy. WSNT — I have had my TRITON IV for 
two months and am delighted with it, TN1MBV — it fs a very nice rig. W3GTX — New features very welcome. WOBYC — Bought one of the first TRITON 
II, like it so well I updated It wEth a TRITON IV. W2TBK — It is absolutely fantastic. WBOOPI — I am pleased with the rig, WA3CJA — Very- very- very 
nice. Good audio quality. W5ZBC — The most outstanding rig I have ever used, KftCJQ — Excellent rig, Good filters, W7BHK — Very happy . . , getting excellent qual- 
ity reports. W2CET — Power-signal reports good. WB2UEH — I Ifke the compactness and appearance. VE3J8K — An excellent rig with superior receiving quality. 
K4IVM — I think It is tops, WA4L0G — I've become so used to dip, peak and adjust, this TRITON is a beautiful new experience. KL7IHW — Easy to set 
up— works great. K4JXD — Seems to be very FB rig, WA7KHE — Fantastic performance. Thanhs for a fine rig, W64BPC — No problems— fine rig. VEJBZ — 
Good work. W9MQT — Receiver better than expected, CW break-in is super. WOAP — Tremendous transceiver, I appreciate your engineering. VYA2ZRO — Won- 
derful. KOSFV — Real nice rig, You thought of almost every feature and built It in, Ka9DQ — Beautiful. WBOJIQ — Beautiful radio; however, your ads do not 
do justice to the radio, WN5SOH — Very sophisticated— Easiest tuning rig ever. Very glad I bought It. K30JV — Very impressed. W4LZP — Very good results. 
Put out 100 watts as good as 300 watt rigs, WA40HY — I think the TRITON IV is great. W6QXN — Appreciate full CW break-in. WOINH — Enjoy light weight, 
VI3CYK — I am extremely pleased with the clarity of receiver and after putting rig on the air H received unsolicited compliments on the audio quality of the 
transmitter, R4PHT — Was 3rd in USA. first In fourth district in WWCQ contest. W8RYU — Own Argonaut. Both fine rigs, W4C0A — Compact, light weight, 
good engineering WB2WZG — TRITON IV is the most versitile CW/SSB radio I have ever used, WB2FMV — Outstanding. Highly pleased with performance. 
WA8ACI — A real nice rig. I have owned about every other make. W5ECK — Works nicely. WB4EC0 — I tried this rig, a pleasure to operate. WA4YRK — 
Excellent reports on audio. WB«NKB — Wonderful. WSUPft — An excellent rig. Love it WBSQP — Makes running SSB nets a real breeze. Also good on CW 
nets. WL7IRT — Fantastic rig. W4MDB — Has rekindled my interest and enthusiasm in Amateur Radio to an extent I hadn't thought possible, It far out dis- 
tances any competitive product at any price. W6EYR — Very nice. Been a ham for 45 years and now solid state perfection. W2RFH — Excellent rig. 
WNOTDK — TRITON IV is a fabulous piece of equipment. W5VIW — Very nice rig WB2WF — Wow! W9JCV — Tn* for giving us a FB piece of equipment 
made in the USA. WB6HQ — Very pleased K4KXB — Seems to have everything desired. W4SI — A pleasure to operate, W2FKF — Greatest rig I ever had. 
So far in a month 34 QSO's without one miss Eeen a ham since 1922. W4GVC — Nothing but complements, WB9EZE — Weil pleased with performance and 
simplicity of operation. K4ETI — Rig is great. W8C-NY — Man—! what a rig. I've had this call since 1929. Never saw anything like it and I've seen them 

all! WB2MZU — Seems like everything the 5 - - was supposed to be at one third the price. WNQVHE — I think it is a very good rig. WB9FTD — 

Break in CW is very impressive. KOCBA — I believe it is one of the finest HF transceivers on the market. I can't tell you how pleased I am with the noise 
blanker r can get on the air from my home station again for the first time in a few years. Other figs with noise blankers just didn't hack It. WA7YHW — 
I am very pleased with this equipment. It is certainly of high quality. WIMh — Excellent equipment. WBORWA — Couldn't be more pleased with it. It 
certainly has performed beautifully and is all I expected and more. WMdlT — Like it very much — keep up the good work. WM1TVX — Really impressed 
with looks and performance. WONC — Very FB rig. Performs up to specifications, an excellent design. KlPflZ — Already have TftlTON It and IV. W7R0 — 
This little "M" is smooth as Silk . . . I've received some very flattering reports about transmitter voice quality and the CW operation is the greatest. 
WH8TT0 — f found that the TRITON IV was the best rig on the market for around $800 I love n\ W2J8K — It is absolutely fantastic. WBFEI — Am amafed 

at receiver performance. I thought I had a top notch receiver with the H-* J. WUTM — your guarantee is refreshingly proper, W&MOK — Sure makes 

a guy look twice at his old tube type gear W1TFS — Finest CW ever. CW selectivity very good. WB6ivH — Very satisfied with TRITON IV. lust what I was 
looking for to use on my yacht. ThanKs WABONP — Also have a TRITON II. I am pleased that At Kahn and the gootf guys at TEf^TEC thought of the CW op- 
erator! W2EMI — Excellent Amateur gear meets and exceeds advertised claims. WO AMI — It looks like there is nothing left to be desired. It is beautiful. 
W&SE — The receive function is outstanding. It is superb in transmit. W1BV — In love Aith this fantastic gem. It's so easy and a pleasure to operate. 
W6ASH — Very happy with performance. Particularly impressed with full break-in and light weight. WAOIMS — By far the best rig I have ever operated- 1 am glad 
I decided on the TRITON IV and not one of the other transceivers on the market WA8HQ0 — Thank you gentlemen 



Add your name to the growing fist See your TEN-TEC dealer 
or write for full details. 




TEN -TEC INC. 

SEViERVILLE, TENNESSEE 37862 

EXPORT: 57 15 LINCOLN AVE., CHICAGO, ILL fiOfrW 




.STAFF 



€DiTo*mKi**fn 



(xfcirrrvf cortDH 



AHHTAVT IDiTOf* 



&tM1 «— *j-u. * * I UMV 

ntaOUEmONHAMAQIII 

MrW Pl'W'Fflllf 

UtTDlMAtMtNf 

Bob Or w 
UtefiftH Uurpftr 

but. i*i«,it 
MMR Ml 

ittfr W'lijM 

Mlr.fi*! Mtt«r 

Wirl-itm (!**i'iij 
Hmiif LMlW 
G*y Stanlwr.h 

PHOTOGRAPH V 

UmI M»vdGMi 
TmlU Chili 

rVfEIETTINO 

I >iJ Inn i 

Stndy Whlw 

COMTTHULLfcN 

PtPiU* [. M KiillM HV4Cifi f 1 
MhUp Nikiwii 
hliblrl H.ihlrl 

OflCUtAtfO* 

Ooraihy Uhbton 

Nmrv Cn«nd«r 
F ■ »i' Cnuiii. 
JrtMtlr Q«p#*»h 

OATA LNTHV 



MARKET! ftti 

I rn riMQhi 



TAAFfFC 



PlAlfT IUJ*TUfAJ«t 






■wieft 



'm*I4JH 

mfw k4Tiu 

WA*TF 

mjQA* 



COMPUTUS 
IXUfTIUfi 




EDITORIAL BY WA YNE GREEN 



Since one of the basic reasons for 
the amateur "service" is the pioneer- 
ing and inventing we do (97. lb), the 
FCC is going against its own rules 
when it prevents amateur experiment- 
ing and pioneering. Why doesn't some 
national club haul the FCC into court 
and force them to obey their own 
rules? 

The FCC has a long history of 
making it somewhere between diffi- 
cult and impassible for amateurs to 
live up to 97.1b. Their recent refusal 
to permit experimenting with ASCII 
on the low bands, using as an excuse 
the bandwidth docket which is under 
consideration, is a typical example. 
Here we have a docket which the FCC 
admits can take several years to con 
elude and it is used as a reason for 
preventing the development of ama- 
teur techniques. Many FCC rule- 
making procedures take from three to 
five years to complete, and amateur 
radio just cannot afford to move at 
such a snail's pace. 

This is no worse than the excuses 
used in the past to prevent amateur 
experimenting ... for years the FCC 
refused to allow amateurs to use any 
mode of emission which their mom 
to ring stations were not set up to 
copy. Amateurs were held back for 
years in RTTY developments as a 
result of this restriction. 

If the FCC has no real intention of 
permitting amateurs to live up to the 
rules as written, then they should at 
least be honest about it and delete 
97.1b from the regulations . . . and 
they should explain to us why they 
have deleted this. 

When you consider what amateurs 
have been able to do, despite the 
efforts of the FCC to smother the 
ham creative urge, it is a miracle. I 
wooder what might have developed if 
we hadn't had to fight the FCC every 
inch of the way? 

I'm exaggerating, you say? Take a 
look at the way repeaters developed 
before the FCC got into the act. We 
had things realty moving along 
with a repeater network up and work 
ing on a daily basis where a chap 
could talk from San Diego to Phoenix 
to San Francisco. I stood on a street 
corner in Las Vegas a few years ago 
and talked with a chap in San Diego, 
one in Los Angeles, and one in Phoe- 
nix in a rmirui tabfe. The FCC out 



we added ten meters and the repeater 
users were able to talk from an HT via 
two meters with amateurs all around 
South America, I set up another 
repeater for 2m- 20m work and 
worked DX while walking anywhere 
around town with an HT. 

More and more repeater groups 
were expanding the services of their 
systems ... some to six meters, some 
to 220 MH*, some to 450 MHz. All 
this got stopped when the repeater 
regulations were made into law ,*. 
and the result has been a serious drop 
in the activity on both 6m and 220 
MHz, How can we get the FCC to 
leave us alone so we can try different 
systems . . . invent new modes . . . and 
pioneer new ideas? 

For a while, after the January, 
1974, hearing before the Commis- 
sioners, it looked as if the Commission 
was going to try to turn over a new 
leaf and ease up on the restrictive 
amateur regulations. They have, to 
some degree, followed through with 
this, but they've hardly made the 
amateur service an example of deregu- 
lation. 

The FCC might work on the basis 
of permitting experimentation during 
discussions of rule changes rather than 
prohibiting it. If they eventually pro- 
hibit a certain mode, then we would 
have to stop using it. This would be 
better than waiting three to five years 
to even start experimenting 

Speaking of the bandwidth docket, 
perhaps we would do better if we 
convinced the FCC to do their deregu- 
lation bit by bit instead of in big 
lumps. One of the major problems 
with this docket was the tying in of 
killing amplitude modulation with a 
lot of desirable changes. Amateurs 
don't like AM much on the low bands, 
but they are not completely con- 
vinced that it should be killed off by 
fiat. This could prevent experimenta- 
tion with double sideband techniques, 
and these hold great promise for 
better band densities with less inter- 
ference than anything in view for 
single sideband. If we can get five 
times as many stations in a band with 
less interference than we're suffering 
with SSB, why should we prohibit 
experimentation? Synchronous detec- 
tion may turn out to be one of the 
great undeveloped fields of amateur 



rnHin fir it mau nnt 



hut <hrujtr1 



one for me. The next time you see 
your ARRL director or write him, mk 
that he get the League to work in the 
same direction , . . and make sure he 
lets you know what is happening. 

BASIS AMD PURPOSE: 
THWARTED? 

While rereading the FCC regulations 
for the umpteenth time — ft was 
during some work in cooperation with 
the FCC on a project to update the 
ham exams - I got to thinking about 
the meaning of the first paragraph, 
97T Oasis and Purpose. The language 
is so muddled and exact interpretation 
is impossible — a strategern used by 
government bureaus which permits 
their continued growth, while pro- 
viding good fEank protection. 

The proposed Novice exam material 
seemed to be a bit scant as far as the 
basis and purpose of amateur radio 
was concerned. It had boiled the five 
parts of 97,1 down to three, so 1 
looked at the rules to see what had 
been omitted. Two parts had been left 
out. One turned out to be 97* 1e, the 
enhancement of international good- 
will. I was sort of sorry to see that on 
the way out — perhaps it was an 
oversight — or maybe it didn't seem 
all that important anymore to the 
FCC. 

The other omitted part of 97, T was 
a legitimate deletion. The actual 
intent of 97. t is to define the basis 
and purposes of the rates 4 not of the 
amateur service, but since four of the 
five parts of the paragraph apply to 
both, 97.1 itself has come to be 
thought of as being a statement of the 
basis and purpose of amateur radio. 
This part is most significant in the 
Light of recent rule changes and pro- 
posals for rule changes. 97.1c states 
that the purpose of the regulations is 
for the "encouragement and improve- 
ment of tire amateur radio service 
through rules which provide for 
advancing skills in both communica- 
tion and technical phases of the art." 

That seems simple on the face of it 
Yet, as the ONLY rule applying solely 
to the purpose of the rules themselves* 
it would seem that it should have a 
binding effect on the Amateur 
Division of the Commission when 
they are preparing new regulations for 
enactment. 

The rules then should encouraoe 



REPEATER 



DRIVE 



FINAL 



NORMAL 



I* llf 



OFF 



"• ##' 



TS-700A 



SQUELCH 



lso 



use 



AF 

GAIN 



GAIN 



$ KENWOOD 2m All MODE TRANSCEIVER 
POWER SFND CFN *JR OiT tO»jf 



**"»'"%., 



OFF 



flCC 



MIC 



PHONES 



OFF 






AVI 



.?'. 




CA|. Ofa — / 
BAND 



\4-T 



FIX. CH 



Oil 




TIME TO 

RECONSIDER THE 

TS-700A 




You probably have considered purchasing an all-mode, 2-meter transc er/but 
ured that you couldn't afford one. Figure again! Kenwood has lowered the price 
of the fabulous TS-700A, making it much easier to get on the 2-meter band with a 
top quality aN-modeVHF system. At its new low price, theTS-700A is certainly the 
"'Pacesetter" in both price and performance And it's ready for immediate delivery 
in fact, your dealer probably has them in stock right now. There's a lot of excite- 
ment on 2 meters not only on FM. but SSB and CWtoo 
Check with your nearest authorized Kenwood dealer for the TS- 700A s new low price 



* Operates all modes' SS8 (upper & lowe 
FM, AM.andCW 

* Completely solkf state circuitry provides 
stable, long lasting, trouble-free operation 

* AC and DC capability Can operate from 
your car boat or as a base station through 

its built-in power supply 

* 4 MHz band coverage (144 to ! 48 MHz) 
instead of the usual 2 

* Automatically switches transmit frequency 
600 KHz for repeater operation Just dial in 



yotir receive frequency and the radio does 
the rest Simplex repeater reverse 

• Or do the same thing by plugging a single 
crystal into one of the 1 1 crystal positions for 
your favorite channel 

• Outstanding frequency stability provided 
through the use of FET-VFO 

• Zero center discriminator meter 

• Transmit -Receive capability on 44 chann 
with 1 1 crystals 

• Complete with microphone and built-in 
speaker 



These fine accessories are 
also available for use with 
your TS-700A. 







©KENWOOD 

*.. pa ft .utter in amattur rtuhu 

TRIO-KENWOOD COMMUNICATIONS J 
1 16 EAST ALONORA/GARDENA. CA 90248 




SP-70 



MC-50 



FM28 



HUSTLER ANT'S 



TOUCHTONE PADS 



FM-76 



031 A 



10 

i- 

5 

c 

UJ 

i 



3 

8 
S 

e 

-i 
UJ 

X 



o 

I 

I 



CL 
UJ 

z 
o 

I- 

i 

I- 



3 

Z 

z 

Ul 
K 
Z 
< 






*■ 

Z 
< 

X 



BUY f Mand SAVE ! 

If you are planning the purchase of an FM 
TRANSCEIVER, we suggest you consider one of the 
several CLEGG products. 



CA 



(A 

> 
IT 
U 





1 w< 




1 . We sell directly to you. You SAVE the middlemans 
markup 

2. We warrant and service our products. You save both 
SS and TIME. Less than 1% of our transceivers require 
factory service. Those that do are normally returned 
to the owner in less than 1 week. Our warranty is 
liberal, our service charges are minimal. You SAVE. 

3. We provide you with a TOLL FREE NUMBER so you 
can contact our SALES and SERVICE DEPT. You get 
information and service quickly from an expert You 
SAVE TIME, MONEY and AGGRAVATION! 

4. We stock what we sell. It's our policy to ship your 
order within 24 hrs. after receipt. We seldom fail to 
adhere to this policy. You SAVE TIME! 

5. We offer group discounts on most of our products. 
If you and several of your friends place a combined 
order, you can SAVE additional MONEY from our 
already low prices. 

6. We stock thousands of crystals for our FM-76 and 
MARK-3 Transceivers, Our prices are the lowest, our 
service is the fastest. You again SAVE TIME and 
MONEY, get on that new repeater fast. 

7. Compare prices of used CLEGG equipment with the 
original factory selling price. It holds its value. You 
SAVE when you buy and you SAVE when you sell. 



CALL US TODAY - TOLL FREE 
Place your MONEY and TIME SAVING order now! 



{2 

UJ 

8 

Z 
< 

I 

UJ 



Z 

1 

o 



Z 
< 

UJ 

S 

o 

8 
t 

UJ 

X 

CL 



8 



U. 



Ul 

_J 

CL 
CL 

v> 

DC 
UJ 

i 



X 

o 



to 

AC 

UJ 



CL 

£ 
< 

5 




Cksa 



Communication! Corp. 



031 A 



208 Centerville Road, Lancaster, Pa* 17603 

Toll free sales & service. Phone 800-233-0250 

In Pa, call 717-299^7221 collect, 

POWER SUPPLIES CRYSTALS MARK 3 




KLM ANT 



S/ 



recent major rules changes from this 
viewpoint. 

The "incentive licensing" rules: In 
what way did they contribute to the 
advancement of communications or 
technical pioneering? The taking away 
of band segments to force amateurs to 
90 back for a new license exam would 
not seem to be even remotely relevant 
to either. The Commission apparently 
got carried away with doing the 
bidding of the ARAL, even though it 
was inconsistent with the basic man- 
date laid down by its own rules. 

The repeater docket was most 
restrictive to those interested in 
pioneering and technical experimenta- 
tion. We've been promised that the 
most severely restrictive aspects of the 
docket will be modified, but still we 
had a good example of the Com- 
mission going directly against its most 
basic basis and purpose, as stated in 
97.1c. 

How about recent dockets? How 
much of the change proposed in the 
rules can be justified as being con- 
sistent with the mandate of 97,1c? 
What changes will encourage the 
development of communications 
skills? Will any parts of it encourage 
technical developments or the 
pioneering of new techniques? Let's 
really look closely at the dockets with 
these basic guidelines In mind and 
include this in our comments we Hie 
with the Commission — with 14 
copies. 

Is the taking away of RTTY and 
other such privileges from the General 
class and Tech licensees consistent 
with 97.1c? Will the goal of having 
them be relicensed as Advanced or 
Experimenter class licensees In any 
way be consistent with 97.1c? It is 
possible that the Amateur Division of 
the Commission has gotten Its sights 
askew and is aiming us at some goal 
not specified by 97.1, and it Is diffi- 
cult to see how forcing us to pass 
more and more advanced FCC exams 
for higher classes of License is con- 
sistent with any of the parts of 97,1, 
though it is easy to see how it is quite 
inconsistent with 97. 1c, 

One of the reasons for proposed 
rule changes has to do with getting 
more amateurs. This is a good goal, 
undoubtedly, but it is in no way 
consistent with 97.1 — there is noth- 
ing whatever rn there about getting 
more amateurs. Another purpose has 
been to get away from the problems 
of faked malt order licenses. This, too, 
is probably a good goal, but difficult 
to iustify under 97J . , . particularly 
since there has been no real evidence 
that the problems involved are serious 
enough to warrant an enormous 
upheaval. 

Since 97.1c says the rules should 
provide for enhancing communica- 
tions skills, we must ask how putting 
restrictions on the use of a license 
work in this direction. The more 
restrictions there are, the less com- 
munications skills are going to be 
enhanced , , . right? 

COMMUNICATIONS SKILLS 

What amateur activities are best for 

developing communications skills? 

Just about any on-the-air activity, 

possibly with the exception of plain 



old rag chewing, might be considered 
beneficial in skill developing. 

Sending and receiving CW is a skill. 
Rapid typing on FUTY Is a skill. 
Finding Oscar and making contacts 
takes skill Sorting out Ihe plteups to 
get a rare one on either phone or CW 
takes a good deaf of skill. Contests 
sort out the unskilled in short order 
What in our recent rule changes has 
been added which would tend to 
encourage the development of skills? 
Do we do better to require someone 
to take an exam and prove he knows 
the theory of SSTV before we let htm 
get on the air and operate with it? 
This is part of what we're doing with 
Docket 20282. and it seems like non- 
sense to me. 

If we want people to develop skills 
in working with SSTV, we want to 
first of all remove as many obstacles 
as possible that are preventing them 
from developing these skills. We want 
to get them on the air with SSTV as 
quickly as possible, then they' IE have 
the incentive to learn and be in touch 
with the people who can teach them, I 
didn't know beans about SSTV when 
I went on the first time. 

I knew even less about RTTY the 
first time I got on the air on that 
mode, but mv interest was stirred and 
I soon learned alt I could, RTTY was 
so much fun that I had to know more, 
to build equipment and to get on 
more bands, We were stuck up on 2m 
and 11m in those days and FSK was 
illegal on the low bands. I got on 80m 
just sending mark signals and had a 
ball. We put an RTTY repeater on 2m 
in 1948. 

Communications skills will best be 
developed, 1 think, if we keep the 
restrictions to a minimum and en- 
courage new modes, new ideas, and 
the fun of it all. One thing is for sure, 
and I doubt if I will get any disagree- 
ment on this: The one single aspect of 
amateur radio that is just about the 
feast fun is taking an FCC exam. 

TECHNICAL SKILLS 

The more the FCC can do to 
encourage amateurs to experiment 
and develop new ideas, the more value 
the amateur service will have — and 
this is consistent with 97.1a Just look 
at recent technical developments: 
Amateur pioneers are hard at work 
with incredible circuits for SSTV. 
digital timers for Oscar alerts, Morse 
code to RTTY converters and vice 
versa, synthesizers for everything, 
computer applications for amateurs, 
sophisticated repeater controls — the 
list is almost endless . . . just look over 
the articles in 73. 

Instead of making these develop- 
ments more difficult and hamstringing 
us (pardon), the FCC should be fan 
ning the flames of interest and enthu- 
siasm. They should be coming out 
with rules which would continue to 
remove more and more of the restrict 
tions so we can work with pulse 
technology — with telemetry — and all 
the other far out ideas which might 
prove valuable if pioneered. 

We have plenty of band room for 
new ideas. Why have we been pre 
vented from having repeaters on ten 
meters when the band is virtually 
dead? Why are we so restricted on six 



meters when that band is a wasteland? 
Look at the restrictions they put on 
220 MHz . , . and for what? No sooner 
did amateur repeater groups agree on 
standards for repeaters than the FCC 
shot them down with subband alloca- 
tions. Insane? Has the FCC ever had 
any success in trying to read its crystal 
ball? And yet this is what was going 
on ... they divided up a totally 
unused band on the basis of what 
might someday happen, provided 
there were no unforeseen technical 
developments * > ♦ and that is one 
thing you can depend on ... . amateurs 
will come up with unforeseen tech- 
nical developments. 

Just take a look at tbe 146-148 
MHz band ... in the early 60's that 
was and had been virtually deserted 
for almost 20 years. Loud voices were 
asking that it be turned over to CB. 
Then came repeaters, and within a few 
years this unused band had mote 
amateurs using it than any other ham 
band, Use expanded very rapidly until 
the FCC got into the act and passed 
rules which stopped its growth for a 
while . . . then, after the biggest battle 
in the history of the hobby, the FCC 
(Walker) backed down and FM began 
to grow again. 

Let's try and keep the FCC from 
putting through more and more re- 
strictions which interfere with ama- 
teur pioneering and the development 
of communications skills. Remind 
them of 97Jc every time they start to 
make life difficult for us. 

CAN HAMS REALLY BE TRUSTED? 

Though I know of nothing in the 
FCC regulations which specifies that 
amateurs be self- policing, the fact is 
that we have done a rather good job 
of this and we accept it as a responsi- 
bility . ♦ . some more than others, 
unfortunately. I would like to see 
more amateurs be serious about this, 

The major growth of FM repeaters 
on two meters was almost totally 
without FCC interference. The first 
reaction of amateurs to mutual re- 
peater interference was one of frustra- 
tion . . . then repeater wars . . and 
finally the development of repeater 
coordinators and repeater councils. To 
me this whole thing was an excellent 
example of the true amateur spirit. 
Even the hottest of heads eventually 
were calmed down and brought 
around to a reasonable and coopera- 
tive solution to the problems. 

It was this example that was laid 
before the FCC at the hearing before 
the Commission in January, 1974 . . . 
a hearing demanded by the amateurs 
and ignored by the ARRL. On the 
strength of this proof of amateur 
responsibility* the ball was put in 
motion to deregulate us. This has 
resulted in a reduction of about 25% 
of the rules so far, and a lot more 
deregulation is under consideration. 
These things a^e monuments to the 
trust and foresight of FCC Chairman 
John Wiiey, Charlie HJgginbotham and 
Johnny Johnston, 

The repeater problem wasn't the 
first instance of good amateur cooper- 
ation by any means. Whenever emer- 
gencies come along, amateurs drop 
their differences (which are many . . . 
like any other mixed group) and 



cooperate. And older timers will 
remember the "gentleman's agree 
ment" as far as sideband was con- 
cerned on twenty meters. With very 
few exceptions, amateurs turned out 
to be gentlemen and virtually all 
sidebanders kept to the high end of 
the band, with the AM on the lower 
end of the band . . . and this despite 
the fact that there was little DX to be 
worked from the high end ... it was 
all on the low end. 

It is my impression that amateurs 
are perfectly capable of making 
gentlemen's agreements . , , and 
keeping them. Some of our self-pro- 
claimed policemen aren't as subtle as 
we might like, but I'd rather have a 
nerd rattle the chain than no one at 
all. When you hear things going 
wrong, for heaven's sake speak up and 
see if you can pour some oil on 
troubled waters. It may be a guy with 
his mike up too high ... a chap who 
got his switches backwards and is 
calling in the DX band and listening in 
the U.S. band . . . or someone stretch- 
ing the bounds of decency on any 
band 

The fact that many amateurs have 
the feeling that they only have to 
watch out for FCC monitoring 
stations does not help matters. The 
FCC would do us a big favor if they 
were to announce that they would no 
longer issue citations for infractions of 
the rules, for this would forcibly make 
all amateurs aware that it is the 
responsibility of every amateur to 
uphold the honor and reputation of 
the group. I think we would very 
quickly be rid of the unspeakable 
garbage a few 75m AMers are putting 
out . , . and the disgusting behavior on 
a few Los Angeles repeaters. Even 
CBers wouldn't put up with rot like 
thatl 

The frequency coordinators for 
repeaters have been particularly pro- 
tective of n on- rep eater interests, 
oddly enough. Most of them bend 
over backwards to make sure that 
repeater groups stay out of the way of 
all the other users of the VHF bands 
. , . AM, SSB. RTTY, Oscar, Moon- 
bounce, D Xing, meteor scatter, ATV, 
etc. We seem to be in much better 
hands when we are governing our 
selves than when we are depending on 
the FCC , . , and the action sure is a 
lot faster. Many FCC actions are sped 
along from proposal to rule making in 
onfy four or five years, while some 
drag on for eight or ten. This is a real 
drag for amateur radio, since most of 
our significant developments sweep in 
and are accepted by us way before the 
FCC can get organized to cope with it 
rulewise. 

The FCC reaction to repeaters was 
a good example of their fast work . , » 
bv the time they got around to 
screwing up the works (royalty), re 
peaters were too brg a deal to get 
killed off. Obviously the FCC does 
not read its own rules ... as I have 
written earlier . , . where they are 
supposed to encourage amateurs to 
pioneer and invent. Even in 97.3a 
they define the amateur radio service 
as "a radio communication service of 
sel f ■ tra in i ng, intercom m unication , and 
technical investigation carried on by 
amateur radio operators," Note that 



technical investigation part and ask 
any old-timer how many times the 
FCC has done just about everything in 
its power to stall same. 

Amateurs, left to their own ends, 
might come up with even more 
fantastic developments than they have 
already , . . and, in case you've for- 
gotten, chalk up FM, NBF M, SSB, and 
SSTV (so what else is there?) all to 
amateur inventing and pioneering. For 
years the FCC prohibited any amateur 
transmissions which could not be 
copied by all FCC monitoring stations 
. . « how about that for locking the 
door on developments? tf we were 
permitted to be our own bosses, and I 
don't mean via ARRL, I think we 
could set up our own system for 
coping with the needs of progress , . . 
and on a speed which would be more 
geared to reality. 

Why did I single out ARRi there? 
Their record on repeaters is typical 
. . . and a model of what service we 
get from them. They tried to ignore 
FM and repeaters for years . . . then, 
when it could no longer be ignored, 
they tried to step in and take control* 
Their recent ARRL band plan for the 
repeaters has battles going on all 
around the country because it is so 
out of touch with reality. ARRL H 
great for what it is designed for: radio 
relays. Their traffic system is fine and 
a service of which to be proud. Their 
record in other areas is execrable 

If we can't get quick action from 
the FCC on our needs . . . and we 
can't depend on the ARRL, what can 
we do? To whom can we turn for 
help? 

How about starting with our re- 
peater councils ■ -i , we have them 
spread all around the country and 
they are already responsive to the wilt 
of the grass roots via representatives 
from the repeaters they serve. We 
might set up a yearly meeting (or 
every other year) where each council 
would field two representatives to 
decide upon the "gentlemen's agree- 
ments'* for the next year or two, This 
would give us speed and responsive- 
ness. It would keep the cost down, 
too. since there might be only about 
forty or so repeater councils involved. 
On the other hand we might do 
better with a week- long national con 
vent ion where the delegates were sent 
by interested dubs. This activity 
could become a major activity of most 
ham clubs ... in which case we could 
have a couple thousand delegates 
getting into the act * . . probably every 
two years. That would be a truly 
democratic system. 

When you stop to think about it, a 
structure starting with the local clubs 
expressing their views to a council of 
clubs makes a lot of sense. And a 
group of 80 delegates might get a lot 
more work done In a shorter time 
than 2000. The ITU system of break- 
ing problems into separate committees 
for discussion gets things done quickly 
, . . then the committees bring their 
recommendations to the whole group 
for ratification. 

In order for the actions of a con- 
ference such as this to have any 
validity, we would need a mandate 

Continued on page 22 




visiting views from around the globe 



C'mone Texas Salt Rat . . . 



The scene is a Washington cocktail 
party at the home of an influential 
congressman. Guests from government 
and business are milling about, 
social i zing and discussing the issues of 
the day or whatever. Suddenly the 
low volume of a local dinner music 
FM station is shattered by the deafen- 
ing roar of undemodulated single side- 
band: "Come on Texas Salt Rat . . . 
this is the Maryland Grease Monkey 
. . « you got a copy?" Two blocks 
from the congressman's home f a CBer, 
operating illegally out of band with a 
broadband linear amplifier, strains his 
ears against the static, then starts to 
call again: "Crnone TEXAS, Ya got 
this here MARYLAND state 
MARYLAND ... MARYLAND ,.., 
MARYLAND, C'MONE?" 

The cocktail party, by this point, 
has shifted gears from the issues of the 
day or whatever to * J those damn 
CBers," or worse, "those damn 
hams." The congressman, highly irri- 
tated, is on the phone by the time our 
CB friend cranks up the power for call 
number three, calling an aide to FCC 
Chairman Richard Wiley. '"The folks 
back home have been writing me 
about this damn interference/' he tells 
the aide, "and it's high time you guys 
got over here and did something about 
it!" 

Needless to say, the congressman 
and a large number of his Capitol Hill 
colleagues have begun to put the 
wood to the FCC. When congressmen 
talk, the FCC lisiens. And what the 
FCC has been hearing a great deal of 
lately are interference complaints. In 
fact, last April the FCC stopped 
counting them after passing the 100 
thousand mark, The axe is about to 
fall, and amateurs everywhere better 
be sure they're not in the way, be* 
cause it is much later than most of us 
think. 

Meeting room =6 at the Hotel 
Sahara's Convention Space Center in 
Las Vegas: Thirty ham radio equip- 
ment manufacturers, worried over 
press reports of an impending linear 
ban and type certification of ham 
gear, meet with FCC representative 
Dick Everett. They learn a proposed 
rule making is on Chairman Wiley's 
desk - in general, it would ban the 
manufacture and sale of linears 
capable of 24 to 35 MHz operation 
and force type acceptance, It is the 



eleventh hour, and ham radio has no 
lobby in Washington IARRL can't 
lobby due to its non-profit status). 
The organizers of the SAROC meeting 
{Qentron's Dermis Had and Bob 
Levine) suggest formation of a man- 
ufacturers association, and the group 
is founded. It's called ARM A, the 
Amateur Radio Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation, 

ARMA was formed to encourage 
high standards and ethics in the ham 
radio industry, to promote the genera) 
growth and welfare of amateur radio, 
to work toward favorable rule making 
and legislation for the benefit of 
amateur radio, to function as liaison 
between the manufacturers and the 
FCC, to encourage public relations 
functions for the industry, and to 
collect and disseminate market infor- 
mation to the members. Two classes 
of membership were set up: full mem- 
bership for domestic manufacturers 
and importers, and associate mem- 
bership for publishing organizations, 
dealers, and other interested parties, 
The list of organizers reads like a 
"who's who" of the ham radio 
business. 

The week after Las Vegas, ARMA 
sent a four man committee to Wash- 
ington, They were able to see several 
FCC Commissioners, Senator Barry 
Goldwater, FCC Chief Engineer Ray 
Spence, and Enforcement Chief 
Richard Smith, One of the committee 
members, Marv Druskoff (VHF Engi- 
neering), described their greeting at 
FCC headquarters this way: "They 
wanted to know where we'd been, 
where we were when they needed us/' 
The committee learned that the linear 
ban proposal had been written by two 
FCC staffers, without the benefit of 
outside ham help. Few spec ifics could 
be teamed about the proposal because 
it had gone so far along in the FCC 
hopper, rushed through, in fact, in face 
of increasing complaints from Capitol 
Hill and pressure from the all-power- 
ful broadcasting lobby. The broad- 
casters, ARMA learned, were worried 
about lost revenue as TV viewers 
switched to channels not affected by 
the CB interference. The TV lobby. 
Senator BaiTy Goldwater K7UGA told 
the committee, is so strong that it has 
twice managed rejection of his bills 
aimed at forcing built-in high pass 
filters and better shielding of TV 



receivers. Senator Goldwater assured 
the ARMA committee he'd try again, 
and support them in every way pos- 
sible. 

Back at the FCC, the committee 
members were hard at work trying to 
win delay of the linear amplifier ban t 
in hopes of suggesting engineering 
solutions. "We're working on the idea 
of pre filtering with an 8 pole filter to 
eliminate 27 MHz/' says Dentron's 
Dennis Had. W I1 disconnected it would 
have to totally disable the amplifier, 
because the FCC won't stand for any 
more easily clipped jumper wires." At 
deadline ( engineers in Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania, and California were working on 
such a system, along with several 
other ideas, but the question of a 
detay rested with the full FCC. which 
was scheduled to meet on the subject 
January 26th. 

In Had r s words, "We told them 
they'd waited two years, so why not 
put it off another 45 days?" ARMA 
was also working on point of sale 
control to prevent non-licensed people 
from buying equipment. Had says 
such controls would have to have 
regulatory backing to avoid problems 
with the Federal Trade Commission, 
{The manufacturers, by refusing to 
sell gear to offending dealers, could 
open themselves to legal action with- 
out federal backing.) Had told 73 he 
was optimistic, but realistic, on delay- 
ing the linear ban. As he put it, "It 
may have gone too far before we got 
then. 

At best then, the notice of pro 
posed rule making on the linear ban 
may turn out to be more general then 
It would have been if ARMA didn't 
get to the FCC when it did. The rub is 
that the manufacturers are afraid the 
FCC will bow to the Capitol Hilt and 
broadcasting industry pressure . . . and 
make a move designed to be ex- 
pedient, a move that could really hurt 
ham radio in the future. That, by 
every measure we could find in 
preparing this report, is not the FCC's 
intention. As one member of the 
ARMA committee put i^ 'They've 
got a problem and they need a solu- 
tion ♦ . . and they don't want to 
cripple the hams in solving it," 

At the root of the interference 
problem is the FCCs placement of CB 
on the Hm band. It made it all too 
easy for amateur equip mem to be 



used on CB, and the amazing growth 
of outlaw activity and the TVl-RFI 
problem is the result. ARMA members 
were told by high-placed FCC officials 
that the mistake would never happen 
again. Manufacturers have played their 
part as well. The smell of easy money 
has impaired the judgment of more 
than one company. The FCC, 73 has 
learned, has a list of the "pirate" 
manufacturers, but cannot stop them 
from making broadband amplifiers of 
questionable quality under the guise 
of 80 through 10 meter coverage. The 
"catch 22" is a loophole m the FCC's 
ban on broadband amps to allow for 
amateur coverage of 10 meters. Of 
course the quick buck manufacturers 
got around it by including band- 
switching for 80 through 10 meters, 
switching that in most cases only cut 
power output down on all bands but 
27 MHz" FCC tests have shown some 
pretty questionable engineering on the 
broadband amps, like tricks to build 
up forward power on built-in swr 
bridges {in one case pure ac was 
coupled into the circuit!). Another 
FCC amplifier test reportedly found 
power output in excess of 300 Waits, 
but when a 27 MHz filter was put 
across the output, the rf at 27 MHz 
was down to about 40 Watts? (It's not 
hard to understand where all those 
TV I complaints are coming from, is 
it?) The thing that really hurts on the 
FCC end is the placement of adver- 
tising {in other ham magazines] for 
these bootleg linears. In the absence 
of a viable ham radio lobby (like 
ARMA), the FCC really didn't have 
much choice but to plug the loophole, 
to ban linear amplifiers capable of 1 1 
meters* 

By the time this issue reaches you. 
a rule making proposal will probably 
be public It could mean legitimate 
amateur amplifiers will stop at 15m r 
or traps will be built in to prevent 
operation on 11m. It will not stop 
hams from home brewing their own 

10 meter amplifiers, and it won't 
outlaw existing equipment, It wifl 
require type certification of commar* 
cial amateur equipment, a burden the 
manufacturers have assumed for some 
time was on the way. 

Okay, you're saying, a ban on 
newly manufactured linears covering 

1 1 m won't ctear up the TV1 mess , * . 
and you're right. But it will, argue 
FCC staffers, stunt the growth of out 
of band activity and power amps on 
the regular CB channels. The second 
step is education, using the same 
approach that's worked with ham 
radio — peer pressure and self -regula- 
tion. It may not be long before TV 
commercials and magazine ads begin 
pushing isgaf CB operation. Maybe a 
"Smokey the Bear'* character warning 
CBers that the guys running amplifiers 
are only hurting everybody else since 
they mop up several channels at a 
time. 

Another thing: A lot of the out of 
banders (and regular CBers as well) 
think of themselves as hams. They use 
a peculiar mix of ham and CB jargon 
in a format typical of our beloved 
(and often boring) QSCX When blind 
folded, most of us would swear we 
were listening to 75m if it wasn't for 
an occasional "mercy sakes" or "come 



8 



on back/' Listen for yourself both 
above ami below the 11m band . .. 
the typical SSB QSO covers the 
weather, equipment, antennas . . . and 
sometimes several thousand miles. We 
stifl don't know if it was a joke or 
what, but the Post Office recent ty 
delivered a Swiss CB QSL addressed to 
a Peterborough CBerl (We still haven't 
found the CBer . . ,) 

Fact is, it's those guys, with stations 
rivaling many amateur installations, 
who are the prime candidates for ham 
radio. Reaching them is the problem. 
The best way to do it is on the local 
level — include a welcome to CBers at 
your next auction or harofest. Be sure 
all PR mentions a local address or 
phone number to find out more about 
ham radio. And don't forget the 
shopping centers - a good exhibit and 
a few friendly club members can go a 
long way. Another idea is to hand out 



back issues of your favorite ham 
magazine (and copies of the other 
ones, too). A lot of hams are doing it 
already, but I haven't heard of any 
clubs distributing magazines — if there 
are any interested, drop me a line. 

So, in the midsi of proposed bans 
on linear amplifiers above 24 MHz, 
type acceptance of ham gear, strong 
growth in the amateur ranks, and 40 
channel CB, what's the future of ham 
radio? It has to be positive. 

For one thing, there are the FCC 
assurances that CB allocations and 
ham bands will never be placed near 
enough together to cause the kind of 
problems we've seen on 11 meters. 
That's led to several sighs of relief 
regarding 220 MHz and Class E. {As 
reported last month, ARRL hopes to 
swap the 900 MHz WARC allocation 
for CB allocations at 220 MHz J We've 
also heard of tests going on to deter- 



mine how useful 900 MHz would be 
for CB f with interesting results. There 
is, of course, no skip, and coverage 
seems comparable to 21 MHz. It's 
only logical to see 900 MHz CB 
repeaters, complete with autopatch, in 
the future. 

But what about 10 meters? Indica 
tions are that the loss of newly manu- 
factured commercial amplifiers for 
I Dm will not slow the band's growth. 
28 MHz, according to sources both in 
industry and government, would have 
been opened to a new class of 
licensees months ago, if it wasn't for 
the tremendous volume of CB and 
ham applications coming into the 
Gettysburg computer facility* It all 
begins to fit together: multiple choice 
code exams, expansion of Technician 
and Novice class privileges, the drop- 
ping of "N" prefixes for Novices . . . 
the Communicator class is just around 
the comer, and it looks like 10m will 



be added to the previously discussed 
220 MHz allocation for Communica 
tors, (In the same vein, the FCC 
would probably consider granting 
Technicians equa* status on 10m.) 

The implications of all this for ham 
radio are unclear For one thing, there 
are too many variables to be sure 
Communicator class licenses 'ill 
become a reality in the near future. 
For another, we don't know whether 
the 220 MHz for 900 MHz swap with 
the CB interests will work (that 
largely depends on those 900 MHz 
tests we mentioned). There is also the 
question of WARC, and the interna- 
t tonal situation {see 73 Special 
Report, February, 1977), The best 
assessment is probably Dennis Had's; 
"I'm optimistic but realistic." That's a 
good attitude for all of us. 

Warren Elly WA1GUD 
Associate Editor 



Radio frequency and electromacf 
netic interference from a phenon> 
enally growing number of sources. 
such as C8 sets, consumer electronic 
devices, video games, computers, 
switching power supplies, ignition 
systems, and industrial, scientific, and 
medical equipment, has reached pro- 
portions beyond the effective control 
of the understaffed Federal Communi- 
cations Commission. 

The majority of compiaints {87%) 
of interference to home electronic 
entertainment equipment involve CB 
transceivers. CB units have interfered 
with nearly every mobile and fixed 
communication service, including 
business, industrial, law enforcement, 
utilities, aircraft, and other public 
safety devices. 

However, CB is not the only 
culprit, as garage-door-opener transr 
mitters, industrial rf heating, medical 
diathermy equipment, community 
antenna television systems, super 
power FM stations, and auto ignition 
systems contribute their share of RFL 
Compounding the RFI/EMI problem 
for the FCC is the appearance of 
millions of potential sources of inter 
ference from consumer devices such as 
video games, computers, switching 
power supplies, etc 

To combat thts problem, the FCC 
has taken two steps, the first being the 
adoption of stricter regulations for 
RFI emitters like CB equipment. Also, 
the FCC has proposed revisions which 
will strengthen two crucial sections of 
its regulations. Parts 18 and 15, The 
former regulates industrial, scientific, 
and medical equipment, while the 
latter covers devices with low power 
intentional radiation, such as wireless 
intercoms, and devices with uninten- 
tional radiation, such as electronic 
games* 

Historically, the FCC has con- 
sidered the emitters of interfering 
radiation the villain, but with emitters 
growing by the millions, it is now 
considering imposition of regulations 
requiring the manufacturers of con- 
sumer entertainment electronic equip- 
ment to make their products RFf/EMl 
proof. At present, the FCC has no 
legal authority to do this, but an 
amendment 10 Section 302 of the 



RFI/TVI - An Analysis 



Communications Act would rectify 
this. 

At present the harmonic suppres- 
sion requirement for CB transmitters 
is -60 dB below the carrier. The CB 
manufacturers claim that this amount 
of suppression in a legally operated 
transmitter will not cause RFI to TV 
sets, and when it does happen, it is the 
fault of the wide-open front end of 
the TV set* However, Joseph 
DeMarims, director of engineering for 
GTE Sylvan i a, disagrees. He states: 
The filtering and shielding of a TV 
set is an order of magnitude, or more, 
better than the state of the art of CB 
transmitters," 

Less known is the fact that the 
radiation from oscillators of CB re- 
ceivers has been creating interference 
problems for three public services: the 
Power Radio Service used by electric, 
gas, water and steam utilities in the 37 
MHz band; the aircraft services band, 
100 to 135 MHz; and the Forestry 
Conservation Service operating on 
151 .205 and 151.40X3 MHz, 

Interference to Power Radio Ser- 
vices stems from the heterodyne type 
of frequency synthesis used by many 
23 channel CB transceivers To 
mmimize the number of crystals, the 
23 oscillator frequencies are obtained 
by heterodyning the outputs of two 
oscillators. One uses crystals at 37.6, 
37.65, 37.7, 37.75, 37.8, and 37.B5 
MHz. The other has crystals at 
10.180, 10,170, 10,160, and 10.140 
MHz for a combined total of 23 
channels. 

The 37.6, 37. 7. and 37.8 MHz ft* 
quencies happen to be those used by 
the Power Radio Service. To alleviate 
interference of all three services, the 
FCC amended Part 15C by adding a 
new Section 15.59 that requires the 
certification of CB receivers to new 



low limits of oscillator radiation. The 
manufacture of CB receivers not certi- 
fied to meet the new requirements 
must cease no later than Aug. 1 , 1977. 

Illegal or bootleg rf amplifiers in* 
crease the CB transmitter many times 
its legal 4 Wan limit. These amplifiers 
are made available to CBers by a few 
irresponsible CB suppliers who manu- 
facture amplifiers, ostensibly for ama- 
teur use, but whtch can be driven by 
only 3 or 4 Watts. As mo^t amateurs 
have exciters with about 100 Watt 
capability, the subterfuge is quite 
obvious. 

To help combat bootleg activities 
and other sources of CB interference, 
the FCC's Field Operations Bureau is 
investigating a random selection of TV 
interference complaints* H is engaged 
in the following activities: 

1. Monitoring a CB station unan- 
nounced to determine if a linear 
amplifier or other illegal accessory, 
such as a VFO or power mike, is used, 

2. I nspect j ng C B sta t ton equ i pme n t 
for spurious emissions through the use 
of spectrum analyzers. 

3. Inspecting a complainant's TV 
receiver !ot received signals and anten- 
na quality. 

4. Installing high pass filters on the 
TV receiver and low pass filters on the 
offending CB set. 

5. Making a neighborhood survey 
to determine the impact of inter- 
ference on the local area around a CB 
set. 

Most of the FCC regulations 
governing consumer electronics de- 
vices and equipment appear in Parts 
15 and 18 of the Commission's rules, 
but Pan 15 has not been amended 
since 1948, and the basic technical 



specs of Part 18 have remained the 
same since 1946, 

Since then, however, vast tech- 
nological advances have occurred. 
Semiconductors, integrated circuits, 
and digital systems have appeared. 
Many new devices operating at fre- 
quencies substantially higher than in 
the late 40*s present new interference 
problems. 

Consequently, the FCC has pro- 
posed overdue changes to Parts 1 5 and 
18. One proposed change in Part 15 is 
the certification of restricted radiation 
devices such as electronic (coin oper- 
ated} games that use rf energy, rf 
switching supplies operating above 10 
MHz, wireless intercoms, etc Other 
devices will be added to the list as the 
need arises. 

A real headache for the FCC is the 
TV game that can be connected to the 
antenna terminals of the owner's set, 
"These games are potentially as popu- 
lar as CB sets/' says Milton Mobley, 
chief engineer in charge of the FCC's 
testing laboratory in Maryland. 
"We've had more applications for TV 
game type approval in the second 
quarter of *76 than we had in the past 
four years . . /' 

A number of interference sources 
producing random broadband elec 
trical noise can be just as disruptive to 
communications as the narrow band 
emitters, such as CB sets. As yet, these 
devices are unregulated by the Com- 
mission. However, complaints from 
these products have increased. 

Reprinted from Squelch Tales, San 
Diego Radio Out buffet in, Dec, 
1976. Also appeared in Electronic 
Design. 

Continued 



9 



A New Repeater Era? 



Can you imagine walking abound 
town with an HT and talking to the 
world on 20 meters? Or talking to 
Japan when propagation conditions 
are mediocre? All that and much more 
may be possible if Docket 21033 goes 
into effect. The notice of inquiry and 
proposed rule making would pro- 
foundly shake up the existing system 
of repeater licensing and operation. 

That bombshell was released early 
In January by the FCC, As the Corrv 
mission puts it, "Our experience has 
demonstrated that amateur radio 
operators are fully capable of develop- 
ing and operating complex systems of 
stations with a minimum of regulation 
by the Commission, We are aware of 
no compelling reason why amateurs 
wishing to operate repeater, auxiliary, 
control, or remotely controlled sta- 
tions should continue to be required 
to obtain Commission permission 
before beginning such operation/* 

The fCC then goes on to propose 
that all repeater licenses be eliminated 
altogether Any amateur would be 
allowed to set up a repeater without 
the need for FCC permission. 

But that is not all. The docket 
proposes that deregulation of repeater 
stations continue with deletion of the 



requirement that all open repeaters be 
monitored by control stations in real 
time or be recorded, Logging require- 
ments would be changed so that 
rather then authorized control points, 
the names and addresses of control 
operators would be listed in the log. 

So what? That might create a bit 
more confusion on 2 meters. The 
biggest shock comes in paragraph 12 
of 2T033. Again, quoting the FCC, "It 
appears that many amateur operators 
seek greater flexibility in the choice of 
frequencies for repeater operation. We 
are therefore proposing to permit re- 
peater operation on ail frequencies 
allocated to the Amateur Radio Ser- 
vice, except 435 to 438 MHz/ J Com 
pletely unexpected, that part of 
2 1 033 seems to be the biggest surprise 
out of Washington in quite a while. 
The implications, should the docket 
be adopted, are enormous, 

73 contacted several frequency co- 
ordinators and other amateurs and 
asked for their initial reactions to the 
proposal. The majority of answers 
were negative, ranging from mild dis 
like 10 utter consternation. In general, 
the feeling seems prevalent that near 
utter chaos will result from complete 
repeater deregulation. Those involved 



with frequency coordination were the 
most vehemently opposed, saying fre- 
quency coordination is difficult 
enough at the present time. 

It's evident that with the ever-in 
creasing headache of CB and the 
attendant enforcement and paperwork 
problems that are being created, the 
FCC is anxious to ease their workload 
in amateur areas. The paragraph about 
amateurs being able to operate with a 
minimum of regulation is one that all 
hams can be proud of. Coming from a 
government bureaucracy, it becomes 
even more amazing. 

The problem is, with the number of 
hams increasing, how long can we 
continue our self-regulation 7 With in- 
creasing numbers come increasing 
problems. Witness "Repealer Appre- 
ciation Week'* on the West Coast and 
the "Ohio RTTY War" (see Briefs), 
Suddenly, operators who feel they 
have a "right" to a frequency and 
increasing congestion on repeaters ate 
creating bad feelings and hardening 
attitudes. 

It seems that the FCCs proposal 
would create, if not chaos, a good bit 
of confusion and disorder on the ham 
bands. The FCC says that part 97.63 
would be revised to "emphasize the 



two principles which have made 
possible the efficient operation of 
many amateur radio stations in 
relatively small spectrum space, name- 
ly, that a station using a frequency has 
first priority in such use over other 
stations and that all frequencies 
allocated to the Amateur Service are 
shared on a non-exclusive basis. It is 
presently the responsibility of 
amateur licensees to strike an appro- 
priate balance between these prin- 
ciples to ensure the (air and efficient 
use of available spectrum/* The exist 
ing rules say that if a repeater channel 
is being used for simplex operation, 
the control operator is not supposed 
to allow the repeater to he turned on* 
How often is this the case? The 
Commission further recognizes that 
increased congestion might result, and 
goes on to say that at the present 
time, thev have no specific 
recommendations to make regarding 
coordination. They do r however, solic- 
it comments in that area. 

The appeal of a 2 meter to 15 
meter repeater or any of the numer- 
ous possibilities is too great to dismiss. 
Perhaps a mandatory system of fre- 
quency coordination will have to be 
instituted. 73 is currently survey tng 
the comparative success and failure of 
coordination. Look for a special re- 
port on the subject in next month's 
issue. 

April 1 is the deadline for 
comments on Pocket 21033. They 
may be sent to Federal Communica- 
tions Commission, 1919 M St,, NW, 
Washington DC 20554. 

Stan Minkowski WA1UMV 
Associate Editor 



CB and the ARRL 



A scenario has become clear regard- 
ing ham radio , C8 t and Che ARRL 
Some clues from X-MITTER. Journal 
of the Penn Wireless Association. 
Bristol PA: 

We are grateful for having had Chod 
Harris W&2CHO as our speaker at our 
twelfth annual awards banquet on the 
13th November. Chod is an excellent 
speaker, and presented an important 
message. 

Chad is running the newest ARRL 
department: Clubs and Training. His 
most important responsibility right 
now is assisting as best possible the 
recruitment and training of new ama- 
teurs - these times being the best ever 
for the expansion of amateur radio. 
He, presumably in concert with others 
of the HQ staff and the Directorate, 
obviously has studied at length the 
varied avenues possible, and is 
directing the League's major effort to 
presenting our story to those who 
have tried casual and hobby- type 



operating on the Citizens Service and 
have found it unsuitable for such use 
(as FCC intended). 

His presentation to Penn Wireless 
touched only briefly on the training 
aspect, however. His message was that 
of top level cooperation between the 
two services, lumping them (correctly) 
as "personal communications" 
wherein one group has Tremendous 
numbers and practically no expertise, 
and the other, with comparatively low 
numbers, has technical abilities fully 
in line with the state of the art. 
Personal communication in general 
having need of overpowering numbers 
and the ultimate in technical abilities, 
the combination should be irresistible 
while individually both could founder. 

What are the situations to which 
this might apply? Many exist - they 
can be left to the imagination. Several 
were discussed at the banquet both in 
Chod's formal presentation and in the 
open discussions following. Local level 



legislation, for one. Tower ordinances 
are literally flying around the country: 
many are very poorly drawn. There is 
even some attempt to legislate RFM 
RFI is an extreme problem. Our BCl 
and TVI problems of 10 and 20 years 
ago seemed bad at the time, but those 
of today are orders of greater magni 
tude. Emergency communications 
practices — they're always needed, 
Competition with other services, both 
domestic and international, is a con 
tinual problem, coming to a periodic 
head with the 1979 W ARC. 

All of these problem areas and 
more can be handled best with num- 
bers [which CB can provide) and the 
ultimate In technical abilities {which 
we have}. Thus, the times demand 
that we seek out the CB users to offer 
our complete cooperation. Why not 
the other way around? Because there 
is not (and likely will never be) any 
centralized CB organization in any 
way comparable to our ARRL and 



IARU. The service simply is not 
adaptable to any such centralization 
any more than there could be a 
central organization of telephone 
users. An ATT and an FGC, perhaps, 
but of users? 

What is evolving is the stabilization 
of the two servicer Those who would 
have radio for learning about elec- 
tronics and radio will ultimately be 
licensed amateurs; those who need 
radio - for whom the wired telephone 
is insufficient — will be CB equipped 
And probably this latter group will 
include most of the mobile portion of 
our population, for business com- 
munications are really desirable for 
most of us. The enforcement problem 
will never disappear, but it's con- 
ceivable that as the hobbyists leave 
the Citizens Service for amateur radio, 
the CB enforcement will become prac- 
tical 

This is the goal which ARRL is 
aiming for. The tiny group in New ing 
ton can't do it alone. They can only 
help coordinate a flexible program 
and rely on us as scattered clubs and 
individual responsible amateurs to 
implement it. But the way Chod put it 
to us, it is not only mandatory to the 
long term welfare of amateur radio, 
but if s already started. The future of 
amateur radio looks good. Our 1976 
facilities exceed anything imagined in 
1956, It's predicted we won't need 
another 20 years to see equal advance- 
ment and expansion. 



10 



Opposition to FCC WARC pro- 
posals for 15m and the lack of addi- 
tional ham bands at W, 18, and 24 
MHi are prime ARRL reactions to 
docket 20271 (see Special Report, 73, 
February, 1977). Following is part of 
a letter to affiliated dubs and League 
Directors issued the week after FCC 
publication of the proposed US 
WARC position, 

"We urge you to study this care- 
fully and to file comments with FCC. 
This is one of the most important 
documents on amateur radio that you 
will see in this decade, and it is 
imperative that the Amateur Radio 
Service make its voice known in these 
proceed ings. 

"There are three broad areas where 
we believe comment will be beneficial 
First, where we agree with the post 
non taken by the Commission, we 
should comment: favorably and rein- 
force their action. This is necessary 
because undoubtedly other services 
will be unhappy with some of the 
gains registered by the amateur service 
and will seek to have those positions 
modified. Thus, we must be sure to 
support the Commission in those 
actions they have taken in favor of the 
amateur service. For example, the 
FCC has proposed the creation of a 



Updating WARC 



new amateur band at 160-190 kHz, tt 
has proposed an exclusive amateur 
band at 18Q0M 900 kH2 and a shared 
amateur band from 17SD-1B0D kHz, it 
proposes the continuance of the 
3500 4000 kHz band making 400 kHz 
exclusive in place of the present 
sharing arrangement, it proposes 
expanded bands at 6950-7300 and 
13950 14400 kHz, and our bancs at 
28 MHz and the VHF/UHF are main- 
tained. These are positive actions to 
comment on favorably. 

"Second, we believe that adverse 
comment is required concerning the 
proposed change at 21 MHz. The 
Commission has shifted that amateur 
band from 21000-21450 to 
20700-21200. Admittedly, this is a 



gain of B0 kHz, but it would come at 
the expense of considerable modifica- 
tion and replacement of existing ama- 
teur equipment. The Commission 
stated thai the shift in the band was 
necessitated m order to accommodate 
certain requirements of the maritime 
mobile service. However, the League 
staff believes that with a slight re- 
arrangement of the various a I local tons 
in the vicinity of 21 MHz, the 
martime mobile requirements can be 
met and the amateur bank 
2100-21450 need not be shifted, 

Third, we believe that our original 
request for new bands at 10, 18 and 
24 MHz was entirely justified, and has 
not been given adequate attention. In 
particular, a new band at 10 MHz, 



even a narrow one, would permit 
improved communication between 
amateurs in all parts of the world at 
those times when the maximum 
usable frequency does not reach 14 
MHz, At the present time, such com- 
munications must be conducted at 7 
MHz, a circumstance which requires 
the use of greater transmitter power 
because of increased absorption and 
interference from the Broadcast Ser- 
vice. New bands at 18 and 24 MHz 
would serve similar purposes." 
At deadline, the word from Washing- 
ton sources was 15m could be solved, 
but new ham bands at 10 1 18, and 24 
MHz seem unlikely. Mora next month. 

Warren EHy WA1GUD 
Associate Editor 



A large volume of our mail con- 
tinues to focus on theft . . , and here s 
one of the better ones, courtesy of the 
Minuteman Repeater Association 
Bulletin, Lexington MA Jack WWXQ 
and Murry K1GGP tell how an 
"MMRA Soft Self/' follow-up, and 
just plain cool help recover a stolen 
rig. 

One afternoon in October, W1DXQ 
and K1GGP were in QSO during 
OXO's "long" ride home from work. 
During our GSO, we heard a rather 
odd break station. 

"Breaker six/' 

Our first thought was ignore him 
and he might go away. 

"Breaker six.* 1 

Well, guess he won't go away; 
maybe we can scare him away. We 
stood by for the break station, and 
the conversation went like this: 

Good Guy: Go ahead, breaker. 

Bad Guy: Hey there, good buddy, 
is this channel six? 

Good Guy: No sir, this is not 
channel six. You are operating on the 
two meter ham band. This is not the 
CB band It appears that you don't 
know that you have a ham radio 
there, 

Bad Guy: Qh f OK, good buddy, 
fust doing some work on this here 
radio for a friend of mine. Trying to 
find out how this mobile telephone 
works. 

Good Guy: Well, first of all you do 
have a very good signal. However, you 
cannot operate unless you have a ham 
license. If you're working on the radio 
for a friend, he must be a ham and 
would do his own. If you or he thinks 
it's a CB radio, it must be a hot radio, 
and you must have a second class or 
better to do service work on CB 
equipment. By the way, whet's your 
handle? 

Bad Guy: Handle here is Rick. I 
didn't know about the license stuff, 



Breaker, Breaker, Six . . . 



Good Guy: Well r Rick, I would 
suggest that you cease operation of 
that equipment because you don't 
have a proper license, (Now for a big 
scare:) The Federal Communications 
Commission and other federal 
agencies frown on such activities. By 
the way. Rick, the handle here is Jack, 
You are giving us such a good signal, I 
wonder, what's your 10-20? 

Bad Guy: OK, Jack, 10-20 here is 
Hanover, 

K1GGP overriding "Bad Guy' J : Hey 
— I know of equipment that was 
stolen at the Hanover Mali 

Bad Guy continues: Well, thanks 
for the information, Jack. I had better 
get out of here now. 

Good Guy: OK, Rick, it is a good 
idea that you do that. You will save 
yourself a lot of grief. The repeater 
would be shut off anyway If you 
continued to transmit I'd like to give 
you more information on this subject, 
Rick, Do you have a telephone num- 
ber that I can reach you at? 

Bad Guy: Ya, sure, Jack. You can 
get me at 026- XXX X; got it? 

Good Guy; OK, Fine, Rick. I have 
it and ni give you a call later, 

Weil, the "Bad Guy" went away, 
and Murry and I carried on for a short 
time, making few comments on the 
incident. 

After I arrived at home, I thought, 



what the heck, I'll give the guy a calk 
I know it's a phony number. He was a 
dummy, but the odds are that he 
wouldn't be stupid enough to give me 
a valid telephone number. I called and 
sure enough, he now qualified as 
"dummy of the year." 

Good Guy: Hi Rick, this is Jack, 

a ad Guy Hi Jack, glad you called 
(Gads, super dummy 

Well, at least he told the truth 
about the telephone number , . * 

Good Guy: I think you should get 
rid of that radio, as your friend 
appears to be the owner of a hot 
radio. What is your friend's name? 

Bad Guy: Well, he is not my friend; 
he is a friend of a friend. I don't know 
his name. 

Good Guy: Well, Rick, I would 
suggest that you get his name, or at 
least his plate number and a good 
description. When the FCC makes 
their investigation, they won't accept 
answers like that. [There — that line 
of bull should throw the fear of God 
into him — last we'll ever hear him on 
two meters J 

Bad Guy: OK, Jack I'll give it 
back; he is getting me in trouble, 

Good Guy: Well, Rick, you just tell 
the truth when the investigation 
comes about and you might not be in 
such trouble. 

After the telephone conversation, I 



figured that just about all that could 
be done, had been done, To present 
such information to a local police 
department, or even the FCC, woutd 
be a waste of everyone's time. No real 
facts or names. Just a telephone num- 
ber. During both the radio conversa- 
tion and telephone conversation, the 
"Bad Guy" did mention that the radio 
was a Heathkit. I thought of the many 
rigs that had been stolen in the area, 
but I had knowledge of only one 
"Grief-Ktt." 1 recalled that WA1QPL 
{Dave} had a Heath stolen several 
months prior. Murry verified that fact, 
but the chances of this being Dave's 
rig was a million to one shot 

With the 07/67 grapevine at work, 
Dave gave me a call after hearing of 
the incident He mentioned his stolen 
rig taken eight months prior from his 
car fn Milton. Well, as far as f was 
concerned, a Hanover thief would not 
go to Milton to steal a radio. Make 
odds now two million to one. Dave 
was quite interested in a follow-up to 
the Hanover police. I attempted to 
soften the blow, I have been through 
local police and, in most cases, they 
are too busy to be bothered, or in 
some cases, could care less. It appears 
I was wrong. Dave contacted Hanover 
and gave them what information he 

Continued on page 170 



11 



Editor: 

Robert Baker WB2GFE 
15 Windsor Dr. 
Atco NJ 08004 




TT 





TTT 




SOUTH DAKOTA STATE 

OSO PARTY 

Starts: 0000 GMT March 13 

Ends: 2359 GMT March 14 

The contest is sponsored by the 
Prairie Dog Amateur Radio Club, The 
S3 me slat ton can be worked on dif- 
ferent bands, modes, and counties for 
multipliers, 
EXCHANGE- 
SO stations give RSIT) and county; 
others send RS{T) and state, province, 
or country- No SD to SD contacts! 
FREQUENCfES: 

Phone - 1.975, 3.920. 7.230, 
14.280.21.380,28,510. 

CW — 70 kHz up from bottom. 

Novices — middle of barni 
SCORING: 

SD stations multiply number of 
contacts times number of states, 
provinces, and countries. Others 
multiply number of contacts 4 with 
SDs) times number of counties* 
ENTRIES: 

Certificates to each section. Send 
logs by April 1st to; WB0EVQ, Box 
493. Springfield SD 57062. 

CQ WORLDWIDE WPX 

SSB CONTEST 

Starts: 0000 GMT Saturday. 

March 26 

Ends; 2400 GMT Sunday, 

March 27 

Only 30 hours of the 43 hour 
eomest period permitted for single 
operator stations. The 18 hours off 
may be taken in up to 5 periods 
during the contest, but must be 
clearly indicated in the log. Multi- 
operator stations may operate the 
entire 48 hours. All bands, 1.8 to 28 
MHi, may be used, but alt QSOs must 
be 2xSSB only. 
ENTRY CLASSES: 

Single operator, all band or single 




band: multi-operator {all band only), 
single or multi-transmitter; multi-oper- 
ator, mufti -transmitter only allowed 
one signal per band. 
EXCHANGE: 

RS and 3 digit progressive QSO 
number starting at 001; use 4 digit 
number over 1000: multi-transmitter 
stations use separate numbers for each 
band 
POtNTS: 

QSOs with stations on different 
continent - 3 points on 14 to 28 
MHz, 6 points on 7 to 1.8 MHz. 
Contacts between North American 
countries (not your own) count 2 
points on 14 to 28 MHz, 4 points on 
1.8 to 7 MHz. Contacts between 
stations in the same continent but not 
jn same country count 1 point on 14 
to 28 MHz, 2 points on 1.8 to 7 MHz. 
Contacts between stations in the same 
country count only for multipliers, 
not for QSO points. 
MULTIPLIER: 

The multiplier is the total number 
of different prefixes worked regardless 
of band. Each prefix may be counted 
only once. 
SCORING: 

Single op, all band and mult i oper- 
ated stations — total number of QSO 
points from all bands times the total 
multiplier. Single op, single band — 
total number of QSO points from that 
band times the multiplier. NOTE: A 
station may be worked once on each 
band for QSO points, but the prefix 
multiplier is only counted once* 
AWARDS: 

Certificates will be awarded in each 
category in each country, and each 
call area in US, Canada, and Australia, 
Other special awards and trophies will 
be awarded as listed in CO Magazine, 
To be eligible for awards, single open 
ator stations must work a minimum of 






Mar 5 6* 
Mar 5 - 6* 
Mar 13 
Mar 19 - 20* 
Mar 26 - 27 
Mar 26 - 28 
Apr 2 - 3 
Apr 12-13 
Apr 16 17 
Apr 23 - 24 
Apr 26 27 
Apr 30 - May 2 
June 11 - 1 2 
June 18 19 
June 25 - 26 
July 2 - 3 
July 4 
July 9- 10 
Aug 20 - 21 
Sept 10- n 



ARRL OX Contest - Phone 

YLRL YL-OM Contest - CW 

South Dakota QSO Party 

ARRL DX Contest -CW 

CQ Worldwide WPX SSB Contest 

BARTG Spring RTTY Contest 

Tennessee QSO Party 

YLRL DX YL to Stateside Y L Contest - CW 

CD Party - CW 

CD Party - Phone 

YLRL DX-YL to Stateside YL Contest - Phone 

Connecticut QSO Party 

ARRL VHF QSO Party 

West Virginia QSO Party 

ARRL Field Day 

QRP — Summer - Contest 

ARRL Straight Key Night 

ARRL Bicentennial Celebration Plus One 

New Jersey QSO Party 

VHF QSO Party 

'Described in last issue 



12 hours; multi-operator stations must 
work a minimum of 24 hours. 
LOGS: 

Show all times in GMT; use a 
separate sheet for each band. Prefix 
multipliers should be entered only the 
First time they are contacted. Logs 
should be checked for duplicate QSOs 
and prefix multipliers, It is recom- 
mended that you use a prefix check 
sheet and include it with your entry. 
Each entry must be accompanied by a 
summary sheet listing all scoring infor- 
mation, category, and your name and 
mailing address *n block letters. Also, 
a signed declaration that all contest 
rules and regulations for amateur 
radio in your country have been 
observed should be included, Official 
logs and summary sheets are available 
from CQ Magazine. Send a large self- 
addressed envelope with sufficient 
return postage or IRCs to: CQ WW 
WPX SSB Contest Committee, 14 
Vandeventer Avenue, Port Washing- 
ton, LI. NY 11050. All entries Should 
be postmarked no later than May 1 
and addressed to the address shown 
above. The deadlines will be made 
more flexible in rare isolated areas. 

Please check the January rssue of 
CQ Magazine for complete rules and 
changes made at the fast minute. 

BARTG SPRING RTTY 
CONTEST 

Starts: 0200 GMT Saturday, 

March 26 

Ends: 0200 GMT Monday, 

March 28 

Only 30 hours of the total 48 hour 
contest period may be operated. The 
18 hour rest period can be taken at 
any time, but off periods may not be 
less than 3 hours at a time. Times on 
and off the air must be summarized 
on the log and score sheets. There will 
be separate categories for multi-oper- 
ator and SWLs. Use all amateur bands 
from 3.5 to 28 MHz. Stations may not 
be contacted more than once on any 
one band In addition to the ARRL 
country list, each W/K and VE/VO 
call area will be counted as a separate 
country. 
EXCHANGE: 

Time in GMT, must be a full 4 
figure group — use of "same" or 
"same as yours" will not be per- 
mitted. RST and message number. 
Message number must consist of a 3 
figure group starting with 001 forth* 
first contact. 
POtNTS: 

All 2-way RTTY contacts with 
stations within one's own country will 
count 2 points. All 2-way RTTY 
contacts with stations outside one's 
own country will count 10 points. All 
stations will receive a bonus of 200 
points per country worked including 
their own. NOTE: Any one country 
may be counted again if worked on 
another band, but continents are 
counted only once. 



SCORiNG: 

The total score is the sum of (the 
2-way exchange points times the nunv 
her of countries worked) plus (the 
number of countries worked times the 
country bonus points times the num 
ber of continents), 
LOGS & SCORE SHEETS: 

Use one log sheet for each band and 
indicate any rest periods* Logs must 
contain: date and time in GMT, call- 
sign of station worked, RST report 
and message number sent RST report 
and message number received, and 
exchange points claimed. The judges' 
decision will be final. Send contest 
logs to: Ted Double GBCDW. 89 
Linden Gardens, Enfield, Middlesex . 
England EN1 4DX. 

AWARDS: 

Certificates will be awarded to the 
leading stations in each class and to 
the top stations in each continent and 
each W/K VE/VO caH area. The Final 
positions in the Results Table will be 
valid for entry in the "World Cham 
pion of RTTY" Championship. 

If any contestant contacts 25 or 
more different countries fW/K VE/VO 
call areas do not count as separate 
countries for award) on 2-way RTTY 
during this contest, a claim may be 
made for the QUARTER CENTURY 
AWARD issued by the British Ama- 
teur Radio Telepr inter Croup and for 
which a charge of S2.Q0 or 8 IRCs is 
made. Make your claim at the same 
time as you send in a contest tog- 
Holders of existing OCA Awards will 
automatically have any new additional 
countries added to their records. 

If any contestant contacts stations 
on 2-way RTTY with all six con- 
tinents and the BARTG Contest 
Manager receives contest logs from the 
operators in those six continents, a 
claim may be made for the WAC 
Award issued by the RTTY Journal. 
The necessary information will be sent 
on to the RTTY Journal who will 
issue the WAC Award free of charge 

WISCONSIN STATE QSO PARTY 
Starts: 0000 GMT Sunday, 

April 4, 1977 
Ends: 0000 GMT Monday 

April 5, 1977 
This annual event is jointly spon- 
sored this year by the IMeenah- 
Menasha Amateur Radio Club and the 
Yellow Thunder Amateur Radio Club, 
Phone and CW are considered separate 
bands. The same station may be 
worked once each band, county and 
mode. Wisconsin stations may work 
other Wisconsin stations for QSO and 
multiplier credit No contacts can be 
counted if made on Wisconsin nets 
while in session or if made through 
repeaters except for OSCAR. Multi- 
county portable/mobile operations 
can be worked in each county they 
operate from. 

Continued on page 42 



12 




\ 



&* 



6.2 8 




IN\MJD 



COu€ 



5 




tf*T 









.'^'./^'■"l 



HIGH 



OUP* 



r 


1 

SOL 1 V 01 - 

• • 

■_ _ 


.. 


• 
■ 

• 




LOW ^ r ' 


^ 'Kvl-.- .-■ 
■MO! 

,-,;--. 
.vv.- 

■ »■ - - - - a J • <i i ,r,- 


,2 


* 




: !vv: : ; : ; 


<1 


L-> 


/ 


?r¥oo: 


^ 


•^ 


1 



-.• ■ --■--' 



p_p_- _-_■"■ "".j 



-,•>:■ 



««■?:■ 






^.■.■j".^' 



">:« >_-»:• 



$£ 



,-■,;*.-„ -a- iT i 



'l'lVl%BI * 



o:-:-::- >:•:■ or- WrtVA'-w-v.vh'. 






wwkve-w-wo 



.•■.'-■.*_ , _v 



■.'.■.".■.■.<.' 



'0 -■■-■■ V 



■ ■:■; 




v; : : : : : --: : tt ; :::&y&B£S&£ 









■.">_■■ ■■a ■ 



>;-o- 



:■ ■"■-■.■ 



•.' '.■-■■>.i .'.'.' 



:►:!:-:■:■:■:■: 



, | J t '..^■j'j'Vi' 






'. . ■--.■' 




:oo:o::- ■• ^M 

«#Kft£ : * *£o>#:: 

:■ o-ve** ■ooj^vs.;';. £■:■>►: 

mmmmmm 



No mure soldering diodes every time you 
want to try' a new repeater! 
Just plug the Synthacoder into the back of your 
radio, select channel 22, and the Synthacoder 
takes command of your radio - Giving you 
fingertip control of ALL frequencies. 



Front Pane! Thumbwheel Control 

of All Channels! 

Fully Automatic Invafid Code Control! 

Small Size: 3%" x W x 6" 

Factory Wired and Tested 

Easy To Install 



INTRODUCTORY 

SPECIAL 

only $7495 

plus $2,00 postage & hsidling 

CA Residents add 6% sates tax 

offer ends April t, 1977 




■^™^^^^^-.. ^^^^™ 



pHh^*H^+*i ^^^^^ 



P.O. BOX 2233 

1247 COMMERCIAL AVENUE 

OXNARDCA 93030 

(805)486-0817 

D I'LL BITE! Please send more info. 

D I'M HOOKED! Please RUSH my Synthacoder. 

Name^ : 



YES> t would like to purchase a Synthacoder^ for my (C-22& 
Enclosed please find my $74.95 plus $2,00 postage and handling. 
California residents add 6% sales tax. 




$ enclosed. D Cash D Check □Money Order 

Please charge my □ Master Charge □ Bank Ame near d 
Credit card # 



Interbank = m 
Expiration date 
Signature 



H^^H^^H^^H 



^^^^^^»^™^™ 



^^^^^"^^ 



Call 



mayor cfwgo 



ffi 



Address 
City 



^^^^^^^■a— 



^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



^^^^^^^^— 



— j^ ^ — M il ■ W l i> dM^^^^^^— 







- State 



Zip 




r— ' 



<W*P<fl ■■■ 



— — ^ 



"■ ^^—^™ — 



> — 



*«-**- 



M» l^^^-i^— 



^■■^H 



o u p: o o n s <i c r i * % K: v e r o r o j f v 



O } ' — V rr, p 







t- 









tell Ma BplI that she jshou 



CAN SOMETHING BE DONE? 

Gentlemen: 

I am writing this letter to inform 
you and fellow amateurs of my recent 
experiences with and the apparent 
"fraud" of Trigger Electronics of 
7361 North Avenue, River Forest, 
Illinois 60305. 

Enclosed you will find a copy of 
the letter I have sent to the Illinois 
Attorney General's Office concerning 
Mr, Treger's so-called business. I hope 
you will make this information avail- 
able for those who read your publica- 
tion* Hopefully, this will stop many 
people from making the mistake of 
placing an order with Trigger Elec- 
tronics, as I have done. 

Anyone interested in Information 

about Trigger Electronics or the 

appearance of the store itself in River 

Forest please feel free to contact me. 

David B. Hasenick W08BNS 

8369 Ferris Road 

Springport Ml 49284 

Phone; 1517) 857-2385 

On October 8, 1976, I ordered 
from Trigger Electronics, River 
Forest, Illinois, merchandise amount- 
ing to ST77.93 by a mail order, I sent 
a postal money order in like amount 
to pay in full the amount of my order, 
copy attached of postal money order 
#21602081193. 

After much time had gone by and I 
had not even received an acknowl- 
edgement of my order, I made several 
telephone calls to Trigger to see what 
had happened to my order, Some of 
the phone calls were by date and 
amount as follows: October 27, 
$1.60; November 3, $1.02; November 
9, $1.31; November 17, $1.42; 
November 27, $1.08, At those times I 
was told that the order was still being 
processed, but that they had no 
record of any orders being sent until 
30 days after the order was received 
there. This didn't exactly make sense, 
but it was their reply. 

During this time, a small amount of 
merchandise from my order was 
received by me in the amount of 
$20.41, leaving the balance of 
$157.52 for a large antenna. 

After many of these fruitless tele- 
phone calls, we drove to Chicago on 
December 8, 1976, to Trigger Elec- 
tronics. The woman that met us in the 
front office gave the same story as we 
had received over the phone — that 
there was no shipping department 
there, that it was elsewhere and she 
did not know the location or tele- 
phone number of such a department, 
etc, In looking over in back of the 
office area, it looked like what 
shipping was done was one package 



with dust on it that looked like a 
"front" and had been lying there for 
ages waiting to be "shipped." There 
were stacks of orders lying around 
with envelopes open and papers still in 
envelopes. She then told us that no 
one else was there, but we saw others 
in the back and asked about this. We 
were told that everyone was indeed 
out to lunch and might not be back all 
afternoon when we pressed her. We 
then told her we would wait until 
they arrived. When we persisted, Mrs. 
Treger came running out from in back 
screaming that she would call the 
police if we didn't leave the premises 
right away, She made this phone call 
(or what was supposed to be a phone 
call} to the police, but we waited and 
no one showed up from this "call." 
We told her that we were there to 
settle this account and that we did not 
drive 200 miles one way for nothing. 
Finally one of us left to call the police 
ourselves while the other stayed. Then 
Mr. Treger showed up from hiding in 
back and said he was going to beat me 
up if I didn't leave. He was screaming 
with fists clenched and would not 
begin to talk any business, just told 
me to get out or else he would get me 
out with a shotgun. When I did not 
leave, then he did come out with a 
gun, I did depart and went to the 
River Forest police station. We went 
over the entire situation with Sgt. 
George Straugh, who said his hands 
were tied unless Treger actually 
assaulted or shot us. They were as 
helpful as they could be and suggested 
we write your office with complete 
details on this experience. 

Now how can any business be left 
to operate when they only pocket the 
money and do not ship ordered and 
paid merchandise? Where are the taws 
that protect the individual from losses 
like this? How many people must they 
cheat and steal from before something 
can be done? 

David Hasenick WD8BNS 



BOYCOTT TRIGGER 



] 



Let me introduce you to one of the 
most efficient employees I have yet to 
encounter. This hard-working and 
dedicated person is — the TRiGGER 
TELEPHONE LADYI 

As I had ordered an antenna from 
Trigger Electronics in July and was 
still awaiting its arrival in November, I 
called to ask why. That is when I first 
met the Trigger Telephone Lady I I 
could almost see her smile sweetly as 
she promised immediate action. 

During that and four subsequent 
phone calls (so far}, the Trigger Tele- 
phone Lady has compiled the follow- 
ing exemplary record: 

She has succeeded in forgetting all 



previous calls, even when two were 
made the same day. 

She has managed to place me on 
hold an average of twice per call (at 
long distance rates this is a rather 
convincing argument). 

She has apparently lost every mes- 
sage she took as 1 have never been 
contacted by Trigger on the missing 
antenna. 

Through all of this faithful service, 
she preferred no public recognition 
for her excel lent work and consistently 
refused to give her name, job title, or 
employee number* 

She has remained utterly faithful to 
her employer throughout, effectively 
insulating Trigger Electronics from all 
complaints so that they might con- 
tinue to perform their dastardly deeds 
unhampered by the outraged squawks 
and protests of their victims. All Half 
to the Trigger Telephone Lady! 

Gary S Breschini WB6NCK 

Salinas CA 

?S. How about including "Boycott 
Trigger Electronics" on all QSL cards 
being sent to Novices, that they too 
may join in the praise of these tur- 
keys? 



FISHY 

Just a short note to you regarding 
the letter in your column about i L vs 
Trigger* I have sent the Attorney 
General's office my incident with 
Trigger, that Trigger must have my 
check in their hands, cleared by the 
bank, before I could come in the store 
to pick up any merchandise, if they 
had it in stock. Sounds fishy, huh? 

Thank you for your kind attention. 

Art Surges 
Evergreen Park IL 

P.S. I took my business elsewhere. 



IRKED 



As a subscriber to your mag, I 
thought that I would write you about 
one of your 1975 articles. 

This is in reference to the Levy 
Associates ad, this company formerly 
of Temple City CA, now of 1037 E* 
Lemon Ave,, Monrovia CA 91016, 
For approximately $110, I purchased 
a ^10 and -MOO prescaler. This did not 
work with my MICRO Z FM 36 
counter; however, I assumed that the 
counter's sensitivity was low. So then 
I purchased a Hewlett-Packard B381A 
counter and a Davis [Tonawanda NY) 
scaler. This combination works per- 
fectly. 

I then sent my prescaler back to 
Stanley Levy WB6SQU on 4 Oct., 76, 
at their request. Early this year I 
received the scaler and he said they 
had a hard time getting the -MOO IC; it 
is a Plessey. Believe this is an English 
make; he also said they have discon- 
tinued manufacturing this scaler due 
to trouble getting this part. 

Well, at any rate, not sure if they 
ever did replace the IC. It doesn't 
work anyway, so have resigned myself 
to never ordering any gear from a 
small manufacturer, though I will say 



I am happy with the way the Davis 
divider operates. 

Always liked to patronize small 
companies — but never again* 

Have about $10,000 of gear here, 
so can afford the loss, but it sure irks 
me. 

Larry Briggs W3MSN 
Oxon Hill MD 

Don't prejudge all smatf companies — 
that's where the big ones come from, 
-Ed 



HIGHLY RECOMMENDED 

During this day and time when 
there seems to be so much emphasis 
on the negative, it is nice to get service 
from one of your advertisers, Com- 
munications Specialists in Brea, Calif., 
like I did. I ordered their ME-3 on 
Monday and I had it the next Mon- 
day, This is real VIP treatment. No 
waiting for my check to- clear the 
banks and they sent my ME-3 UPS 
Blue Label Express, all prepaid, You 
can bet that I will highly recommend 
them to my friends. And the unit 
works A-1 . 

Dr. William W. Fulcher, Jr. 

K4RTA/W4AST 

Madison TN 



ARRLONTOP 



In Dec, 1976, QST t page 38, recent 
equipment (HAL's FYO keyer paddle) 
is described. When I attempted to 
order one, I discovered that HAL is no 
longer making them — ARRL is really 
on top of things. I became angry and 
decided to see if I could make one 
myself. It proved much easier than I 
had imagined, and was made entirely 
from the junk box. It required only 
simple hand tools such as a hacksaw 
and a small round file. Mounted on a 
walnut base, it is also good-looking, 

Every CW op to whom I have 
mentioned the project has been inter- 
ested, and several have sent an SASE 
for a sketch. And so I ask if you might 
be interested in an article, "The Poor 
Man's FYO/' with photos and 
sketches, etc. 

Fred Maas WA5YTX 
Santa Fe NM 



Do it. - Ed. 



THE GENTEEL HALF 



3 



I'm sure you'll fmd this one inter- 
esting from the "genteel" half of 
amateur radio. 

Christine Boniakowski WA2KOU 

Neptune NJ 

Editor - QST 

American Radio Relay League 
225 Main Street 
Mewington CT06111 

Obbt Sir: 

I have been an amateur radio 
operator for approximately four years 
and absolutely love being a part of a 



14 



"man's world." I enjoy taking part in 
contests and am quite surprised by the 
different react ions I get from various 
operators when I am on the air. 

However, it has come to my atten- 
tion in the last few contests that there 
must be some guidelines estab- 
lished regarding the use of the na- 
tional calling frequency of 146.52 
MHz, The contests I am specifically 
referring to are the recent June, 1976, 
and January, 1977, VHF Sweepstakes. 

In my opinion, it's not very fair for 
people to monopolize the national 
calling frequency for solely high 
power contest use since VHF Sweep- 
stakes are intended to test both equip 
ment and operating skill. However, it 
ts quite obvious that there are many 
of us who are fortunate enough to 
have top-of-the-fine equipment 
including big arrays and kilowatts. 
These are fine at the low end of the 
band but not on 146.52, 

In addition, since when have the 
FCC regulations been changed to 
allow a reverb on the air? t did not 
know that hams were in the radio 
broadcasting business. 

I would like to suggest that 146.52 
and all FM frequencies above 146 
MHz remain contest-free and that the 
ABRL contest advisory committee 
look into the matter of suggesting 
alternate FM simplex frequencies for 
use during contests. Why should the 
FM bands be monopolized by a few 
who are inconsiderate and cannot 
leave the simplex hands alone for the 
purpose they were intended for — tow 
power, mobile intra community 
communications and public service, 

I have been informed that the 
ARRL has refrained from publishing 
tetters that tend to question its activi- 
ties, of which the VHF Sweepstakes 
are a part, but it will be interesting to 
see how much attention a female 
rocking a male boat will receive. 

Thank you for your consideration 
in this matter- I hope thai there will 
be changes made in the near future to 
safeguard the FM bands from being 
hoarded by the "big guns/' 

Christine Bontakowski WA2KOU 

Neptune NJ 

She said ft — Ed. 



RETROSTEP 



] 



San Antonio, which was among the 
earliest proponents of the Texas Band 
Plan for VHF/UHF FM fwhich was 
later adopted almost en toto by 
ARRL as a National Plan), joins the 
Bicentennial Celebration by virtue of 
a retrostep which sets orderly spec 
trum utilization back 20 years, if not 
the full 200. 

South Texas first provided the 
English language with the word 
"maverick" during the mid 1800*s 
when rancher Samuel A. Maverick 
allowed his unbranded cattle to roam 
the open range. 

To top Sam Maverick's indepen- 
dence required considerable effort, 
but alas, it has been done. San 
Antonio now has a maverick to top all 
mavericks: WR5AFF/5 (no chal- 
lengers please). This ill-conceived 



maverick repeater, licensed to Robert 
X Sarvis WB5CIT, has its input on 
146.39 MHz and output at 14Z51 
MHz (a designated simplex channel). 
With a rather unique spacing of 1120 
kHz, this anachronistic machine con 
forms to accepted practice only in 
that it operates with low in /high out. 
and uses a 30 kHz channel lor its 
output. Whether or not this was due 
to some oversight, or confusion 
caused by the choice of 146.39 MHz, 
which isn't even a half channel, could 
not be determined. 

P tease consider the creation of a 
Maverick of the Year Award to 
properly honor the contemptuous 
disregard for established order which 
characterizes such operations as this. 
The efforts of thousands of dedicated 
amateurs to voluntarily regulate them- 
selves and promote orderly growth 
and spectrum usage appear wasted on 
our barbaric brethren, 

Robert G. Wheaton W5PKK 
San Antonio TX 



•i 



GET OFF OUR BUTTS 



After three unsuccessful tries of 
obtaining publication In QST (you 
remember, that's the organization 
"devoted entirely to amateur radio" — 
I understand that slogan will be 
mounted on the new S800,DOO wing 
of ARRL Headquarters, Hi Hi|, I 
thought after recently subscribing to 
73 Magazine and liking what I saw, I 
would appeal to you. 

My message to our wonderful ham 
fraternity is this: Let's get off our 
butts and devote the same amount of 
energy cowards publicizing and pro- 
moting amateur radio as we do de- 
nouncing the CBers and thetr band. 
Recently coming up from the ranks 
myself and passing my General 
theory, I do not believe the majority 
of amateurs are aware of what's going 
on in today's advanced CB market. In 
particular, I am talking about the 
so-called SSB HFers who operate 
between channel 23 and the ten meter 
Novice band. This group of boot 
leggers numbers over 70,000 with 
their own published callbooks and 
specialized illegal calbigns. Sure, a lot 
of these interested shortwave radio 
enthusiasts are runntng amateur equip- 
ment It is easily available and the 
distributors and manufacturers of this 
equipment see the money in this 
market and of course are not going to 
establish any rules or regulations to 
prohibit sales. All we need to do is 
grab the "cream of the crop" from 
these ranks and talk about, demon- 
strate, and third party these fellows 
right into ham radio. The old tight 
wad image of the average ham radio 
operator is changing. These fellows 
already have been practicing Morse 
code, know about propagation, and 
have erected everything from tri* 
banders to inverted vees. Still a non- 
believer? 

Take a look at the gear confiscated 
in recent raids in the Baltimore area 
{73, January. 1977, page 12 - 
565,000 worth), and that* s just a drop 
in the bucket compared to other 
populated areas. 



My point is this: For years we have 
been searching through our local 
clubs, etc.. for people interested in 
getting into amateur radio, people 
who have no idea at the beginning 
what shortwave radio is all about and 
become easily turned off at the 
expense of getting into many areas of 
ham radio. We are looking in the 
wrong places. Get out of those depart- 
ment store and shopping center 
exhibitions and try going to some of 
the CB coffee and breakfast breaks on 
Sunday mornings. In my area r the 
hams meet at one end of the restau- 
rant and the CBers in the other. 
Ridiculous, isn't It? Let's get together, 

Mike Stone WB0OCD 
Durant IA 



MORE 2-80 



I'd like to add my thoughts to 
yours concerning the 2 80 CPU chip 
in I/O Editorial in the December, '76 
issue of 73 Magazine. 

Those of us who already own a 
8080 based microcomputer can hardly 
be expected to junk a perfectly good 
CPU card and run right out and buy a 
Z BO CPU I Remember thai for many 
of us it was all we could do to get that 
8080 based machine into the house — 
past all of the cold stares of our 
spouses, our friends, and our cred- 
itors. 

Obviously, the Z 80 chip is intend- 
ed for the "unlucky'* souls that have 
yet to buy their first computer (that 
includes meL I am enthused about the 
2-80 chip — precisely because it is 
advertised to execute 8080 programs 
without reprogrammingl Further 
more, there are numerous new instruc- 
tions that would appear to be valuable 
for a general purpose computer to 
have. Thus this 2 80 chip appears to 
give me the best of both worldsl 
Easier implementation electronically 
only sweetens the deal. 

In my year of studying all of the uP 
oriented articles in 73 (and Byte and 
anything else I could get), I had 
largely ignored the 6800, 6501, F8, 
SC/MP, and all the rest, because I 
sensed that right or wrong, the largest 
number of active and unselfish pro- 



grammers were probably on the 8080 
bandwagon. Had the 2-80 chip not 
come along, I would have bought an 
3080 chip based machine. Now that 
the 2 80 is here, that is what Til buy, 
on the basis that it is "upward com- 
patible" with the 8080 chip. 

I expect to use those fancy new 
Z 80 instructions only when writing 
programs for new applications, for 
which satisfactory 8080 programs 
were not available. 

Concisely, when I write programs 
for the Kilobaud Software Library, I 
expect that they will be in 2-SO code, 
but I expect that I will also submit an 
8060 version {to fatten my royalty 
checks?} that will be virtually the 
same program except that each of the 
2-80 only instructions would be re- 
placed by a CALL to a subroutine 
that effectively emulates the replaced 
2 80 instruction in 8080 code, 

Kenyon F. Karl 
Waterville ME 



A REAL STATION 



Along with my sub extension, I 
thought I would send along a minor 
gripe, It is about all those pictures of 
shacks and operating benches, desks, 
etc, I don't know how those people 
can even get on the air with those 
setups! Don't they know that clip 
leads, wires, and cables are essential to 
normal operation? Also, where else 
can you hang schematics, girlie 
pictures, calendars, logbook — to 
mention onty a few. I am enclosing a 
photo of a reaf station. As you can 
readily see, everything is within easy 
reach — no hunting around for stuff. 
Band changes are a snap — merely 
move clip lead(s) from here to there. I 
didn't include a photo of the repair 
and building bench, as it is a mess. 

But seriously, you have a fine maga- 
zine. It is the only one I of four 
originally) to which I still subscribe. 
The others seemed to aim their arti- 
cles toward the more (than me at 
least) affluent amateurs. 

Keep up the good work, 

Ed Black W9YYD 
Talluia IL 

Continued 




W9YYD*s operating desk. 



15 



V 




Steve Wfffsh WB9MLM serving as net control for March of Dimes Bike-a-thon 
from his hospital bed, 



[ 



NEVER SAY DIE! 



Here's a picture that the XYL took, 
and I think it's a good demonstration 
of the fact that hams are crazy enough 
to operate anywhere! Members of the 
Twin Ports Two Meter Club of 
Duluth, Minnesota, and Superior, Wis- 
consin, recently ran checkpoint com- 
munications for the March of Dimes 
Bike-a-thon^ I had planned to help, 
but was hospitalized with an acute 
asthma attack. But between sessions 
on the respirator, I served as net 
control station, operating through 
WR0AIM, Duluth's 34/94 repeater. I 
was able to access it easily with my 
H R2A and a % wave. Never say die! 

Steve Welsh WB9MLM 
Superior Wl 



LLOYD AND IRIS 



We have just finished another 
successful DXpedltion at VP2EEQ, 
Anguilla. Some 8,000 QSOs were 
made with amateurs in 123 countries. 
Operation was on 28 through 3.5 
MHz, with very heavy concentration 
on 3.5 MHz. 

Anguilla was different from our 
other Caribbean stops for two main 
reasons. There is no town or city En 
Anguilla, at least not in the normal 
sense. There are some stores, banks, 
etc., but they are widely separated 
and not in one downtown area. The 
other difference is that there is no 
central electric power system. Most 
people, including ourselves, have to 
obtain their electric power from in- 
dividual electric generators. Our gen- 
erator broke down just before we left 
and our stay in Anguilla was, there- 
fore, cut short by a few days. 

The people of Anguilla are very 
friendly and helpful, A radio amateur 
license is obtainable immediately, 
upon payment of $26 US. The 
country is relatively fiat, which is a 
welcome change from most of the 
nearby countries which are moun- 
tainous, making it difficult to find a 
good radio site. 

We ended 1976 with more than 
70,000 QSOs operating from nine 
different DX countries. 

KV4AA, a YASME Director and 



former President of the YASME 
Foundation (QSLs via YASME after 1 
January 1977), finished the year with 
over 35,000 QSOs, all from AJ3AA, 
It is most likely that every serious 
DXer in the world made at ieast one 
QSO with a YASME station in 1976. 
We hope that 1977 will be as good, 

Lloyd Cotvin W6KG 

Iris Colvin W6QL 

Anguilla 

NEED VE67 

I got a hold of a couple issues of 73 
and have already sent my subscription 
for 3 yrs. This VE6 thinks you have a 
great mag. Your editorials are great I 
would like to see some beginner's 
basics on microprocessors. 

Also, any W/K stations looking for 
VE6 r I am on most afternoons on 
14,300 or 21.300 and would be glad 
to contact. 

Keep up the good work H Wayne. 
See you at Orlando Hamfest. 

Arnie N. Brown VE6ARD 
Calgary, Alberta Canada 



ATTICA 



At present I'm doing a stretch here 
in Attica Prison and the only way I 
can keep up with what's going on in 
the ham world is through reading 
Seeing that I can't pop over to the 
local radio emporium for my monthly 
copy of 73 anymore, I finally have to 
subscribe. In a few days you'll be 
getting my money order for $9.00 a 
one year subscription. If the price has 
gone up, please let me know and I'll 
send the baiance pronto. In the mean- 
time please start with the Jan, 77 
issue. 

I'd subscribe for longer but I'm 
hoping to win my appeal. But if I 
should lose what's your rate for 15 
years? 

Two questions maybe you can help 
me with. Know anybody who would 
like to buy a used Drake TR-22C in 
good shape, except for the antenna 
which was broken while being chased 
by the cops? Plenty of crystals and 
cheap. Also my trusty ole Galaxy III, 
ac power supply, VOX, etc. Will sell 
all my gear cheap because I need 



money for my lawyer. And do you 
know any ham who would tike to 
write a ex-ham in prison? A YL would 
be great! But I won't be fussy. 

Looking forward to reading 73 
again. 

Peter Neenos 

Box 149-75C275 

Attica Correctional Facility 

Attica NY 14011 



NEED BY? 



You can say "I told you so!" So far 
I have run into brick walls on operat- 
ing privileges. Most people don't know 
what I'm talking about, or act like it. 
One guy around my age (43) said his 
buddy was one "before liberation" 
(1949) up in Tiensen, about 60 km 
north of here. In the larger cities, I 
have been told, they let middle school 
age (12-15) children build and operate 
short-range radio transmitters and 
receivers (short-range = 100 feet), 

I have a S/W receiver and can get 
CW on it but the only ham band it 
covers is 80m. So far I have not heard 
any K or W stations. Out of 13 
Americans here, one is K5KNL, Fred 
from Texas. He lives on the top (3rd) 
floor and has an "outdoor" antenna 
on the roof- He can get 20 and 15 
occasionally. We are straight west and 
a little south of Pyong Yang, N. 
Korea, inland of the Pohai (Wide Sea} 
on North China's east coast. 

I haven't given up, but the chain of 
command to do anything around here 
staggers the imagination. Tsang Chou, 
with a population of 170,000 (and 
they each have a bicycle!!) is classed a 
"rural town" and doesn't rate much 
attention, I wrote Peking about a 
license, but so far no answer. 

Anyway . , . much success in the 
coming year* If anything interesting 
develops I'll let you know. 

Don McCoy WA0HKC 

China 



HARD KNOCKS 



] 



I am writing this letter in the hope 
that I may be able to save someone 
else a lot of pain and suffering, 

I learned my lesson the hard way] 

Whenever climbing a tower to do 
any work, BE SURE TO US£ A 
PROPER SAFETY BELT, ox don't go 
up! 

On 7 June 75, I was standing on 
top of the top section of a 3 section 
crank-up tower which we thought was 
completely lowered. Because of some 
confusion, the safety belt I was plan- 
ning to use didn't show up that day. I 
figured I would be able to stand on 
top and wrap my left arm around the 
six foot mast extending above the top 
while with my right hand install a two 
meter antenna on top of the mast. 
Just as I was about to install the 
antenna, the tower section I was 
standing on dropped two feet sud 
denly, I lost my grip and fell off, 
about twenty feet down to the 
ground. Luckily, I landed rather erect 
with my knees bent sHghtly, which 
helped to break the fall, and I went 



down hard right on my rear and rolled 
back onto my back in excruciating 
pain. An ambulance was called and 
arrived about three minutes later, 
although it seemed like an eternity 
due to the intense pain I was in. 

After the ambulance ride to the 
hospital, which was very painful 
because every little bump in the road 
sent shots of pain through my body, I 
was treated in Emergency and X-rayed 
to find out the extent of injury. 

I suffered a hairline fracture of the 
lumbar number one vertebra, or in 
other words, a broken back. 

I have now been in bed for 22 days 
and shortly will be getting a plaster 
body cast which will run from just 
below my waist to my armpits, which 
I will have to wear for S to 10 weeks. 
Mot very pleasant during the summer: 
however, as temperatures in Van- 
couver rarely exceed 80 D C, it might 
not be too bad. 

I figure I was quite lucky in that 
there was no lateral shift in the 
fracture and no spinal cord damage, so 
I will suffer no paralysis* 

I am still fairly young {29) and was 
in good physical shape when the 
accident happened; otherwise, I might 
have been permanently crippled. 

I expect to be released from hospi- 
tal in about a week. 

In a few months I will be able to 
climb towers again, but NEVER 
WITHOUT A PROPER SAFETY 
BELT, as anything can happen, 

I hope you print this so that others 
can learn from my error and mis- 
fortune and avoid injury. 

Matthew T. Lewis VE7CH1 
Vancouver, B.C., Canada 



DGNT PUT CBers DOWN! 

This is in reference to the letter 
published in your Holiday 76 edition 
of 73 by Carol G, Sakowski about CBs 
and CBers* Granted, Citizens Band is 
not the finest radio service in the 
world, but I was quite disturbed by 
Ms.{7) Sakowski's statement, "Any- 
thing that 6 and 10 year old kids can 
do, you can do, right?" True. But 
then take a quick took at ham. Any- 
one, regardless of age, can obtain a 
ham ticket through a simple multiple 
choice and Morse code test. There are 
children on your frequencies too. 

I feel it is time that people stop 
putting down CBersl Face it - where 
would ham be without CB? There 
goes a good deal of electronic compo- 
nents, and, by the way, where do all 
the Novices come from? CB\ Another 
thing — Ms. Sakowski does not seem 
to have any call letters. All of that 
from a non-ham? 

I have been into CB for exactly one 
year. I am an avid SWL, and am one 
wpm from my Novice. However, even 
after I become well into amateur 
radio, I am not going to forget my 
many friends on 1 1 meters. CB may 
be crowded, ridden with il legalities, 
and not very efficient, but there are 
plenty of would-be hams on 27 MHz 
who are trying to clean up the chan- 
nels of flakes. We are not afi the 
typical "10-4 Good Buddy" media 
CBers, 



16 



I am proud of my CB call iettersl! 
Do not put CBers down if you want 
some new hamsf 

JtmCullenWAE2NR 
Succasunna NJ 



SOMEDAY 



] 



This letter comes not from a ham. 
but from a long-time would-be ham. I 
just wanted to let you know that H ' 
ever make it, you 'II get a targe share of 
the credit (or blame). For something 
tike 15 years We wanted to get into 
amateur radio. For 14 years, I was 
convinced that I could never learn the 
code. Now I've got your tapes and 
everything seems possible. Not easy - 
just possible. 

I've also got the license guide books 
you publish and find them straight- 
forward and logical. That's more than 
I can say for some of the things put 
out by the ARRL. Right now I'm 
trying to learn some of the basics 
through the Heath kit Continuing 
Education series. While I'm speaking 
from a position of ignorance, you 
might want to consider telling your 
readers about this series, Heathkit 
seems to have put together a winner. 

You are to be congratulated for 
your efforts to bring CB people into 
the ranks of ham radio. While there 
are some crazies on that band (I tune 
up there and listen from time to 
time J, there are also some very inter- 
ested and dedicated people. Tnese are 
the ones who would be tremendous as 
amateurs. I figure the crazies wouldn't 
have the patience to learn what they 
have to know to pass the tests, so, 
even if you get their attention, they 
probably still pose no threat, 

Congrats, again, for getting into the 
home computer field. It is my feeling 
that within the next 5 years or so 
there will be a home computer system 
with adequate software to appeal to 
the average homebuyer. The fact that 
the hobby electronics magazines have 
nearly all added computer sections 
recently shows just how far ahead of 
the pack 73 really is. 

So, thank you, Wayne, for keeping 
me on the track. Between the rigors of 
starting a new business and the time 
required by continuing to go to col- 
lege, I stilt find some time to study 
radio theory. Someday — 

William F. Blinn 
Worth ington OH 



TOYS OF THE PEOPLE? 

I want to send this note for what it 
is worth, 

I am a ham who was a CB nut at 
one time before they became the toys 
of people who seem to need some- 
thing to convey their silly talk over. 

I have always wanted to work with 
radio but never had the chance , ..CB 
radio got me interested. J believe there 
are a lot of CB men like me who are in 
earnest about radio and doing it right 
I do not believe, however, we should 
try so hard to get them. If they are in 
earnest, they will seek it out. 

Above all, we should not let down 



the rules to let them in. I have had 
one heck of a time passing the tests, 
and for alt those who told me "there's 
nothing to it/' I can only say "speak 
for yourselves," But I will also say 
that now that I have my ticket, it was 
worth every bit of PL And it means 
something to me to have clone the 
work. 

I. too, thought CW was nuts before 
I learned tt, because I didn't want to 
spend the time (earning it. Now 1 can 
see its value and fun. 

The best drawing power the ham 
has is his dedicated interest and 
knowledge of radio and communica- 
tions. Most of my old CB friends have 
no idea what I have learned getting 
my ticket, but I have found they all 
hold a special respect in the fact that I 
am a ham. And frankly, I tell them if 
they want to get serious about radio, 
this is the route to take. But until 
they are serious, they're not ready for 
us and we* re not ready for them, 

I cannot help but believe that the 
FCC and others in power in this 
matter hold a respect for what the 
ham world has become and con 
tributed all these past years, 

I for one am very proud to be a 
ham and thank all those who have 
gone before me in making it what it is 
today. 

Thank you for your lime , , . just 
must speak out. 

Clinton X Reser 
NewStrawnKS 



SEARS AND 2M 



It was with great distress that I 
observed a two meter transceiver on 
page 967 of the Spring/Summer 1977 
Sears catalog, I hope you and 73 
Magazine will take an immediate stand 
and make a strong statement to both 
Sears and the FCC. I strongly feel that 
the open availability of CB equipment 
through mail order catalogs such as 
this with no requirement or proof of 
ti censure has added to the number of 
unlicensed operators on CB today 

I sincerely hope that rapid action 
will be taken to eliminate the un- 
licensed non-ham from acquiring a 
two meter rig, complete with crystals, 
antenna, and instructions on ham pro- 
cedures. We have been very lucky in 
the past to prevent violation of the 
ham bands and 1 hope we will be able 
to nip this in the bud before two 
meters becomes another eleven 
meters. 

George H. Stokes, Jr< WA4MZL 

Mobile AL 

We're on the casef Check out the 
Montgomery Ward story in Briefs, — 
Ed. 



THE LUNATIC FRINGE 



] 



The following is gotng to be diif* 
cult to believe unless you have been 
on the Bicentennial Net for the past 
several months, Many derogatory 
comments are made about CBers, but 
what difference is there when licensed 
amateurs cause deliberate interference 



in the following ways: jamming with 
carriers of up to 30 minutes and more, 
profanity, obscenities and indecent 
language (by definition |, amateurs 
with high powered linears that move 
as close to the net as possible and 
refuse to move when tactfully asked 
to do so, whistling, blowing, tapping, 
and groaning into the microphone, 
playing a radio and transmitting a 
phone patch signal deliberately on net 
frequency. Tuning up on net fre- 
quency was always done without any 
regard or consideration for fellow 
amateurs — this appears to be entirely 
acceptable for many amateurs at any 
time. CSers discourteous??? 

All of the above did not dampen 
our spirits; however, there was one 
thing that was learned very quickly 
and that was not to acknowledge this 
type of interference. It is like the 
obscene phone call — teave them a j one 
and they will go away. 

The fellows acting as net control 
certainly deserve a tot of praise for 
their patience in keeping the net 
operationaL One bright spot to all of 
this was the amateur who checked 
into the net from Kentucky and said 
he would accept a collect call from 
any part of the country to get on the 
air at any time for his state. That is 
truly the Spirit of '76. 

Lloyd Krob WAGEFW 
Eagan MN 

The lunatic fringe fives. - Ed. 



OPPOSING VIEWPOINTS 

Thought you'd be interested in the 
enclosed clipping from Computer- 
world, regarding a radio program for 
ham computer buffs. 

In your January '"Letters" column 
you published a letter from AA7NEV, 
who didn't know what kind of time 
"PMEDT" stood for. Tell him it 
means afternoon or evening. Eastern 
Daylight Savings Time I 

Your magazines, particularly the 
editorials* are always stimulating, 
generally thoughtful, and frequently 
controversial! Although your readers 
naturally don't agree with your points 
of view all the time, we gotta admit 
one thing: You offer, in the columns 
of your magazine, an opportunity for 

Hobbyists in Boston 
Getting Radio Show 

i AMBRJDGE. Mass, — Compuicr hob- 
K)M> Mill Uke H> I he airwave 1 ! *ith ItuMf 
vcr> iwn radio shun beginning Jan 22 

tfchevtfj lo h*t [he first od i u w:fie\ (tf44f 
kind, "The Computer Prugnim" 4 Mill be 
hnrl !*i on WBlJR-h'M, J nonuum- 
mefcial rjdhu mifitifi with u J OQ-milc radius 
m iht ftoiion urea. 

F hi' 1i>rmal ol Lhc *him will fcuturc .1 
guvs! who will Kpeiik un :t kiptcorhis delict; 
and tinswtT Ljuesiiuns from lhftencrt| jh> 
cording lo Kichurd Gardner K hosr and tirig- 

Inaluf of iho show. 

The program ujll also include news Klmik 
oT irucrcsl 10 ihe home compuier hubhyist 
nid u wcck1> unnuuneemcfH of resource* 
ncluUsd lo I he speaker^ tupit- 

1 he program will he available lo nlher 
MUrlton* Uftd part* iff each program can be 
hfuatlca&l -i\ Mzparale program-* 

I urihcr in tor ma lion can he obtained fr*nn 
(r.mJner al Bui IA4* Harvard Sq , (am- 
•thJjec. MUiv 02IJS 



opposing viewpoints to be presented 
— a real rarity these days. 

I only wish that all your reader- 
writers would use a little more 
courtesy in some of their comments, 
since the opportunity to present our 
views is a privilege 73 is granting to us, 
and not a right which we should 
demand and abuse. 

Hang in there, Wayne! 

Bill Hough tali ng 
Raleigh NC 

You're kidding! ff it's courtesy you 
want, read the fetters in QST. 0on't 
bother looking here. — Ed. 



THE FEES DEBATE 



I used to sit hack comfortably 
secure in the thought that the people 
who run our country and agencies 
such as the FCC were so much 
brighter than myself, but now I really 
am worried. I just heard today that 
they (FCC) are going to eliminate all 
license fees from CBers and hams. J 
sure don't understand this. From one 
side of the FCC's mouth comes word 
that they don't have enough money to 
police the wild antics of the CBers, 
and from the other side they say we 
have so much money, let's forget the 
license fees. 

The wild rush to the CB hands had 
already started one quarter of the way 
when the FCC decided to lower the 
rate to S4.Q0 from S9.0G. It definitely 
wasn't towering the rates that in- 
creased the CBers. Maybe the FCC 
didn't know how to handle the tre- 
mendous amount of money that 
would have come in if they left it 
aJone. My calculator does not go that 
far, so ] can't tell you how much 
money would have come in. 

Does the FCC think that by dump- 
ing the $9.00 it will increase the ham 
ranks? When a prospective ham is 
ready to spend from $700 to thou- 
sands for ham equipment, what differ- 
ence would $9.00 make? I would sure 
be interested in knowing how much 
money the FCC throws away by 
dropping the fee from $9 00 to $4.00. 
I wonder how many men could have 
been hired by the FCC in each state 
for poiice action by the money that 
was thrown away. 

Harry Torossian WB8SWD 
Dearborn Heights Ml 



FREEDOM OF INFORMATION 



Thomas Houser, Director 
Office of Telecommunications 
Washington, D.C. 

Dear Mr. Houser; 



Your recent letter to FCC Chair- 
man Richard Wiley claims that "the 
federal agencies that compromise the 
OTP-chaired Interdepartment Radio 
Advisory Committee have studied alt 
of the frequency bands currently 
under government control to deter- 
mine whether any additional spectrum 
might be made available for Citizens 

Continued on page 60 



17 



Briefs 



Compiled by Warren Oh/ WA1GUD and Stan Mtastkowski WA1UMV 



How many times have you spent 
the day getting to the nearest FCC 
office, struggled through an exam, 

passed, and dragged yourself home 

only to wail two or even three months 
for your new license? It's frustrating 
and soon to be a thing of the past. 
Field Offices, starting sometime in 
March, will issue temporary authority 
for amateurs to use their new 
privileges before receiving the Gettys- 
burg paperwork. The temporary 
permit will be good for 90 days and 
will require special identification 
white operating under temporary 
status. FCC's Greg Jones told 73 the 
March target date wasn't definite, but 
instead a goal. 



The Long (stand Mobite Amateur 
Radio Club {LI MARC) ATV repeater 
became operational on a regular basis 
at the end of January. The 439.25 in, 
427.25 out machine is located in 
Platnview MYoni 320 foot antenna. 
It has an ERP of 200 Watts and is 
omnidirectional, allowing amateurs 
within a 20 mile radius to use its 
facilities. 

Ed Pillar W2KPCX Chairman of the 
LI MARC ATV Committee, and 30 
members built the machine in their 
spare time from converted compo- 
nents. Most of the equipment and 
parts were donated by local industry 
and salvaged from various commercial 
sources. The club estimated the total 
cost in the vicinity of $2000, and wilt 



be running an experimental educa- 
tional program on amateur radio and 
basic electronics in three schools 
within the Syosset NY school system. 

The club is also planning to move 
its weekly technical net lo the ATV 
repeater, with the visual medium 
giving an added punch to technical 
discussions. 

The one year grant for the use of 
the 420 lo 450 MHz band for experi- 
mental ATV repeater operation was 
issued on February 27, 1976. 
LIMARC has asked the ARRL board 
of directors to petition the FCC for a 
five year extension of the grant, citing 
the fact that last March the FCC 
granted offshore radio location 
(HfRAN) an extension for that period 
of time. 



The FCCs proposal to deregulate 
(and decontrol J repeaters I see Guest 
Editorials and FCC) has drawn mixed 
reviews from the Ohio Area Repeater 
Council. Meeting January 8th, two 
days after the FCC proposal was 
released, the council voted 55 to 6 
agB/nsf elimination of repeater sub- 
bands, repeater licenses, and repeater 
callstgns ... as Docket 21033 calls for 
Instead, the council's officers were 
instructed to file comments with the 
Commission, "asking for continuation 
of repeater sub-bands, licenses, and 
callsigns, and for establishment of 
procedures by which the FCC will 
secure the comments of frequency 




£ d A7/er W2KPQ. Chairman LfMABC ATV Committee, with ATV repeater 



coordinating groups such as the Ohio 
Council before acting on an applica- 
tion for a repeater Ifcense." The Ohio 
group did tike the FCC's plan to 
simplify logging requirements and 
restrictions on remote bases and 
auxiliary links. Thanks W8GRG 



The Amateur and Citizens Division 
name change wasn't supposed to take 
effect until January 20th . . , but 
receptionists were answering the 
phone with the division's new name 
("Personal Radio Division"! the week 
before. There are no changes in the 
division's operation as of now, but the 
future could incorporate other radio 
services like private aircraft and 
marine. 



Even If you try to pay the FCC for 
your new license or renewal, the 
Commission will still refuse. As re- 
ported last month, all fees were sus- 
pended by court order, effective 
January 1st. If you do send a check, 
the FCC will destroy it, and advise by 
mail. Cash or money orders will be 
refunded by government check. FCC 
officials, at press lime, were still 
investigating retroactive refunds 
dating back to the court decision's 
effective date. 

Topics expected to come up at the 
January 20th ARRL Directors 
meeting included a hike in League 
dues and a formal vote on the 
League's reply to the FCC docket on 
WARC* Some sources said they ex- 
pected dues to go up $12 in the US, 
with the cover price of GST up to $2 + 
(We'll have an update in Briefs next 
month.) On WARC, a letter to ARRL 
directors shortly after the FCC re- 
leased its WARC proposal indicated 
the League would continue to push 
for new allocations at 10 MHz, See 
comments of Dave Sumner K12Z in 
last month's WARC report. 

The case against Irae! Treger W9IVJ 
continues in Chicago. Illinois Assistant 
Attorney General John McPhee says 
things are proceeding slowly, with the 
latest developments only promising 
further delay. McPhee is trying to get 
a court injunction barring Tracer's 
company (Trigger Electronics) from 
advertising or carrying out business by 
mail. Over 350 people have com 
plained that they mailed orders to 
Trigger, received their cancelled 
checks, but never got what they 
ordered. According to McPhee, about a 
third of the complaints have now been 
settled, "either to the total satisfac- 
tion, or partial satisfaction, of those 
concerned." However, with Treger 
hospitalized after suffering a stroke in 
early January, the chances of most 
victims recovering their money begin 
to fade. As McPhee put it, "The Judge 
may well tell us to feave Mr, Treger 
alone, concluding he has suffered 
enough already." In other words, after 
months of stonewalling the AG's 
demands for financial statements and 
depositions, irae I Treger continues to 
send out his catalogs and collect 
money from unsuspecting customers 



, . . and tt seems like the courts may 
let htm get away with it Justice, 
anyone? 



The role of amateur radio as a 
valuable public service was once again 
demonstrated after an earthquake in 
northern Italy last May. Details of 
amateur radio's part in the disaster 
have just become available. Repeater 
stations survived the shock and passed 
the word of the quake to the outside 
world, Next day 200 mem b a n ofl tfca 

Italian emergency corps established an 
emergency network to assist authori- 
ties in rescue efforts. The activity 
continued for nearly two weeks and 
was acknowledged with thanks by 
government authorities. 



The on again, off again "Big 
Noise/' the broedbanded buzzsaw 
interference that has been disrupting 
worldwide communications, was off 
at press time, A high-placed FCC 
source said that the Washington 
offices had received no complaints 
since the first of the year- 

The noise had tapered off toward 
the end of 1976, and the FCC added 
that there seemed to have been a 
concerted effort to keep the noise out 
of the maritime and aeronautical 
safety services. 

As reported in 73 last month, the 
Soviet Union admitted that the noise 
was coming from their country and 
was an "experimental use of the radio 
spectrum." 

World mass media picked up the 
story toward the end of 1076 and 
speculated about the nature of the 
noise, Although many experts con- 
sider the noise a propagation study, 
some journalists have theorized that it 
was an experiment in the disruption 
of worldwide communications which 
could be used to create havoc with an 
army's communication during a war. 
Yet another farther out theory con- 
siders the possibility of the develop- 
ment of a "death-ray." 

Whatever the nature of the noise, it 
seems to be gradually disappearing, 
FCC spokesmen did add that any 
further reports would be appreciated, 
including the time, frequency, and 
ty pe f i n terf ere nee. 

Just before press time, the "DX 
Jukebox" program of Radio Neder- 
land in Hilversum reported that the 
Reuters News Service had quoted the 
Norwegian Defense Minister as saying 
US intelligence sources had indicated 
the radio interference was from a very 
powerful Soviet over- the- horizon radar, 
which could track aircraft anywhere 
in The world. Due :o the ■JiUUflKn'y 
long range of the radar, it had to 
operate in the HF band rather than 
the UHF or VHF spectrum. It was 
further stated that the interference 
was coming from four transmitters, 
two located near the city of Kiev and 
two near the city of Nikolaev, both in 
the Ukraine, 



The largest radio telescope in the 
world for ultra-short wavelength study 
has just been completed near the 
Amherst campus of the University of 



18 



Massachusetts in the western part of 
the state. Dr. Richard Huguenin, 
Director of Radioastronomy, in a 73 
interview said the 45 foot dish has 
been under construction for nearly 
three years. It's fully steerabte and 
enclosed in a geodesic dome. 

Radio waves in the one millimeter 
region (300 GHz) will be studied in an 
effort to understand interstellar 
molecules and their role in the birth 
of stars. 

The installation was funded by the 
National Science Foundation and the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, It 
will be used by scientists from around 
the world. 



Lowdown is a new monthly news- 
letter designed for the interest of LF 
band enthusiasts 540 kHz and down> 
A one year subscription is free to 
anyone who sends 12 SASEs to H. 
John Clements, 9010 Tobias #25B, 
Panorama City CA 91402. 



Persons involved on both sides of 
the RTTY /repeater controversy on 
146.70 MHz in the Ohio area con- 
tinued to take hard lines at press time. 
As reported in the January issue of 
73 t Robert Scott W8FSK organized 
RTTY enthusiasts to protest a new 
10/70 repeater on the frequency, 
which had been used for RTTY nets. 

A great deal of correspondence 
between RTTY operators and the 
Ohio Area Repeater Council was 
generated, and the Council took up 
the issue at its January meeting. 
According to the minutes of the meet- 
ing, "It was agreed that if the individ- 
uals concerned had requested approval 
of 10/70 for a RTTY repeater before 
the voice repeater group asked for the 
pair, the RTTY request would have 
been approved. However, as there has 
been no such request and in view of 
the use of other repeater pairs for 
teletype elsewhere in Ohio> the 
membership confirmed its earlier 
approval of 10/70 voice repeaters, and 
reaffirmed its decision not to reserve 
any repeater frequencies for direct use 
on either RTTY or voice/* 

Scott vowed to continue the fight 
against the use of 146.70 for voice, 
With the situation deadlocked, bad 
feelings abound and both sides seem 
to be drifting farther apart- 



Opinions vary on the success of 
Repeater Appreciation Week" in 
California the first week of January* 
Twelve major systems and virtually all 
of the minors shut down for a five day 
period from January 1st through 5th. 
The shutdown was caused by increas- 
ing abuse and bad language on many 
repeaters in the state. WR6A8E was 
shut down for two months last fall 
because of the severity of the situa- 
tion on that machine, 

During the "appreciation" period, 
control operators monitored the input 
frequencies for emergency traffic. No 
major problems were reported, al- 
though some of those alleged to have 
caused the trouble appeared briefly on 
some of the machines left on. 

By shutting off machines, owners 



'f 




St. Nick put out a lot of HO HO HOs on 2 meter FM, 



and control operators hoped to moti- 
vate users to self-police the offenders, 
Many systems came back under rigid 
control of operators and were im- 
mediately shut off again at the first 
sign of jamming or bad behavior. 

Although first reports after the 
resumption of normal repeater activi- 
ty showed a noticeable decrease in 
bad behavior, the next few months 
will tell the story about the future 
need for more appreciation periods, 



Looking for Smokey? Owners of 
Drake series R-4 receivers can now 
tune in to CB channel 19 by doing the 
following: Set the band selector to 
28.5 MHz and the "xtal" switch to 
160 meters. Rotate the preselector to 
15 meters and the dial to read 535, 
10-4 end thanks again good buddy to 
the Santa Barbara CA Amateur Radio 
Club. 



As reported in the February Briefs, 
the Bicentennial Relay project had 
become bogged down in red tape. 
Congratulatory messages from 45 
governors and the Mayor of the 
District of Columbia to President 
Jimmy Carter were hetd up for nearly 
two months, while Bill Miller K4MM 
pressed for an appointment* In Chica- 
go, where the idea got started with the 
local Quarter Century Wireless Associ- 
ation Chapter and Eric Shalkhauser 
W9CI (a participant in the first Presi- 
dential Relay held back in 191GL Lee 
Knirko W9MOL tried to interest the 
media with little success. A Chicago 
press conference drew only one 
reporter, and in Washington it was 
much the same story. The messages 
were delivered January 12th to Mr. 
Carter s appointments secretary, Fran 
Voorde. An appointment with the 
President prior to his inauguration 
proved Impossible for two reasons: 
Mr. Carter's busy schedule and the 
Secret Service's reservations, The SS 
reportedly worried that if the hams 
got a chance to present the new 
President with the messages, "every 
group in the country would try to do 
the same thing." That, in the security 
conscious minds of the SS, would be a 
major no-no, {incidentally, VvSCi's 
fine history of ham radio begins with 
this issue of 73.) 



An unemployed engineer, com- 
plaining that waves emanating from a 
car's citizens band radio caused him 
pain, hurled a cinder block through 
the car's windshield yesterday, police 
said, Two Nassau County police detec- 
tives riding to work in the car imme- 
diately arrested the engineer. 

Police charged James O. Nelson, 32, 
of 2 Norway Pine Drive, Medford, 
with third degree criminal mischief, a 
felony, and second-degree reckless 
endangerment, a misdemeanor, and 
District Court Judge Warren Doo little 
ordered him hetd in lieu of $1,500 
bail. The detectrves, George and John 
Staudt, were not hurt The two are 
brothers. 

Nelson, a former employee of the 
Grumman Corporation, allegedly 
stepped from the curb at Farmers and 
Stewart Avenues in Bethpage at about 
8 am. Police said he threw a nine inch 
by 12 inch cinder block through the 
windshield of George Staudt's car and 
walked away. The detectives went 
after Nelson and arrested him. The car 
had been stopped at the intersection 
for a stop sign, according to pofice, 
who said the Staudts were on their 
way to work in the Eighth Precinct. 
Reprinted from Newsday, Garden 
City, LI, NY. 



Members of the St. Jude Hospital 
Amateur Radio Club and the 
Southern California ATV Club staged 
an ATV "first" on December 22 
They made it possible for patients at 
the Fu Merron hospital to talk with 
Santa Claus while viewing him on 432 
MHz color ATV. 

The project was set up by Joe Moell 
WA6JFP and XYL April WA60PS, 
Director of Occupational Therapy at 
St. Jude's. The TV signal source was 
the hospital's color TV camera, with 
432 MHz equipment provided by 
Ernie Williams WB6BAP and John 
Verna WA6CA5 of the SCATV Club. 

Santa visited each room in the 
pediatrics and long term rehabilitation 
units of the hospital by means of a 
battery-operated color TV set and 
ATV converter, wheeled from room 
to room. Patients talked back to Santa 
on 2 meter FM simplex, A realistic 
"set" for St. Nick was made by 
hospital therapists, and background 
sound effects of reindeer and work- 
shop elves came from an endless tape 
looo. In order that there be no doubt 
of Santa's authenticity, he was 
thoroughly briefed beforehand of 
each patient's name and background. 

Newsfilm of Santa's ATV visit was 
shown to all of Southern California 
Christmas Eve on a Los Angeles tele- 
vision station. Thanks to WA6JFP for 
story and photos. 



The antenna zoning case of Waiter 
Weber WA9FXG has not yet been 
settled, m January, 73 reported that 
Weber has been ordered to remove his 
72 foot tower and antennas. The fight 
against the Des Piaines I L city counci I 
has so far cost Weber nearly $2000 
out of his own pocket. At press time* 
it appeared that the city council was 
dragging out the case through numer- 
ous legal loopholes in an effort to 
drain Weber financially. 

In court iate in December, the Des 
Plalnes city attorney filed a motion to 
have Weber's suit against the city 
council dismissed. Because no reason 
was given, the motion was denied. The 
city then fifed a point by point denial 




Ed Webb W9IPO, President of the Chicago Area Chapter, Quarter Century 
Wireless Association, sponsors of the Amateur Radio Bicentennial Relay, Prof, 
Eric fShaw} Shalkhauser W9CI, Honorary Chairman, receiving award in Chicago 
of message from President Garatd Ford x with Lee Knirko W9MQL. Relay 
Chairman. (Photo by John Bayatis W9CSA) 



19 



of Weber's suit 

Most antenna zoning cases have 
been quietly settled out of court in 
the past due to vague zoning laws. 
This case appears to be the first in 
Illinois and one of the first in the 
country to actual I y reach the court 
room. A negative decision could make 
it difficult for amateurs to erect 
antennas anywhere in the country, 

A fund has been started in an 
attempt to help pay for the legal costs 
of she tower battle. Contributions can 
be sent to WA9FXG Tower Fund, c/o 
Hajek & Hajek, Law Centre, 
Mannheim & Roosevelt, Westchester 
I L 60153. 



73 West Coast Associate Bill Paster 
nak reports that although the 1977 
5 A ROC in Las Vegas seemed well 
attended, complaints abounded from 
both amateurs and exhibitors. Early 
arrivals found that the hotel reserva- 
tions had been almost totally fouled 
up and some were forced to return 
home before the proceedings began. 
Many remarked that the speaker pro- 
grams wefe "bad." Amateur manufac- 
turers and distributors who exhibited 
were bothered by the lack of interest 
from the crowds. Most of the advance 
sates had gone to microprocessor 
enthusiasts, despite the fact that only 
two micro manufacturers were 
represented in the exhibit hail 

Many exhibitors who had been at 
SAROC in the past were absent this 
year. One said he would not be back, 
adding that SAROC is a "dud, and 
getting worse every year." 

A number of new products were 
shown at the show. Among them was 
the long-awaited Dentron M LA 2500 
linear, as well as a new Drake trans- 
ceiver, the TR-4CW featuring a switch- 
able CW filter. Amateurs got a first 
look at the previously announced 
Attas 350XL with dicjtal readout 
and 350 Watts out More HF equip- 
ment made its debut with two new 
rigs from Ten-Tec, the Triton IV, yet 
another digital readout unit, and the 
Century 21, a 70 Watt aflband rig. 

With the large pan that VHF is 
playing in amateur radio these days, 
the majority of new equipment was 
for that part of the spectrum, VHF 
Engineering introduced a new line of 
2 meter amplifiers. The record for 
mobile 2 meter amps will now go to 
TPL, who introduced a 250 Watt unit. 
Kenwood was showing the TS-6QO, art 
all mode transceiver for 6 meters that 
should be available soon. KLM intro- 
duced the VF0 711 for their 2 meter 
rigs. 

Accessories were well represented 
with new crank- up towers from Tristo 
and Wilson, as welt as Wilson's super 
heavy duty rotator, capable of turning 
half a ton. 

One unique product was the Astro 
200 transceiver from CIR. It has 
digital tuning that is done auto- 
matically in 100 kHz steps. You push 
a button up or down for tuning in the 
corresponding directions. 



Date Hoppe K6UA of Fallbrook CA 
is the proud holder of the second 
WAZ certificate for 75 meter phone. 



and the first for the northern 
hemisphere, An avid DXer since being 
licensed in 1941, Hoppe started work 
ing toward the certificate in January 
of 1973 and received it late tn 1976. 

When asked about the toughest 
zones, Hoppe said that the last, zone 
23, was the most difficult. A con 
firmed QSO there with UA9NH/JT-1 
in Mongolia put him over the top* 
Adding to the difficulties, zones 15, 
16, 17, and 18 required long path 
propagation, 

The first WAZ for 75 meter phone 
belongs to Dr. Juan Fernando EA8CR 
In the Canary (stands. 

Hoppe uses a Kenwood driving a 
Henry 2K. His antenna system is a 
directive curtain using four delta 
loops, two driven and two parasitic, 
giving a 10 dB gain. 

He is active on all bands, including 
2 meter FM and SSB. and holds a 
WAZ on 15, 20, and 40, as well as a 
WAC for 1 60 meters. 



After nearly a year of operation, an 
amateur radio club formed to pro- 
mote the use of SSB on 2 meters is 
expanding at a rapid rate. The "Side 
Winders On Two" headquartered in 
Fort Worth TX has over 300 members 
located all over the country. Nets have 
been formed on 145-10 MHz to 
demonstrate the potential of the 2 
meter band and the SSB mode for rag 
chewing and DX 

Requirements for membership are 
working two members on 2 meter 
SSB, A list of members and further 
information on membership can be 
obtained from George Bretz, Trea- 
surer, Side Winders On Two, 3520 
Livingston, Fort Worth TX 761 10. 



It appears that the USSR is on the 
verge of launching an amateur radio 
satellite. Persistent rumors coming 
from Soviet amateurs put the launch 
date at sometime in the spring, 

Nearly a year ago, several Soviet 
hams told AMSAT in Washington that 
the satellite was built and was under- 
going final tests. It was not launched 
due to an unexplained delay. 

Detaiis were sketchy at press time. 
An issue of a Soviet amateur radio 
magazine showed a picture of a 2 to 
10 meter transceiuing installation and 
hinted at its use for a new satellite. 



Both OSCAR 6 and OSCAR 7 
continue to have battery problems, At 
press time, AMSAT president Perry 
Kline told 73 that telemetry data was 
still being gathered, but it appeared 
that one of the 18 cells in OSCAR 6 
had failed- Instructions were given to 
command stations to change the volt- 
age rating at which the satellite was 
shut down. 

AMSAT was considering two 
theories tn an attempt to rejuvenate 
the cell. One was to charge it vigor- 
ously for a period of time. The Other 
was to continue to discharge the 
battery and then recharge it. Each of 
the 18 cells supplies t.8 volts at full 
charge. 

OSCAR 7 developed a problem 
with one of the solar panels, causing a 



voltage reduction aboard that space- 
craft. Kline said that it was expected 
that OSCAR 7 Mode B orbits would 
be switched to Mode until at least 
the end of February (Mode C is Mode 
B at half power). 

Pi ^ns are continuing for a concerted 
fund-raising effort for AMSAT. As 
reported last month, funding for 
OSCAR 8 and the Phase III satellites 
is a problem, AMSAT officials are 
considering several avenues for seeking 
contributions and still seek new 
members and volunteers. AMSAT is 
located at Box 27 in Washington DC 



The famous sound of Morse code's 
dah-dit may be phasing out for the 
maritime industry. This is because two 
communications satellites are in 
synchronous orbit over the Atlantic 
and Pacific oceans. These maritime 
satellites, built by Hughes, are owned 
and operated by a consortium of 
carriers headed by COMSAT General 
Corporation, Called Mansat, the satel- 
lites are currently relaying high 
quality voice, telex, facsimile, and 
data over both oceans for the interna- 
tional maritime industry. Marisat also 
serves the US Navy for f teet communi- 
cations. 

A third satellite, for Navy use and 
commercial backup, was placed in 
synchronous orbit over the Indian 
Ocean last October. Fourfootdiarne' 
ter ship antennas allow ships to make 
instant contact with home port or to 
be reached instantly by ship tele- 
phone. Ships can also reach other 
ships via the system's ground station 
for telex messages. 

Reprinted from IEEE Spectrum, The 
Institute of Efectricai and Electronics 
Engineers, inc.. New York NY. 



Collins Commercial Telecommuni- 
cations Division of Rockwell Interna- 
tional has received a £25«5 million 
contract from the Corporation for 
Public Broadcasting (CPB) to build an 
earth station system. 

Collins will provide an earth station 
system comprised of 150 to 165 
stations for the new nationwide satel- 
lite-based television system that will 
serve the Public Broadcasting Service 
1PBSL It will be the first large scale 
application of small earth terminals 
for television distribution by satellite 
in the United States. 

Collins will provide a turnkey sta- 
tion which will include receive- only 
ground terminals, interconnect links, 
and services such as frequency co- 
ordination and site selection, proto- 
type and qualification testing, site 
preparation, construction, installation, 
and long term maintenance support. 

With the new satellite system, PBS 
will be able to broadcast multiple 
programs to public television stations 
simultaneously, enabling each station 
co decide which program to air and 
which one to tape for later showing. 
The new system will also enable PBS 
to provide additional channels to 
enlarge programming options for 
various groupings of its nations. 

The new system is designed to 
provide flexibility and access co public 
television stations not previously 



financially possible, and expansion of 
the PBS interconnection using its new 
satellite system will be less complex 
and costly than at present. Under 
present conditions, linking up of a 
new public television station often 
takes two to three years. With she new 
system, PBS can have a new ground 
terminal installed as quickly as the 
equipment can be erected and fre- 
quency coordination requirements 
met. Also, the costs of interconnect- 
ing new stations in the satellite mode 
are substantially less than such costs 
In the present terrestrial mode 

Signal quality will be improved 
with the new satellite system, because 
a single signal will be picked up at 
approximately equal strength by each 
receive-only ground terminal. Distance 
has littJe significance, of course, and 
signal deterioration will not occur as it 
does in terrestrial systems. 

The new public broadcasting satel- 
lite system will utilize three trans^ 
ponders of Western Union's WE STAR 
satellite to beam signals across the 
continental US, and to Alaska, 
Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the US 
Virgin Islands. 

The basic television receive-only 
earth station system will include 10 
meter "nominal" antennas, low-noise 
amplifiers ranging in temperature 
from 50 1 Kelvin to 300/ Kelvin, and 
the new Collins 55U3-1SC frequency 
agile video receiver. 

The single shelf receiver can be 
tuned locally or remotely to any of 
500 channels in the 3,7 GHz to 4.2 
GHz band. It also features a mainte- 
nance logic unit that can diagnose 
faults to the replaceable module level 
and an ac/dc dual -voltage power input 
capability for redundancy of primary 
power, if desired. 

The terminals will be designed for a 
video signal -to- noise of 53 dB assum- 
ing 3 video peak deviation of 13,5 
MHz and a carrier-tonoise of 14 dB 
minimum 

The PBS satellite system is ex- 
pected to be operational by the fall of 
1978. 

Collins has been involved in satellite 
communications since the early 
i960'?, when Collins engineers trans- 
mitted video, voice, and data signals 
from Iowa to Texas by bouncing them 
off the orbiting Echo balloon. 



A growing trend on repealers is the 
running of simulated emergency nets 
on an unscheduled basis. The nets give 
emergency coordinators an Indication 
of the areas covered by the machines 
used and the availability of volunteers, 
as well as being a valuable training 
exercise. How about trying the idea 
on your repeater? 



The Santa Barbara CA Amateur 
Radio Club reports that you can't 
beat CW when it comes to a tough 
communications path. Recently, a 
pleasure boat in the Santa Barbara 
Channel asked for assistance on the 
CB REACT network. Because of radio 
problems, the boat could not be 
understood. Dave MeCollum WA6RGJ 
was on duty- He determined that the 
boat owner was familiar with CW, had 



20 



him switch the radio to SSB. and key 
the mike in CW, The message was then 
passed successfully* 



Jt may be that 2 meter rigs will be 
as common as CB radios on the 
shelves of the nation's large retailers. 
The two largest mass merchandisers in 
the country. Sears Roebuck and 
Montgomery Ward, are both in tha 
process of testing the water in the 
selling of ham gear. 

The spring -summer edition of the 
1977 Sears catalog has a 2 meter rig 
sitting beside the CB listings. The 22" 
channel rig is accompanied by a full 
explanation of ham radio and a 
caution that a license is needed for 
operation of the unit. 

A spokesman at Yaesu Electronics 
in California admitted to 73 that the 
Sears unit is manufactured by Yaesu 
in Japan, but is not offered under the 
Yaesu name in the United States. 

Meanwhile, the Montgomery Ward 
store in Pittsburgh NY is the site of a 
test marketing program for amateur 
radio gear, Michael Hanrihan, com- 
munications products manager for the 
store, told 73 that he was in the 
process of contacting major amateur 
product manufacturers in an effort to 
build a complete choice of product 
lines. At press time. Hanrihan 
admitted that he was getting little 
support from the companies that he 
had contacted. Of three major manu- 
facturers contacted, one insisted that 
the entire line be purchased, one 
promised to call back but never did, 
and one gave Montgomery Ward an 
outright negative answer, saying that 
they did not want to jeopardize their 
existing dealer structure. 

Another roadblock put in front of 
Montgomery Ward was a requirement 
that they take care of all warranty 
work. Although the amateur depart- 
ment may not be as full as first 
envisioned, the store was successful in 
obtaining the Midland line of 2 meter 
rigs. 

Top officials at both Sears and 
Montgomery Ward were reluctant to 
comment on their future plans regard 
ing the amateur market. A Mont- 
gomery Ward official said that the 
success or failure of amateur products 
at the Ptattsburgh store would be 
studied over a one year period. If the 
pilot program is successful, the com- 
pany may consider adding an amateur 
department to all of its retail stores, as 
we I \ as the catalog. 

The reluctance of maior amateur 
products manufacturers to consider 
mass merchandisers draws &n interest- 
ing parallel to a situation which 
existed in the photographic industry 
nearly ten years ago. At that time, 
manufacturers of advanced amateur 
cameras and accessories were reluctant 
to sell to mass merchandisers, fearing 
a complete loss of business in photo 
specialty stores, When one company 
broke down and decided to enter the 
market, others soon followed, and a 
number of discounters suddenly were 
equipped with fully stocked photo 
departments* Instead of taking busi 
ness from specialty retailers, the 
increased availability of the products 
created a whole new market which all 




Trio- Kenwood digs in hard to officially break ground at the site of their new 
offices in Cempton, California. The 23,000 square foot structure is being hush 
to TKC's specifications by Now Construction Company and is scheduled for 
completion in April 1977. 



shared. A vastly larger distribution 
network for amateur products could 
possibly create enough demand to give 
amateur radio thousands of new 
devotees. 

The problem of CB radio theft has 
finally come to the attention of the 
federal government Several congress 
men, including Senator Thomas Eagle- 
ton of Missouri, have introduced 
legislation into Congress that would 
make CB radio theft a federal offense. 
Two bills were introduced last session, 
RR. 13222 and 13223. that would 
make such theft punishable by a 
possible $5,000 fine and one year 
imprisonment The bilte specify that a 
transceiver missing for over 24 hours 
would be considered to have crossed 
state lines, thus allowing federal law 
to take effect All mobile transceivers 
would be covered under the proposed 
laws, thus including amateur two 
meter gear which is also highly suscep- 
tible to rip oft However, in a conver 
sation with Senator Eagleton's office. 
73 was inlormed that the two bills 
had "died Jf when the last session of 
Congress ended, It is hoped that they 
will be reintroduced when the change 
of administration is complete. 



The London Ontario Amateur 
Radio Club reports that a number of 
Canadian amateurs are having prob- 
lems passing through customs with 
amateur units when returning from 
trips into the United States. The 
depressed market for 23 channel rigs 
in the U.S. has made them attractive 
to a number of Canadians. Since 
border personnel may not be aware of 
the difference between amateur and 
CB rigs. Canadian amateurs are urged 
to carry a photocopy of their license 
and the bill of sale for the radio. When 
entering the U.S., they should have 
Canadian customs officials fill out 
form Y38, which will record the unit 
as having left Canada and should 
facilitate easy reentry. 



Tired of waiting for QSL cards 
from slow DX stations? Have pa- 
tience. Two years ago, scientists at Jet 



Propulsion Laboratories in Pasadena 
CA sent a message to a star system 
that they believe has a high prob- 
ability of having habitable planets, ff 
an answer is sent back as soon as the 
message is received, it should bearriv 
ing here on earth in 48,000 years. Is a 
new WAG (worked all galaxies) cer- 
tificate far behind? 



The US State Department has an 
nounced success in its negotiations 
with The Republic of the Philippines. 
A reciprocal operating treaty was the 
result, effective October 25th. 
From ARRL Bulletin. 



We've been getting some letters 
from MARS members of late, com- 
plaining about changes in their calls, 
Marc Leavey WA3AJR wrote of 
his belief that the FCC had purposely 
shuffled MARS calls to grant special 
bicentennial calls to the general ama- 
teur population. 

"A little more than two years ago, 
the three MARS programs operated 
just as they had for decades. Upon 
entering MARS, an amateur would 
assume a callsign based on his FCC 
issued identification. The scheme was, 
where "n** represents the FCC Call 
District, thus: 



Prefix 


Army 


Navy 


Air-Force 


Wn 


An 


m 


AFAn 


Kn 


AAn 


NO 


AFBn 


WAn 


ADn 


NO 


AFCn 




. etc. 







"This was all well and good until 
about two years ago, when we were 
informed of a change, 

"It turned out that the FCC had 
determined that the calls we were 
using on the MARS frequencies were 
illegal. The prefix 'AD3', as in 
AD3AJR, for example, was not a USA 
call at all, but rather one assigned to 
the tiny nation of Lower Ugorgi, or 
some such. Thus, to comply with 
international treaty regarding amateur 
callsigns, a change was in order. 

This declaration was of note for 
several reasons. First, it has been 
established in many other cases that 



the MARS program does not fall 
under the jurisdiction of the FCC, but 
of the Inter- Agency Board flABl, a 
faceless group which looks over 
military and government radio use. 
Further, there is no reason for MARS 
caMsigns to follow amateur regulations 
as operation is not under the Amateur 
Radio Service rules, nor is it on 
amateur frequencies. Certainly the 
'Command' stations, WAR. AIR H 
NAV. and NPG, have calls which do 
not follow amateur convention. 

"Nonetheless, without a whimper, 
we complied. Our reward was: 



Prefix 


Army 


Navy 


Wn 


AAMn 


NNN0 


Kn 


ABMn 


IMNN0 


WAn 


ACMn 


NNN0 



"Air Force was unchanged, Army 
got jawbreaker calls, and Navy people 
started stuttenngi 

"Then came the Bicentennial and 
the famed bicentennial callsigns. 
Looking suspiciously like the 'illegal' 
Army MARS calls, which were never 
heard on amateur frequencies, use of 
these "special* prefixes was encouraged 
on all ham bands, especially in inter- 
national contacts. Remember: 



w - 


AC 


K = 


AD 


WA = 


AA 


WB = 


AB 



"Do you think, maybe,, the reat 
reason for changing the MARS calls 
was to provide the block for Bicenten- 
nial use? 

"Well, now it's 1977, a new year. 
The celebration is over, the calls are 
gone. Of course, the FCC is now 
issuing the old Navy calfs to amateurs 
(NnXX), having finished with the 
Army/Bicentennial calls. Is there anv 
hope for us to get our old calls back?" 

Marc I. Leavey, M,D, 

WA3AJR ACM3AJR 

(ex-AD3AJR) 

RandaHsTOwn MD 

We're checking. Meanwhile, what 
about the scuffle for 1 x 2 callsiyis? 
It's gotten to the point where you 
don't know whether you're talking to 
a seasoned veteran or an 18 year old 
kid. (More on the FCCs callsign 
shuffle next month.} 



There is a place where Techmcan 
class licensees can operate SSB on HF. 
and where Novices tsrt operate voice 
on 2 meter FM. It's the Military 
Affiliate Radio System (MAR Si which 
i$ always looking for dedicated traffic 
handlers. Besides the extra privileges, 
MARS licensees are issued distinctive 
callsigns and are given access to sur- 
plus equipment MARS units in many 
areas of the country are currently 
running membership drives. For fur 
ther information, writer Commander 
LLS.A,A.C T , Attn CC OPS 0M r Fort 
Huachuca AZ 85613. 



UMARC, The Long Island Mobile 



Continued on page t96 



21 




. . <U W2NSDII 






> hH 



from page 7 

from the FCC* We are still far too 
restricted by the FCC to be able to set 
up much in the way of gentlemen's 
agreements on the use of our bands. If 
the FCC were to throw out the 
bandwidth proposals now under con- 
si deration (Docket 20777) and 
remove ail restrictions on modes of 
communications, we would then have 
a situation where we could start 
governing ourselves. 

Since the repeater councils 
presently represent about half of the 
active amateurs, we have a good start. 
Most repeater clubs have expanded to 
be regular ham clubs, with many 
non-FM members. Those which 
haven't opened up to non-FMers 
should get their act together . , . how 
can you run Novice classes when 
Novices can't use FM? And what 
red-blooded ham club doesn't have a 
Novice class going these days? 

Think about a structure for ama- 
teur radio founded on the radio dubs. 
Representatives of the clubs would 
meet wtth area councils to pass along 
the wishes of the clubs . . . and bring 
back the ideas from other clubs. 
Council representatives would meet to 
agree on changes in our agreements on 
subbands, modes, etc. This would 
permit amateurs to keep up with 
technical developments, and should 
encourage the pioneering of new 
ideas. This would take only a national 
meeting of councils to be put into 
effect . , . everything else is already in 
motion and working reasonably well 

Such a system would need a mode 
of communications ... a forum where 
ideas for changes in agreements could 
be dtscussed . . . the pros and cons 
developed, ft goes without saying that 
73 Magazine is available for this ... it 
always has been, Clubs can't be sure 
of getting all the information they 
need to make intelligent decisions 
unless there is a relatively free press 
. . , and this comes down to 73, QST 
is not known for allowing more than 
the ARRL side of thmgs. HR seems to 
panic at any suggestion of offending 
0ST t upon whom they are overdepen- 
dent. I'll print just about anything in 
73, and whether I agree with it or not 
is irrelevant. 

So there's an idea. You can let me 
know what you think. 

MA BELL WISES UP 
When Beit decided to use on-line 
signaling for long distance calls, a 
number of engineers advised against it 
They pointed out that this would 
encourage the development of ways to 
defeat the billing for the calls. The 
engineers tried hard to convince 
higher-ups that they should use 
separate wires for signaling and thus 
avoid any problems with customers 



EDITORIAL BY WAYNE GREEN 

using signals of their own. The deaf 
ear turned to these engineers was not 
one of the brighter decisions made by 
phone company officials. 

It was this decision to use the same 
wires for operating the dialing equip- 
ment as for the phone conversations 
which brought about the development 
of the red box f the black box, and 
eventually the blue box . . . devices 
for getting around some of the on-line 
signaling. The engineers raised a 
chorus of "1 told you so" as blue box 
use escalated- I suspect that the phone 
company reacted by firing the wise 
guvs. 

At any rate, Bell has recently an- 
nounced that they are at long last 
setting up separate lines for handling 
dialing. With some of the newer high 
speed systems, one set of signaling 
lines will be able to handle hundreds 
of customer lines, since few signals 
will take more than a second or two 
to transmit. Bell is trying out the new 
system in Wisconsin and expects it to 
be all over the country in a few years. 
This will greatly speed up connections 
on long distance calls and will make it 
possible to make collect calls without 
the help of an operator. It will also 
thwart any blue box fans who are still 
not in jail* 

MAILORDER RIGHTS 

Since a good number of the ads in 
73 are mail order ads, it may be 
helpful to both prospective customers 
and mail order firms if I go over the 
new mail order laws. 

The Federal Trade Commission has 
some rules which go a long way 
toward protecting the mail order 
buyer. It really doesn't pay to fool 
around with these chaps, so read on 
and see what they've done. 

A customer has the right to know 
when to expect merchandise to be 
shipped. If no date is set by the seller, 
you have the right to have your 
merchandise shipped within 30 days. 
If the seller does not ship within 30 
days, you have the right to cancel 
your order and get all of your money 
back. The seller must notify you of 
the delay and give you a free means 
(postage paid reply). If the delay is 30 
days or less, you have the right to 
cancel your order and get your money 
back, the right to agree to a new 
shipping date, or the right not to 
answer ... in which case the seller 
assumes that you agree to the shipping 
delay. If the shipping delay is more 
than 30 days, you must give your 
express consent to the delay, other- 
wise the seller must return your 
money at the end of the first 30 days 
of the delay. 

If you cancel, you have the right to 
get all of your money back and it 
must be mailed to you within seven 
working days after you cancel. On 



credit sales, the seller has one billing 
cycle to adjust your account. 

If you have a problem, write to the 
dealer directly. If you don't get re 
suits, out I me the facts, with a copy of 
the ad and a short letter, and send it 
to: Director, Bureau of Consumer 
Protection, Federal Trade Com- 
mission, Washington DC 20580 . . . 
and please send a copy to Wayne 
Green, 73 Magazine ; Peterborough NH 
034G8, so Til know when a firm is 
lousing up. 

A CALL FOR PAPERS 

It wasn't very long ago, historically, 
that one of our ham magazines was 
calling for those unused frequencies 
between 146 1 48 MHz to be made 
into a new citizens band. It probably 
wasn't so much cooler heads pre- 
vailing as the glacier- 1 ilce movement of 
the FCC which saved our present 
repeater band. 

Today we hear that familiar cry of 
"use it or lose it" ringing out plain 
lively, echoing up and down our many 
virtually unused ham bands. One or 
two furtive teenagers calling CQ every 
night do not constitute much of a 
foothold on an empty ham band. And 
since there is probably no way in this 
world to get that otd-timer's tuning 
knob unfrozen from 3999 kHz, where 
he's been for over twenty years, we 
have a desperate need for newcomers* 

Many clubs are doing a great job of 
attracting new blood to hamming, The 
big source Of beginners in amateur 
radio has been CB, now that amateurs 
have discovered there are some nice 
people on CB. much to their surprise. 
Where in 1973 only about 50 ham 
clubs had license study classes, now 
almost 3000 clubs are offering these, 
and the result is a ham increase during 
1976 of 22,497 (according to the 
Callbook) . , . that's about an 8% 
increase , . , showing that while we 
haven't grabbed the brass ring, we 
definitely are back on the merry-go- 
round > . * to coin a phrase. 

Prior to ARRL's "incentive 
licensing" fiasco, the ham growth had 
been about 11% per year for quite a 
few years. We certainly should get 
back on that schedule, at the least. 1 
think we can do it . , ■ heck, I know 
we can do it. We had to live with zero 
growth for over ten hard years, so 
we're pretty rugged. 

I see the key to growth lying in the 
expanding interest in CB. With 
millions of people becoming familiar 
with two-way radio, I think we can 
spark a hamming interest in this 
tinder. 

To spark this interest, we need to 
tell the world about the fun of ham 
ming. Oddly enough, hardly anything 
has been written by amateurs telling 
about the various hobbies that go to 
make up what we call amateur radio. 
I'd like to see papers submitted to 73 
Magazine on every facet of hamming. 
These could be published in 73 , . , 
put into booklets to go to CB clubs 
. . . booklets in radio stores . . . etc 

A paper should explain about one 
particular phase of amateur radio in 
terms a beginner can understand ... it 
should be well illustrated with photo- 
graphs and any drawings or maps 
which will help explain. The deadline 



for papers for this competition is May 
15. 1977. Winning papers will be 
published and the authors will receive 
a certificate of merit for their conti> 
button to the growth of amateur radio 
* . . plus a check for S2B0. 

Papers which gel honorable men- 
tion may also be published and will be 
paid for at regular rates . . , the fact is 
that any well done paper will prob- 
ably be used in this drive to convince 
CBers land everyone else) that they 
should get their ham tickets. 

Major facets of hamming: 

DXIng 

Contests 

Certificate Hunting 

55TV 

RTTY 

ATV 

FM/Repeaters 

Public Service 

MARS 

Nets 

Traffic Handling 

Oscar /Amsat 

Club Work 

Home Building 

Antenna Experimentation 

Novice Classes 

Microcomputers 

QRP 

Mobile 

Mo on bounce 

160m DXing 

DXpedtttons 

High Speed CW 

VHFSSB 

Here is a way to have a tot of fun 
. . . to give a big boost to your own 
special interest ... to help amateur 
radio in genera I . , . and to get some 
recognition. There's nothing like being 
published in the magazine to make 
you an ''expert** 

Since the main purpose of these 
papers is to attract newcomers to 
amateur radio, be sure to start out 
with something dramatic if you can, 
Emphasize the fun . *. be honest 
about the cost, but try not to scam 
off the beginner. Try to have the best 
pictures you can . . . black and white. 
You might plan for one color picture 
later if the paper is a winner . . . 
something that might be used on the 
magazine cover. This takes a very 
good camera and experience. 

You might think of this as a way to 
help pay back amateur radio for the 
enjoyment it has given you. 

WRITING FOR 73 

What does an author expect from a 
publisher * . . in addition to being paid 
well and promptly? Well, there is a bit 
of vanity in all of us and we want to 
know that our ideas will get the best 
possible distribution. We want to 
reach those who will be receptive to 
our ideas. 

Since 73 has done most of the 
pioneering in the ham field, most of 
the top name authors have tended to 
write for 73 . , . it is the best way for 
them to reach the people who count 
There is no discounting the impact of 
73 . . . for instance, it was 73 which 
brought FM and repeaters to general 
use . . . and it was the 73 push to get 
clubs to start hamming classes and get 

Continued on page 34 



22 




NEW STAR 

IS BORN ! 

THE RPT 5© 



SIX METER 
NBEM 

REPEATER 



WHY A SIX METER REPEATER? 

1. Consistent coverage of over 100 miles is not 
unusual with use of modern equipment, 

2. The variety of propagation affords an oppor- 
tunity of working lots of DX-Stations from 
400-2,000 miles away on multi-hop sporadic 
E, Auroral propagation of up to 1,000 miles, 
F 2 Skip during the upcoming peak sunspot 
cycle of over 2,000 miles. Plus transequatorial 
propagation is good up to several thousand 
miles. 

THE NEW RPT 50 IS A COMPLETELY SELF- 
CONTAINED ALL SOLID STATE REPEATER, 
It is conservatively rated, and built of high quality 
components. Much care and attention to make this 
repeater versatile as well as reliable. 




To best take advantage of the DX as well as the 
extended range capabilities we recommend our 
optional tone squelch board TS1 and TTD1 touch 
tone decoder. 

The Model RPT 50 is supplied as complete repeater 
system, The receiver, transmitter, control circuitry, 
C. W. Identifier & 115/230 Volt AC power supply 
are all contained on a standard relay-rack panel and 
chassis unit. For most installations a user supplies 
AC power and suitable antennas with 50 OHM coax- 
ial feed (PL 259 fittings). External connections for 
autopatch, tone control, etc. are provided. Built-in 
identifier programmed with up to 159 bits. Auto- 
matic emergency battery power changeover capa- 

bilit V- RPT 50 Kit $465.95 

RPT 50 Wired & tested $695.95 



AVAILABLE AT THESE DEALERS: 



CALIFORNIA 
C Si A Electronic Enterprise!, CarSon. CA 
Electronic: £fittr^r»»l, Rio Linda. CA 
SON Electric. Fr&flno, CA 
Tale-Cam Electronics, San Jose. CA 
W«tCOm P San Marco*. CA 
JacKLi Corporation, Valley. CA 

COLORADO 
Lilian ing Post Si E Lee from agnatic s, DurangO, 
Communication 5p«Giakt(ei, Auro'd. CO 

FLORIDA 

Amateur Who legal? Elec't. , Miami. F L 
West knaie-s Sales Cd-, Ltd., Mtftnii FL 



CO 



ILLINOIS 
r'laui Radio, Inc. 
Spe-crron ics r fnc, 



Peoria, I L 
Oak Park, IL 



INDIANA 
Communication System*, BourOon P In 



KENTUCKY 
CchoOn Amateur Supply, Tr*nton, KT 

LOUISIANA 
Frank. L. Beiar Radio,. Inc., New Orleans, LA 

MASSACH USETTS 
Tults Radio E lee t* On i ts, Mftdford, MA 

MICHIGAN 
Harry G, Crofts. Nortrcville. Ml 
Adami Distributing Co.. Detroit. Ml 
Radio Supply fir Engine-Bring, DetrcHt, Ml 

MISSISSIPPI 
Communications Service*, Philadelphia, MS 

MISSOURI 
Alpha Electronic Labij Columbia, MO 

NEVADA 
Veggi Radio, Las Vegas, NV 



NY 



NEW YORK 
Barry Electronics, New vprle,. MV 
CFP Enterprises, HOrSeheadl, NY 

Delmar Electronics, W Babylon, L.l 

Loffler Electronics, Ogdensburg, NY 
VHF Com muni canons, Jamestown, NY 

NORTH CAROLINA 
VickerS Electronics, Dorharn, NC 

OKLAHOMA 
Derrick Electronic*. In-c-, Broken Acrouv., OK 
Radio Store. Inc., Oklahoma City, OK 

SOUTH DAKOTA 
Burcjhardt Amateur Center. Watertown. SD 

TEXAS 
T*cO Electronics, Garland, TX 

VIRGINIA 
Radnd Communications Co., Roanoke-, VA 



(Export price is slightly higher J 



WASHINGTON 
A-B-C Communications, Seattle, WA 

WEST VIRGINIA 
Communication System* Co,, Ripley. WV 

WISCONSIN 
Amateur Electronic Supply. Milwaukee. Wl 
Communications Elfin's.,. Fond du Lac r Wi 

WYOMING 
Rul« Comrrxunications. Laramie. WY 

CANADA 
Ayre's Ltd.. St- Johns. NEfld- A1 B 1W3 

Traeger Distributors Ltd., Canada V7J1K4 

PUERTO fllCO 
Edison Electronics, Inc., Santurce, PR 

EXPORT 
COSYSCO. IPC., Soduf, NV 



In other areas contact VHF Engineering direct. Allow 6 to S weeks for delivery, 



."■-■'■-■■■- ■ «■ ■ ■ "■■■■■ VY ,-• \ "| ", 




if engineering 




BankAmemcard 






DtVtSfQN OF BRQ-WNfAN ELECTRONICS CORP, 
320 WATER STREET ■ BINGHAMTON, N.Y. 13901 • 



607-723-9574 



New Products 



HY-GAIN 3750 SSB/CW 
TRANSCEIVER 

Every so often a truly unique radio 
appears on the scene, and after a few 
years it disappears almost as quickly 
as it arrived- The cutting edge is 
usually price. Signal Ones and HRO 
500 receivers could only be afforded 
by a minority of amateurs, despite 
claims that hams are a wealthy, exclu- 
sive lot who can afford $2000 pieces 
of equipment. Figures I've seen 
recently project that hams will spend 
an average of $400 in the next 12 
months on additional gear, and that 
doesn't seem to allow for many 2 
kilobuck transceivers. The market 
then for radios like the Hy-Gain 3750 
may be small, but it undoubtedly 
exists* 

Hy-Gain has had its problems [73 
Briefs, February, 1977), but reorgani- 
zation has divided the company's CB 
and ham divisions, and autonomy is 
bound to bolster the amateur side, A 
new 2m HT is now available (watch 
for a 73 Mew Product Review), and 
Hy-Gain's long-established line of 
antennas continues to sell well The 
3750 transceiver is the centerpiece in 
Hy-Gain's amateur plans for the 
future, and it represents state-of-the- 
art design 

Marketed by Hy-Gain here in the 
US, the 3750 is manufactured in 
Japan by National (no connection to 
the American company). Not many 
3750s had reached the US at deadline, 
but by the time this issue gets to you, 



availability will be up. Most people we 
worked with the 3750 had never 
heard one before, and the radio 
caused quite a commotion as soon as 
stations realized what they were 
listening to. Several pileups were 
caused by the curious, but we 
couldn't find anybody who criticized 
the signal or the audio characteristics. 
The Hy-Gain has a distinctive sound, 
and many fellows were stumped try- 
ing to figure out what it was. Inevi- 
tably their reaction was, "Wow, that's 
that $2000 transceiver?" Yes, it is. 

Okay, you're saying to yourself. 
"Why so expensive? What makes the 
Hy Gain worth $2000?" Well, how 
about a phase locked loop circuit that 
locks the first local oscillator and 
VFO. resulting in direct injection into 
the 9 MHz first if, a total lack of 
Spurs and images, dual-gate MOS- 
FETs throughout the rf amplifier and 
mixer stages, a 20 dB pad ... all in 
front of a narrow band SSB crystal 
filter? The CW filter is very sharp, but 
signals remain strong. A 50 kHz 
T-notch filter and 9 MHz crystal filter 
are designed to put the 3750 in a class 
of its own in notching unwanted 
signals, Then there's a gated noise 
blanker that functions tike a squelch 
circuit in cutting pulse noise without 
reducing the receiver's ability to 
handle cross modulation. You really 
have to hear the 3750's receiver to 
believe it! After a few hours of using 
the Hy-Gain, it began to really show 
its stuff, sort of like learning to play 



an instrument It's the best I've ever 
heard. 

Our proving ground was 40m SSB f 
where broadcast interference and 
weak signals combine to produce 
enough noise to drive away all but the 
most dedicated DXers. It is uncanny 
how the 3750 sweeps the noise aside, 
through the use of notch filter, 20 dB 
pad, and noise blanker. As one 73 
editor put it H "Using that rig on 40m 
was like talking on the telephone/ 1 
He's right. Especially good is Hy- 
Gain's audio quality on receive, even 
on the built-in speaker. The speaker is 
mounted on the bottom chassis, but it 
never protested the wide variations in 
audio produced by tweaking the 
notch and noise blanker. 

Dialing up a frequency is a simple 
matter of selecting a band, mode h and 
tuning the VFO until the digital read- 
out displays the desired spot. If you 
go out of band, a series of LEDs flash 
on across the readout. The VFO's 
tracking is quick, so quick that you 
have to tune slowly . . . otherwise the 
counter will sip right by, RIT is 
included, of course, and when used in 
conjunction with the notch and 
blanker, it makes for easy copy in 
round tables and nets. The RIT actual- 
ly registers on the LED readout, a 
feature unique to the 3750. Hy Gain 
uses a bit different slant on memory 
readout than other transceivers 
employing digital readout. In the 
3750, the memory LEDs are separate 
and allow off -channel tuning without 
the loss of the main tuning LEDs . . . 
other systems have only one set of 
LEDs that are switched between di- 
rect readout and memory readout. 

The Hy-Gain 3750 is no mini trans- 
ceiver. It weighs in at 44 pounds, and 



measures 16" wide by 7" high by 13" 
deep. Construction is solid, with a 
well laid out front panel. Band switch- 
ing, final tuning, and RIT controls are 
to the right of the VFO. Receive 
controls are on the left with dual 
concentric pots for af-rf gain and mike 
level audio compression. A row of 
toggle switches takes care of power 
(receiver only), heater (final and 
driver tubes), remote VFO selection, 
AGC range, compressor, and rf attenu- 
ation, A row of push-buttons covers 
modes and the tune position. Front 
panel jacks are provided for mike, 
headphones, key, and recorder out- 
put, with two rows of miniature pots 
for easy VOX adjustment, CW side- 
tone level, frequency counter calibra- 
tion, and output meter sensitivity. 
The front panel is rounded out by a 
targe well-calibrated multimeter which 
covers everything from plate current 
to compression SeveL 

Sand coverage goes a bit beyond 
complete. The Hy-Gain is set up for 
160 through 10 meters, but more than 
enough extra coverage is included for 
MARS activity without the need for a 
remote VFO. A remote unit is avail- 
able (model 3855) which allows selec- 
tion of 7 crystal controlled channels. 
Interfacing between the transceiver 
and remote VFO is good, with the 
operator able to switch transceive 
functions between both VFOs, or 
separate receive and transmit. 

Hy-Gain uses S-2QQ2s (a pair} for 
finals, and a 6GK6 \n the driver. 
Otherwise it F s solid state all the way, 
with {counting the receiver as well} 98 
transistors, 43 ICs, and 120 diodes. 
Construction is modular, with 21 
boards (or modules! interconnected 
through computer type connectors, 



B02 AF [ \\ 



B03 SSB GEN & IF 



RCht DUlVE 



MIC 




BUFFER 
-4 4MP 
2SC62£ 'a.JMH; 

| 

~ 4 7MHz 



TAPE OUT 



TX SIGNAL LINE 

RX SSGNAL LINE 



Block diagram of Hy-Gain's 3750. 



24 



The Drake MIM-2 

Antenna Matching Network 




H^Uj%M 




(or— how not to hang upside down behind your 
operating desk in order to disconnect your tuner from the line.) 



!■■.*■*:■ ••■ 
■'■■'■■ 



FRONT PANEL SELECTION of key 
operating functions. No need to manu- 
ally connect and disconnect the unit 
from the line for bypass applications. 

FRONT PANEL SELECTION of up to 
three different antennas, or two antennas 
and a dummy load. The two may be 
selected in the matched or bypassed 
mode in each circuit with the fJip of a 
switch, 

FRONT PANEL SELECTION of forward 
or reflected rf power with a built-in 
precision wattmeter — not just a 
relative indicator. 




To receive a FREE 
Drake Full Line Catalog, 
please send name 
and date of this 
publication to; 



R. L. DRAKE COMPANY 



This coax to coax 2kW tuner will tame VSWR 
up to 5:1 at any phase angle. If your 75 meter 
antenna is flat on ssb, but has high VSWR 
on cw, this could be just the answer. 

Excellent for beams that exhibit a high 
VSWR on the opposite end of the band from 
where you set the elements. 

The MN-2000 provides an additional 25 to 35 
dB second harmonic attenuation which can 
help reduce TVI. 

Covers 80-10 meter ham bands. Considering 
the built-in coax antenna switch, by-pass 
switch and rf wattmeter/ VSWR bridge, the 
MN-2000 is a real value at $220,00. 





The Drake MN-4 

does basically the same thing 
as the MN-2000 but is 
rated at 300 watts. 




DRAKE 



® 



540 Richard St. r Miamisburg, Ohio 45342 
Phone: (513) 866 2421 • Telex : 288-017 



Western Service Center, 2020 Western Street, Las Vegas, Nevada 89102 ■ 702/382-9470 




The Hy-Gain 3750 transceiver. 



making for easy access to the boards. 
Hy Gain provides an in depth instruc- 
tion manual of over 50 pages, covering 
everything from operating the radio to 
circuit theory. The manual is illus- 
trated with many close-up photo- 
graphs of the modules and scores of 
block diagrams and schematics. 

The transmitter's main selling point 
is the audio system. ALC and audio 
compression are combined to keep 
average output up f and it works . , - 
using a monitorscope we were unable 
to make the 3750 flat top or distort. 
On- air reports showed a preference for 
the compressor, a point that under- 
scores the effectiveness of the Hy- 
Gain's audio system. Use of a pan- 
adapter by stations SO and 1500 miles 
away showed no evidence of splatter; 
even with mike gain and compression 
levets turned all the way up. Output 
was measured at 190 Watts on all 
bands except !0m r where the Bird 
meter indicated about 110 Watts out. 

The basic Hy-Gain 3750 (com- 
pletely self-contained with power 
supply and speaker) retails at $1395. 
By the time you add a remote VFO 
and remote speaker; you're well over 
$2000 {$2460 to be exact). The 
Hy-Gain, make no mistake, is an 
impressive radio, A solid month of 
operation by three 73 editors pro- 
duced no problems, and lots of great 
QSOs. The 3750 is built like a battle- 
ship, and refused to bother even the 
most ancient and TVI prone TV we 



could find. After removing the top 
and bottom covers (a job that takes 
patience and time due to the t rem en 
dous number of screws), still more 
shielding had to be removed. The 
design reminded us of broadcast 
equipment. And we were left with the 
strong belief that the 3750. like most 
high quality broadcast gear, would last 
forever. Hy-Gain Electronics Corpora- 
tion, 860 f Northeast Highway Six, 
Lincoln NE 68505. Test unit supplied 
by C & S Marketing Associates, At- 
good TN3850t. 

Warren Etly WA1 GUD 
Associate Editor 

OPERATING IMPRESSIONS OF 
THE HY-GAIN 3750 

1 was especially impressed with the 
receiver in a crowded 40 meter band 
one Saturday night, I was able to take 
a signal, which was down in the mud, 
and enhance it until it was of the 
quality only produced by locals. 

Signal reports from throughout the 
country while using only a dipole 
antenna confirmed the fantastic out- 
put from the rig. Many comments 
were made concerning the fine audio, 
and I was told by many that I had one 
of the strongest signals on the band. 

The built-in speech compressor 
seems to be of excellent design. After 
many on-the-air tests with distant 
stations, it appears that the compres- 
sor does its job to get the signal 
through without any noticeable 




decline in audio quality- 
Tuning the rig is one of the easiest 
procedures I have seen; it is virtually 
foolproof. 

Rich Force WB1 AS L 
Associate Editor 

For every hobby there is an "ulti- 
mate" unit. For the sports car enthu- 
siast it's the Ferrari. For the amateur 
photographer, it's the Hasselblad* For 
the amateur radio operator, it's the 
Hy-Gain 3750 transceiver. 

The 3750, besides being the most 
expensive amateur transceiver on the 
market, is afso the besL It's state of 
the art, utilizing phase locked loop 
circuitry with dual gate MOSFETs in 
the rf amplifier and mixer stages* 

The real beauty of the rig is the 
digital readout- In the 3750, you have 
not one but two. By flipping the little 
switch called "Memory/* there dis- 
played in front of you is the last 
frequency that you were on. No need 
to write it dawn. If you want to 
return to it, there it is. The second set 
of readouts also function with the 
external VFO, telling you where it's 
set. Talk about the arrival of digital 
electronics and convenience to ham 
radio - this is it. 

Stan Miastkowski WA1UMV 
Associate Editor 

73 TESTS THE TUNERS 

At the risk of provoking more 
controversy over swr and antenna 
tuners, 73 proposes to test every 
antenna tuner we can get our hands 
on. We're not going to do them all at 
once, because more often than not 
those kind of articles end up a mean- 
ingless buyers guide to manufac- 
turers' specifications, instead, we're 
running them one or two a month 
after operating the units over a period 
of time fong enough to judge actual 
performance. Frankly, we're beating 
the heck out of them, trying to 
decide, among other things, whether 
those specifications we mentioned 
earlier are in fact realistic. 

And about all that controversy on 
antenna tuners — matching networks 



will not turn your 200 Watt trans- 
ceiver and 35' high dipole combina- 
tion into one of the "big guns, "1 That 
takes a good antenna. But if you lack 
the 10 acres* you'd tike for an at)tenna 
farm, and can't handle a behemoth 
antenna for each band, read on . . . 
one or two good antennas and a tuner 
could soive your problem. 

Take trap beams, verticals, and 
dipoles Most are dosest to ''match** 
over a narrow portion of each band 
(often you have to choose phone or 
CW). Or fan dipoles, where the same 
elements an? used on two or more 
bands, like 40 and t5 meters. In both 
cases there is a need for a tuner. 
Limited space is another reason. I'm 
hving in an apartment. In a low signal 
TV area, with a 100* by 50' tot The 
location's only claim to fame is three 
good size trees at the front and rear, 
with only enough room for two or, at 
most, three antennas fa tower could 
develop this spring, but only one 
rower, so I'll probably be forced to go 
the multi-band route there, toot. 
Because of all this, an antenna tuner 
has become essential. 

One more argument — the real 
impact of tuners is greater efficiency. 
Nearly everyone, on both sides of the 
swr controversy, can agree that trans- 
mitters run more efficiently when 
property matched to a toad. So far so 
good? tt follows then that an antenna 
tuner can increase power output and 
prolong the life of your finals. 

The debate continues over tube 
versus solid state transmitters, and 
even amplifiers are being caught up in 
it, as broadband output circuits catch 
on. Output really suffers when faced 
with mismatches that tube equipment 
finds relatively tolerable, so it may 
not be long before antenna tuners are 
as standard in ham shacks as swr 
bridges. 2 



1 Raver, FC, "Exploding the SWR Myth.' 
73, Dec-, 1376. p. 122; Woods, Hubert, 
"Exploding the Powet Myth/' 73 1 Dsc. 

1976. p. 120. 

2 73 Magazine Staff, "The Super Trans- 
match/ 1 73, July, 1976, p. 1 50, 




The Drake MN-2000 2 kW matching network. Note antenna switching left, 
power meter swr controls right 



The MN-2Q00 with two layers of shielding removed. Silver-plated coils and 
swr power meter PC board are clearly visible. 



26 



THE DRAKE MN-2000 

Now that we've convinced you you 
need an antenna tuner, consider the 
Drake MN-2000* This is 3 high power 
matching network, capable of 
handling well in excess of the legal 
limit The silver-plated switch contacts 
and tank coil are the first clue, along 
with the spacing of the MN-2000's 
nearly foot long tuning capacitors. 

Drake's tuners (both the 2000 and 
200 Watt models} are double shielded, 
with the typical Drake copper-colored 
chassis and black cabinet. SO -239 
coax connectors are used throughout, 
with a ground post the only other rear 
panel connection. 

The MM -2000 has been around for 
years, and the original design has held 
up well. Coverage is 80 through 10 
meters with an insertion loss of less 
than half a db\ The Drake took 
everything an SB-200, Henry 2K, and 
Alpha 374 could offer . . , willingly. 
Even faced with extremely bad mis- 
matches, the MM -2000 tuned easily 
and without the confusing series of 
dips usually associated with trans- 
matches, 

The Drake is really several station 
accessories in one — aside from being 
an antenna tuner, the MM -2000 serves 
as a wattmeter (comparing most 
favorably accuracy-wise with a Bird 
unit), swr bridge, and antenna switch, 
A large well-calibrated multimeter 
dominates the front panel, with watt- 
meter and swr controls right, and 
antenna switching for three antennas 
left. 

A unique feature on the Drake Is its 
ability to completely take the tuner 
out of the fine, while maintaining 
wattmeter and swr functions. Two 
antennas can be switched in this way, 
with the third antenna switching posi- 
tion wired straight through (excellent 
for a dummy load), 

The MN-2000 is a component of 
the Drake system and, like the rest of 
the Drake line, Its layout is classic 
(Those of you who didn't go through 
junior high dreaming about girls and 



Drake lines really don't know what 
you missed') 

The matching network is larger 
than the companion R4C and T4XC 
transmitter and receiver series, but not 
big enough to present a problem in 
most shacks. The controls are weil laid 
out with a solid feel (the band switch 
leaves no doubt when it's engaged), 
and the tuning controls are large and 
operate smoothly* 

Although designed for coax cable, 
the MM -2000 can handle open wire 
feeders with the use of a balun, and it 
worked fine with random wire anten- 
nas as well. The network is fairly 
broadbanded once tuned, allowing 
you to go as much as 1O0 kHz 
without touch-up* Tune-up can be a 
really quick procedure — if you take 
the time to tune each band and 
antenna, and draw up a chart plotting 
proper adjustment of the resistive and 
reactive tuning controls, The 
MN-2000's swr bridge uses a minimum 
of switching, with a spring-loaded 
sensitivity control doubling as a 
switch for forward calibration. The 
wattmeter is broken down into two 
ranges (200 and 2000 Watts) on the 
3" by 2 %" meter scale. 

Some other features of the 
MN-2000 include its ability to put 
2nd harmonics down 25 to 35 dB 
(thus helping to reduce TVl prob- 
lems}. I checked Drake's claim on 
harmonic attenuation by tuning for 
the 2nd harmonic on my station 
receiver (a Drake R4B), and sure 
enough, the S- meter indicated Drake's 
specs were accurate. Another nice 
feature is the fact that using the 
MM-200Q, there is no need to retune 
the exciter when driving a linear 
amplifier, since the tuner shows a pure 
60 Ohm load. 

The best thing about the MN-2000 
is probably its price. At a suggested 
retail of $220, Drake is well within 
competitive limits with other full 
legal power antenna tuners, in an 
attractive easy to operate package, fr 





L. Drake Company, 540 Richard St, 
Miamtsburg OH 45342. 

Warren Elly WA1GUD 
Associate Editor 

DENTRON 80-10 
ANTENNA TUNER 

Back\|n_ what are affectionately 
known as the "good old days/' being 
an amateur was much simpler than it 
is today. That's especially true when it 
comes to putting up antennas. Large 
lots, pastures, and the wide open 
spaces were the rule. Jf you wanted a 
70 foot tower — no problem. A 160 
meter dipole? Just string it up. 

For most of us, the situation has 
changed drastically. Apartments, 
condominiums, and small suburban 
lots have made things quite a bit more 
difficult. Our mobile population and 
increasing numbers of people have 
created space problems. Besides, why 
go to all the trouble of putting up a 
permanent installation if you're going 
to be moving in a few months or a 
year? 

Fear not! There is an answer to the 
antenna problem. It's called the 
random wire, Having been around at 
the time of Marconi, it certainly can't 
be called a new concept But with the 
space and time limitations of our 
society, it's a very logical solution to 
getting on the air. 

So you've strung a wire out the 
window to the neighbor's apple tree. 
Now what? You need a tuner. A 
random wire tuner. The new Dentron 
80-10 Sky matcher will fill the bill 
perfectly. Thss compact unit handles 
500 Watts PEP r more than enough for 
any barefoot transceiver on the 
market. (If you're planning on run- 
ning a full gallon, best bet is an 
orthodox antenna , , * any type.) 

Although the home QTH in the 
hills of western Massachusetts has 
more than ample room for a large 
antenna farm, I tried out the random 
wire concept by spooling off some- 
where around fifty feet of antenna 
wire and attaching it to a nearby barn. 
The Sky matcher has no swr meter, 
but my TenTec Triton IV does, so I 
was able to get a quick indication of 
the match. What started out as a 
horrendous mismatch was soon 
brought down to 1.1:1 by the use of 
the antenna matching and inductance 
controls on the unit The same was 




true on other bands. No problem at 

ail* *-^~ 

For $59.50, the Dentron 80-10 is a 
solidly built little unit- After exposing 
the guts, heavy duty construction was 
evident throughout The inductance 
control Is a ceramic 12 position rotary 
switch. An 50-239 is provided for the 
feed from the transmitter, and the 
wire itself is attached to a ceramic 
feedtbrough. A huge bolt is provided 
for attachment of the ground wire, a 
very important part of any random 
wire system. 

Besides apartment or home use, the 
80-10 is great for operating portable. 
String a wire between a couple of 
trees and you're ready to go- The 
continuous tuning from 3.2 to 30 
MHz makes it easy. And don't forget 
that it can also match a standard 
antenna system. Dentron Radio 
Company, incorporated, 21 00 Enter- 
prise Parkway, Twinsburg OH 44087. 
Stan Miastkowski WA1UMV 
Associate Editor 

THE KENWOOD TrV74QQA 
2m TRANSCEIVER 

The recent growth of amateur radio 
has not gone unnoticed In the sales 
departments of major manufacturers. 
Conventions are being broken as com- 
panies devoted to VHF equipment 
move into the HF market and vice 
versa. The relative price of equipment 
is being forced down where the com- 
petition is especially tough, and the 
prime battleground is 2m FM» 

Surveys have shown that more than 
half the licensed amateurs here in the 
US are on 2m FWL Repeater fre- 
quencies are as valuable as gold in the 
big cities, and the situation is getting 
worse even in rural areas. More than 
3000 repeaters are listed in the new 
1977 73 Repeater Atias (available 
now from Radio Bookstore, Peterbor- 
ough NH 03458), and with recent 
FCC proposals to deregulate repeaters 
under consideration, the situation is 
bound to burst wide open. 

Whatever the results, it's logical to 
predict that the new generation in 
repeater operation will grow out of 2 
meters, with increased emphasis on 
crossbanding. Amateurs will probably 
be left with the decisions on what 
goes where, and it seems likely 

Continued on page 84 






Guts view of Dentron 80-tOA T, Note 3000 V capacitor spacing. 



Dentron 80-70 AT random wire tuner. SUe is compact: 7" wide, 5 fr high t and 
8" deep. 



27 



James E, SetdeJ WA6FEI 
1066 N, WwtaJdf St. 
PortervilJe CA 932S7 



Pitcairn Island 



- - an inside look at VR6TC 



Tom Christian VR6TC, 
_ Pitcairn Island, is one of 
the most sought after con- 
tacts in amateur radio, Tom is 
also a very celebrated person 
in his own right: He is a 
direct descendant of Fletcher 
Christian of HMS Bounty 
fame, 

Mutiny aboard His Maj- 
esty's transport ship Bounty 
occurred just before dawn on 
the morning of April 28, 
1789. Some eight and one 
half months later, on the 
15th day of January, 1790, 
Fletcher Christian, who was 
the leader of that mutiny, 
eight of his fellow mutineers, 
six Tahitian men, twelve 
Tahiti an women, and one 
infant child went ashore on 
Pitcairn, one of the world's 
most remote islands* 

It was there on tiny 
Pitcairn Island that those 
twenty-eight people beg^n a 
new life and a new breed of 
society to be known around 
the world as the Pitcaimers, 
descendants of mutiny, 

Thomas Coleman Chris- 
tian, born on Pitcairn Novem- 
ber 1, 1935, is the great- 
great-great grandson of the 
mu^t famous mutineer in the 
world. And from what was a 
British naval disaster came 



All photos courtesy VB6TC and W6HS 

the greatest sea adventure 
story in Western history. 
Many books have been writ- 
ten about this historical event 
and two movies, "Mutiny on 
the Bounty" were made. The 
latest movie had Fletcher 
Christian being portrayed by 
that famous actor, Marlon 
Brando. 

When VR6TC comes on 
the air, it is no surprise that 
Tom wilt be a man in de- 
mand: The ham at this end 
not only gets to tog a new 
country, but will have a 
momentary trip via amateur 
radio to a very historical 
place. 

Tom's voice, Polynesian 
and British in accent, will be 
recognized almost the first 
time it is heard. It has a 
certain distinctive flavor all 
its own, 

If you want something bad 
enough, and determination is 
a prevailing factor, you will 
succeed in your endeavor. In 
my case, it was a contact with 
Tom Christian VR6TC, 
Pitcairn Island, 

The QRM, if you have 
never been in one of Tom's 
pileups, is absolutely un- 
believable. I know, because 
from the first time 1 heard 
Tom until VR6TC was 



logged, almost a full year had 
elapsed. Since that day of 
success, I have talked to Tom 
on many different occasions. 
We have had a few schedules 
and during our many convex 
sations I've learned a great 
deal about Pitcairn and 
VR6TC. I spent many more 
hours just reading the mail 
while Tom was talking to 
other friends he has schedules 
with* He is a very interesting 
person, even if you're only 
listening. 

Pitcairn is a small rugged 
island of fbi midable cliffs of 
reddish-brown and black vol- 
canic rock. It looms up from 
the sea in the middle of 
nowhere to a maximum 
height of 1100 feet The 
island is only two miles long, 
and about one mile wide* It's 
about midway between the 
Canal Zone and New Zealand 
and some 3300 miles east- 
northeast of her nearest 
shipping point, Auckland, 
New Zealand. 

To the south of Pitcairn 
there is nothing but open sea 
until you reach the icecaps of 
Antarctica. Her South Pacific 
location is latitude 25 04 
south and longitude 130 06 
west. 

As you approach Pitcairn 
from the northern side, there 



will be a small indentation in 
the sheer inhospitable cliffs 
that surround the island. This 
will be the famous Bounty 
Bay, the only landing point 
for the island. 

Bounty Bay is so named 
for it is only one hundred 
yards east of the landing slip 
where the ship Bounty was 
stripped of all usable cargo 
and material, and under 
orders from Fletcher Chris- 
tian himself, set afire and 
sunk on January 23, 1790, 
only eight days after the 
mutineers landed. 

Adamstown, the smallest 
British colony, and the origi- 
nal home of the mutineers, is 
situated on one of the few 
relatively flat areas of land on 
the whole island. It is here, 
some four hundred feet above 
sea level and about three 
hundred feet west of the bay, 
where all sixty 4 wo inhabit- 
ants live, most of whom are 
also descendants of one of 
the nine mutineers who 
landed in 1790. 

Shady Nook, a little area 
on the outer rim of the vil- 
lage, is where Tom, his wife 
Betty (also born on Piicdim), 
and their three little girls call 
home. This is also the very 
same piece of real estate 
where Fletcher Christian and 
Mi'Mitti (Fletcher's Polyne- 
sian mate) made their first 
home some 1 87 years ago. 

At one end of the Chris- 
tian home in a small room is 
where the radio equipment is 
located for VR6TC. Most of 
the gear is from America, 
some of which was donated 
by the manufacturers several 
years ago, 

Just outside of Tom's 
home is a 7 kW, 230 volt, 
single phase, 50 cycle diesel 
generator. This is Tom's and 
is used to supply electricity 
not only for the ham gear, 
but also the numerous appli- 
ances in the home when the 
community generator isn't in 
use. 

The island had a 70 kVA, 
230 volt, three phase, 50 
cycle diesel generator, but 
something of an unknown 
nature happened and in June 
of *76, it went up in smoke 



28 



and thirty foot flames, A 
total loss. It has since been 
replaced with a smaller unit. 

The community generator 
is only operated from sun- 
down to 11 pm, and this 
leaves a big gap where no 
electricity is available. This is 
why Tom has his own genera- 
tor and so helps keep VR6TC 
supplied with electricity. 

I asked Tom one time 
what it costs for diesel fuel to 
run tfie generator. His answer 
sure made me appreciate fuel 
prices in the United Slates. 

"We purchase diesel fuel in 
forty-four imperial gallon 
drums at a cost of $100 per 
barrel, plus S30 per barrel for 
shipping and $17 per barrel as 
a deposit. Fuel is expensive to 
obtain." 

At $2.67 for each gallon 
of diesel {IL5, measurement), 
I wholeheartedly agree that 
electricity gets very expensive 
to produce on an island as 
remote as Pitcairn. 

Tom's generator has been 
unreliable for quite some 
time and has had many prob- 
lems. It isn't a complete unit 
but it is made up of parts 
from here and there. Belt- 
driven from a separate motor, 
the performance could stand 
much improvement* 

Dr. Charles "Men" Moscr 
W6HS, a very close friend of 
Tom's, felt that the generator 
couldn't be relied upon to 
ensure VR6TC stayed on the 
air. With so many amateur 
radio operators around the 
world and Tom being the 
only operator on the island, 
something should be done to 
guarantee electricity to keep 
amateur radio alive on Pit- 
caim. 

W6HS, through contribu- 
tions, collected $2,500 and 
purchased a new generator 
for Tom. It is on the island 
now and has been installed. 
Contributions were sent in 
from all over the U.5. and 
some foreign countries, most 
of which were other amateur 
radio operators, but not all. 
Would you believe that ama- 
teur radio transmissions are 
monitored by the FCC? Well 
they are, and an FCC moni- 
toring station sent a contribu- 




Tom Christian VR&TCat his amateur radio station on Pitcairn Island, South Pacific, From here, 
in the past twenty years, Tom has made contact with nearly every country in the world. He is 
very well-known and one of the most popular operators on the airways; he is also one of the 
most friendly. The equipment is Hailicrafters: to the lower right is the driver and to the left is a 
linear On top is the receiver. The two small units on top of the driver are a rotor indicator 
sitting on an electronic keyer. Tom very seldom uses the key en He says p '7 like my straight key 
a lot better. ' VR6TC has three schedules each week with other operators in the States. "Calling 
up a fellow ham in the United States is almost as easy, ' Tom says, "as dialing a telephone. ' 



tion for this generator fund. 
On behalf of VR6TC and all 
of amateur radio, we thank 
you, 

A wind generator was sent 
to Pitcairn in 1975 to help 
charge a storage battery 
power supply that Tom 
purchased from Australia. 
The batteries supply elec- 
tricity of 110 volts for elec- 
tric lights and a few appli- 
ances that will operate from a 
dc source. The battery supply 
can't be used for the ham 
gear because all the equip- 
ment is wired for ac use only. 

Tom told me one time 
that he has a 110 volt dc to 
230 volt ac converter, but it 
isn't a reliable unit. He said 
that he will use it only in case 
of an emergency. 

If something breaks down, 
and it does occasionally, you 
don't call a repairman. You 
fix it yourself. After all, the 
nearest repair service is over 



three thousand miles away, 
by sea. Tom has become very 
efficient, which is under- 
standable, in the repair of 
both mechanical and elec- 
trical problems. 

One morning VR6TC was 
almost thirty minutes late for 
a schedule, "My receiver was 
completely dead this morn- 
ing, 11 Tom said, "and it took 
a few minutes to locate and 
repair the problem," 

Many of the homes on 
Pitcairn are connected by a 
telephone system so someone 
can be contacted if the need 
arises. This system was in- 
stalled by the islanders as are 
all other equipment and 
services on the island. 

During a QSO one day, 
Tom received a phone call 
and was informed that the 
generator for the dispensary 
wouldn't start up. He left the 
air for less than an hour and 
then returned, Alt was OK; 



generator repaired. 

If you happen to be listen- 
ing to VR6TC and he sud- 
denly goes off the air, grab a 
cup of coffee and QRX; he 
will be right back. 

One time his sister 
Thelma, who lives next door, 
started up her washing ma- 
chine and the circuit breaker 
kicked out on the generator. 
Tom was back on the air in 
short time. I guess amateur 
radio, at least this time, had 
priority. 

Tom f s VR6TC station is 
Hailicrafters equipment — a 
receiver, driver, and linear. 
Maximum output is 1 kW. 
Although the station is capa- 
ble of more power, Tom said 
that he normally runs a maxi- 
mum of five hundred Watts, 

At one corner of Tom's 
home stands a forty foot 
wooden pole which has been 
cemented into the ground for 
support. Three feet above the 



29 




Pltcaim's radio station "ZBP" is situated at Taro Ground, 870 feet above sea level. Three of the 
seven steel 60 foot towers for the rhombic antenna system can be seen. The building in the 
foreground left houses the diesef generator which supplies electricity for the station. The 
building to the right is a storage shed. The one in the background is the station itseff. The white 
markers to the right are the posts of the wire enclosure where the meteorological instruments 
are kept The station is commercial and is operated six days each week by either Tom Christian 
or a staff member. 



pole is a three element trv 
band antenna, The system 
was put up about ten years 
ago, M The pole/' Tom said, 
" has deteriorated so badly 
from the weather that it is 

unsafe to climb/' 

The antenna rotor indica- 
tor quit working and Tom has 
to stick his head out the 
window to see whai direction 
the antenna is pointing* At 
night, he uses a flashlight. 

Tri-Ex Tower Corporation 
heard about Tom's problem 
with the wooden pole and 
how unsafe it was, and they 
have very generously donated 
a new THD-354K, fifty-four 
foot crank-up tower to him. 
It should be arriving on Pit- 
cairn any day. 

Arrangements have also 
been made to ship a new 
rotor unit and tri-band anten- 
na along with the tower unit 
This will certainly ensure that 
VR6TC wilt remain on the 
air, 



On March 23, 1955, Tom 
received his first amateur 
radio license in Wellington in 
the form of a New Zealand 
certificate, In 1957, exact 
date unknown by Tom, he 
received the VR6TC call for 
Pitcairn Island. Before Tom 
received even that first ama- 
teur radio license, he spent 
some time off the island. 

For three years, Tom went 
to school in New Zealand, 
where he studied meteorolo- 
gy and radio communications 
technology. These studies 
enabled Tom to fulfill the 
requirements for the job he 
had held for the last twenty 
years: Pitcairn's Radio Offi- 
cer. That schooling also 
earned Tom a 1st class radio 
telegraph operator's license 
for both coast and marine 
operation. 

That 1st class license 
landed Tom a job with the 
Union Steamship Company 
for about a year* He worked 



as a radio officer aboard a 
passenger ship. While he was 
telling me this, he said, 
"While aboard one time dur- 
ing a run, the ship ran 
aground with about 450 
passengers. Although no one 
was injured, it was quite an 
exciting moment" 

I never did ask Tom how 
that accident happened, but 
I'm sure it was just one of 
those things that fate played 
a part in. 

Upon return to Pitcairn, 
Tom was now qualified for 
setting up and maintaining 
the commercial radio station 
on the island. 

Taro Ground, the location 
of i( ZBP/ f Pitcairn's radio 
station, is a mile and a half 
from Adamstown by steep 
dirt road at an elevation of 
870 feet. The equipment is 
British with a power output 
of around five hundred Watts. 
The large antenna system is 
of rhombic design situated on 



seven sixty foot steel towers. 

Tom maintains all equipment, 
which he also installed. 

The radio station is under 
British authority with the 
administrative headquarters 
located in Auckland, New 
Zealand. Cablegrams, on an 
international basis, are 
received and transmitted on 
an average of one hundred 
per month. All traffic from 
"ZBP 1 ' is by CW mode. 

Weather reports are trans- 
mitted twice daily. Ships at 
sea are contacted by radio- 
telephone from the marine 
radio equipment, also at the 
station. Any distress signals at 
sea can also be received here 
at this location. 

4i ZBP" is in contact with 
headquarters in Auckland 
each day. If a ship is sched- 
uled to depart a certain 
country, which will later head 
for Pitcairn, Tom will be 
notified. In this way, the 
island people will know the 
approximate date of its ar- 
rival and can prepare to meet 
it. Sometimes, up to two 
months advance notice has 
been received. 

Meteorological readings 
are taken on a regular sched- 
ule each day from a special 
area just outside the station 
building. The following are 
the results: 

Annual rainfall is from 60 
to 70 inches. Maximum 
summer temperature is 
around 86 degrees, with an 
average of 75. Minimum 
winter temperature is around 
52, with an average of 64 
degrees Fahrenheit, 

That is typical South 
Pacific weather with ideal 
temperatures. The wind is 
generally mild, from 11 to 15 
mph. Hurricanes are ex- 
tremely rare, but have been 
experienced, I heard Tom 
recall a very windy day where 
a home had the roof blown 
completely off. 

The radio station is main- 
tained each day except Satur- 
day (which is the Sabbath) by 
either Tom or one of his 
personally trained staff 
members. Since all traffic 
from the station is by CW, I 
was curious as to the code 



30 





*f 



MAGAZINE 



Driving around trying to locate the latest issue of 73 wastes a lot of gas and helps throw our 
country on the mercy (or lack of it) of the Arab oil tycoons. Help keep the United States FREE . . . 
subscribe to 73- 



This will also (benefit #2) make sure that you don't miss an issue. On many newsstands, if you don't get 
there early, you miss out . , . and you are sure to miss the very best issues of 73 because they sell out faster 
than the others. 



%., 



This will also (benefit #3) help others to discover the magazine. If you go around wiping out the 
newsstand copies every month, you're making it so some other guy will find an empty bin. This could 
easily disappoint someone to where he might get depressed . . . and commit suicide. You don't want that 
on your conscience, do you? The safe thing is to subscribe, 



This will also (benefit #4) save you a bundle. 73 is outrageously overpriced on the newsstands at $2 
per copy . , , that's $72 for three years. Heck, we'll sell you a three year subscription for only $30 and 
you'll have $42 to spend for ham gear. One year normally runs $15 on subscription . . , special, today 
only, if you sign right up and don't ask any questions . _ $12. 



ELEC 






i4J0ppr 



* t 



"/ 



tfftlMt W 



□ Yes! I want to subscribe to 73, 

□ 1 year - $12* D 3 years - $30* 

Please find S enclosed. D Cash D Check □ Money Order 

Bill: □ BankAmericard □ Master Charge □ American Express 

Q Bill me direct. 

*US and Canada only — write for foreign rates 



Card # 



Interbank #, 



Expiration date 

Name , 



Signature 



•v* 



T£L £PH0MEl 



Address 
City 



State 



Zi 
ip 



TOLL FREE SUBSCRIPTION NUMBER (800)258-5473 

(allow 6-8 weeks for subscription processing ) 

-TJjnriagazirie • Peterborough NH 03458_ 



3/77 



speed requirement for the 
staff* Tom's reply was not 
only interesting, but informa- 
tive as well: 

"Most of the CW traffic by 
other operators is on an 
average of twenty words per 
minute* 1 require any person 
on the island who wishes to 
apply for a staff position to 
take a code test. The test will 
be for ten minutes at a speed 
of twenty-two words per 
minute. Only two mistakes 
are allowed during that ten 
minutes." 

Six months ago, six British 
engineers arrived on the is- 
land for a special project in 
Bounty Bay. Their job was to 
extend the jetty in the bay 
out at least another thirty- 
three feeL This was done in 
an effort to make the en- 
trance safer. The surf is 
treacherous and breaks relent- 
lessly against the cliffs. Rocks 
were blasted out of the bay 
and large steel pilings were 
driven down in place. Rocks 
were then piled around them. 

By the time you read this, 



ihe project will be done and 
Tom will have more time for 
amateur radio, His working 
on the bay project with the 
other men on the island has 
left very little time for ham 
contacts. 

I know that a large num- 
ber of operators have heard 
Tom, but never had a chance 
to make contact; some have 
never had the chance to even 
hear him. I asked Tom if a 
special day could be set up 
for publication and he agreed. 
VR6TC will be on the air for 
this special time as well as 
other times, 

VR6TC is on every Tues- 
day at 2230 to 0100 GMT at 
21350 MHz. The special date 
is Sunday, April 1 0, 1977, at 
1630 GMT at 14.300 MHz. 
It's possible that he may be 
on the following Sunday as 
well, but those mentioned are 
confirmed. Good luck. 

The road from the village 
to Taro Ground and the radio 
Station is long, steep, and a 
very tiring walk. Tom, in 
1966, purchased and intro- 
duced the very first motor- 



bike on Pitcairn. Now the trip 
is made with greater ease and 
speed on those twice daily 
schedules. Betty also has a 
motorbike. In fact, there are 
almost forty of them putting 
around on the island, as well 
as two Mini Moke cars. Why 
walk when you can ride, even 
on an island as small as Pit- 
cairn. 

Tom and Betty, a lew 
years ago, took off on the 
motorbikes to go fishing. It 
was a nice clear day, but 
before they could get back, a 
rainstorm began. The dirt 
roads turned to gooey red 
mud and an the way back an 
accident occurred. 

People on Pitcairn are no 
different than you or 1 and 
sometimes go barefoot. On 
this day, Tom was barefoot 
and the bike slipped in the 
mud and his toe got caught in 
the spinning chain. The rest 
you can visualize: Tom is 
now missing half of one big 
toe. 

Probably the most feared 
ailment anyone on the island 
could encounter is appendi- 




Tom Christian on duty operating Pitcairn r $ radio station "ZBP- " The equipment is British with 
a power output of about five hundred Watts. Tom operates, maintains, and installed the station. 
Two daily overseas schedules are kept with Auckland, New Zealand. Cablegrams on an 
international basis are received and transmitted on an average of one hundred per month* The 
marine radio, also at the station, is used to contact ships at sea, some of which stop at Pitcairn. 
All traffic from "ZBP" is by CW mode. Tom and Betty both have a code speed of twenty- five 
words per minute, 



citis. While Tom was in New 
Zealand, one of his two sis- 
ters had an attack of appendi- 
citis and a ship at sea was 
contacted by radio. Before 
the ship could get her to New 
Zealand, she died. "It was 
quite a shock when word 
reached me/' Tom told me 
about this not too long ago. 
What he didn't tell me was 
that he too had been stricken. 
I found out during my re- 
search for this article. 

One day on the island 
several years ago, Tom too 
had that terrible pain in his 
side and he knew exactly 
what it was. Every household 
turned its refrigerators up to 
the maximum setting and 
made as much ice as possible. 
Tom was packed In the ice 
and a ship was contacted 
from the radio station. The 
ship arrived, but had no 
doctor. Tom was taken 
aboard and kept in ice for the 
eight day trip to New Zea- 
land. He was one of the few 
who were fortunate enough 
to survive. The world of 
communications again had 
been needed and proved to be 
an appreciated treasure. 

In the year 1967, one year 
after Tom and Betty were 
married, they both came to 
the United States, where, for 
about eight months, they 
were residents of California. 

Tom had come here to 
further his training in radio 
communications at the Voice 
of Prophecy, international 
radio broadcast center of the 
Se ven th-day Adventist 
Church, located in Glendale 
CA. 

Here he met Eddie Pullen 
WA6ECC, chief engineer for 
the VOP and operator of the 
ARC station K6DTT. VR6TC 
and K6DTT are in contact 
each week via amateur radio 
and these two friends 
change events of here a 
there, Eddie Pullen also helps 
Tom and the people of F 
cairn when certain items are 
needed on the island. With no 
department store on the is- 
land, it takes a long time 
get much needed items. Ama- 
teur radio reduces that wait- 
ing time to half. 



32 



Tom also met Dr. Moser 
W6HS, who so generously set 
up the fund for the pre- 
viously mentioned generator. 
Dr. Moser, called "Mert" by 
everyone, is a PhD professor 
at the University of Southern 
California. Tom and Betty 
were house guests of Dr. and 
Mrs. Moser for several weeks. 
VR6TC and W6HS also have 
a weekly schedule via ama- 
teur radio, now that Tom is 
back on the island. Dr. Moser 
on many occasions had made 
medical housecaf/s for Pit- 
cairn via amateur radio* One 
of them will be mentioned a 
little later. 

While Tom was in the 
States, he did a personal 
appearance tour with the 
MGM movie, "Mutiny on 
the Bounty** He also ap- 
peared on the TV show "To 
Tefl the Truth. " Not one of 
the four panelists guessed 
that he was the real Tom 
Christian, descendant of 
Fletcher Christian of HMS 
Bounty fame. 

Tom has relatives in New 
Zealand, Australia, Norfolk 
Island, the state of Washing- 
ton and, of all unlikely 
places, my home QTH. 

For more than two weeks, 
Tom and Betty stayed at 
Tom's cousin's home in 
Porterville CA. Three-quarters 
of a million amateur radio 
operators around the world 
would jump at the chance for 
a face to face QSO with Tom 
and here he was, only six 
blocks away from me, and I 
didn't even know it. You 
can't win 'em all. 

I had a schedule with 
VR6TC about two weeks 
after I found out about the 
above. During the schedule, 
Tom's cousin, Beverly Lowe, 
and her husband Harry had a 
ten year reunion with Tom 
and Betty Christian, thanks 
to amateur radio. It really is a 
small world when amateur 
radio gets involved. 

Although VR6TC is the 
only license issued to a 
member of the Christian 
family, there were others who 
operated from Pitcairn before 
Tom. Floyd McCoy VR6AC 
and Andrew Young VR6AY 



both operated from Pitcairn 
over thirty years ago. Some 
of you old-timers may have a 
QSL card from one of these 
hams, both of whom are also 
descendants of the Bounty 
mutineers. 

More than 20,000 QSL 
cards have been mailed from 
Pitcairn with VR6TC 
imprinted on them destined 
for every comer of the world. 
If you made contact with 
VR6TC, sent a card but never 
received an exchange, there 
could be a definite reason. 

Pilferage of mail has been 
known to occur with letters 
and packages sent to and 
from Pitcairn. Certain items 
which Tom knows were sent 
never reached their destina- 
tion. Where they went astray 
is anyone's guess. For any 
QSL card that Tom received 
— if he has it confirmed — a 
VR6TC card will be or has 
been sent in exchange. 

Remember, Pitcairn Is a 
distant and very isolated is- 
land and the shipping to and 
from there is on a one to two 
month basis, sometimes 
longer. The mail will pass 
through several hands before 
its final destination is 
reached. 

If the weather is bad, ships 
have been known to bypass 
the island, even when they 
carried much needed supplies 
for the island, including mail, 
This means that it could take 
several more months before 
that mail is finally delivered 
and the mail on the island is 
picked up. Several years ago, 
an incident occurred which 
was responsible for the loss of 
many QSL cards leaving the 
island for their worldwide 
distribution. 

The only entrance and exit 
for Pitcairn is from Bounty 
Bay in one of the island's 38 
foot long, 9 foot wide diesel* 
powered whaler type long- 
boats which are built on the 
island. They are capable of 
carrying up to 5 tons of cargo 
and are the only method the 
people have of getting out to 
the ships for transfer of cargo 
and maiL 

On June 23, 1972, one of 
the longboats attempted to 



take a supply of mail out to a 
waiting ship and pick up car- 
go for the island. The seas 
were violent and the longboat 
was caught by a large wave 
and capsized, spilling all the 
men overboard, and also the 
maiL Hatf of those men were 
injured. The most serious was 
Tom; the boat had landed on 
top of him* 

"I almost lost my life but 
managed to make it to the 
rocks. From there," Tom 
said, "I crawled toward the 
landing. My right leg had 
been broken and the left one 
was severely bruised/' 

Tom clung to those rocks 
for a half hour before anyone 
could get to him for rescue. 
He was taken to the island 
dispensary and the leg was 
set. A few months later, when 
the leg didn't heal properly, 
he went to New Zeafand and 
into a hospital; the leg had to 
be broken again and reset. 

The cargo of mail which 
spilled overboard when the 
accident happened contained 
a large number of QSL cards; 
they sank to the bottom of 
the bay. 

If by chance you had sent 
Tom a QSL card prior to that 
date and never received one 
in return, yours may have 
been one lost at sea. Send 
another one; Tim sure Tom 
will be very happy to recipro- 
cate, again, 

H QSL information is Tom 
Christian, Box 1, Pitcairn Is- 
land, South Pacific." Tom has 
given that VR6TC contact 
information a thousand times 
over. When he gives it to you, 
a few tips will get a QSL card 
back a little faster. The enve- 
lope will also have a very rare 
Pitcairn stamp on it. 

The U,5. Postal Service 
now charges 42 cents for a 
single IRC, One of them is 
worth only 10 cents on Pit* 
cairn. It costs Tom 35 cents 
to mail your card back to 
you. That means you would 
have to spend $1.68 for IRCs 
to help Tom pay some of the 
postage. Save some money 
and slip a single dollar bill 
into an envelope with your 
QSL card and a self -addressed 
return envelope. That little 



extra change will help Tom to 
defray some of those expen- 
sive fuel costs to produce elec- 
tricity for amateur radio's 
VR6TC. I'm sure he would 
appreciate the kindness and 
you will save, also. 

When you mail everything, 
be sure to use a dark colored 
envelope so the contents 
can't be seen. Send it air mail. 
This way it will be flown to 
either the Canal Zone or New 
Zealand, the only pick-up 
points for mail going to 
Pitcairn. If sent by surface, it 
will wait in some port for the 
next ship going to one of 
those two locations. That 
could cause an additional 
delay of several months. 

The engineers on the bay 
project took a special survey 
at the request of an unknown 
company in Tahiti. It was to 
determine the possibility of 
constructing an airstrip of 
about 900 meters (2,952 
feet) on the island, As Tom 
put It, "It would require the 
moving of mountains." He 
did say that it was possible 
for a 600 meter runway, but 
no further information was 
available. Someday it might 
just be a few weeks before an 
exchange of QSL cards is 
possible instead of the cur- 
rent time of up To six 
months, 

Tom and Betty Christian 
have three girls: Jacqueline 
Beth, born January 8, 1971, 
Raelene Kari, born January 
28, 1974, and Sherileen 
Teresa, born December 1 # 
1975; all are on Pitcairn. 

Tom has been asked sev- 
eral times when he will come 
to the U,S. again. His answer 
is almost always, "With Betty 
and the small children, it 
would be very difficult to get 
away/' 

Tom is under contract to 
operate station "ZBP," but 
has been heard several times 
to say that he isn't sure he 
wants to sign another 3 year 
contract. Just before Christ- 
mas I asked him what the 
possibility was of him coming 
here again. This was his 
answer: "A new contract 
would compel me to stay 
here on the island, but I'm 



33 




Tom and Betty Christian amongst the numerous tropica/ fruits which grow in abundance on 
Pitcairn island* Tom is holding a breadfruit, the plant which in turn brought about the 
existence of the descendants of mutiny and the people of Pitcairn Island. 



not sure if I want to be tied 
down. If possible, I may go 
on a trip of about 6 months 
starting in June of 77, Very 
much thought is on visiting 
the States again, soon, JI 

I would be wrong if I 
attempted to say that Tom 
will come to the States. Only 
time and Tom himself can do 
that 

"Amateur radio is a break 
from the normal life and a 
chance to sit down, relax, and 
talk to friends in other parts 
of the world." Those are 
Tom's words and feelings in 



conversation one day. Public 
service also gets involved, 
especially on an island as 
small and isolated as Pitcairn. 

We take for granted the 
medical services available to 
us, since we live in a country 
where a hospital and doctor 
are always close at hand, On 
Pitcairrij there is no hospital 
or doctor, only a small medi- 
cal dispensary* 

It is a requirement that the 
wife of the Seventh-Day 
Adventist pastor (who serves 
a two year tour l of duty on 
the island) be a registered 



nurse. She is the medical 
officer for the island. Her 
qualifications are excellent, 
but sometimes an illness can 
reach into the field of an 
M,D, 

On Thursday this past 
August 12th on 14.225 MHz, 
I was waiting for VR6TC to 
come on frequency for his 
regular schedule with W6HS. 
It was almost 15 minutes 
before Tom was due at 1 600 
GMT when 1 heard VR6TC 
call for W6HS; no answer. 
Another station answered and 
I heard Tom state that he was 



calling early because of a 
possible emergency on the 
island. Pastor Newman was 
very sick with a temperature 
of 104 degrees and had been 
this way for several days. 

Since W6HS was still not 
on frequency, I gave him a 
long distance phone call and 
told him of the above. He got 
on the air immediately. 

After a short discussion 
between Tom and Dr. Moser, 
a colleague of Dr. Moser J s was 
contacted who specializes in 
respiratory diseases. A phone 
patch connection was pro- 
vided by John Stagnard 
W6MAB for Dr. Dickson 
Young, Beverly Hills CA* 
The results were a 4,500 mile 
housecall via amateur radio. 

Dr. Young talked to Tom 
and the nurse on the island 
for several minutes. They 
explained Pastor Newman's 
symptoms and what medica- 
tion had been administered. 

Diagnosis: viral pneu- 
monia. Recommendations 
were made for additional 
medication from what was 
available in the island dis- 
pensary. The following week 
I heard Tom say that Pastor 
Newman was very much 
improved and could now get 
out of bed for extended 
periods of time. Today, 
Pastor Newman is in New 
Zealand and is very healthy, 

Pitcairn Island is a unit 
unto itself, isolated by a 
stretch of empty sea. Ama- 
teur radio is a vital link to the 
outside world and plays an 
important part in the lives of 
every person on the island, 
Without amateur radio 




from page 22 

CBers into the hobby which reversed 
the ten year license downward trend* 
Few authors like to have their 
articles rewritten by magazine staffers, 
particularly when major changes are 
made. Other than correcting grammar 
and spelling errors, 73 publishes just 



EDITORIAL BY WAYNE GREEN 

about all articles as they come from 
the authors . . . and in this respect 73 
seems to be unique in the field. 

Few of us are wealthy enough so 
we can afford to flat give away the 
enormous amount of time and work 
(not to mention the expense of photo- 
graphs) that It takes to prepare an 
article for publication . , . plus later 



proofreading of galleys and then 
answering of reader questions. While 
most articles pay only about $100 to 
$300, this still takes a lot of the sting 
out. And it is the amateur who bene 
fits from adequate author pay in the 
long run, for paid authors tend to 
keep writing, and unpaid ones tend to 
find better things to do. 

Right now microprocessors are of 
high interest to 73 readers, but what 
will be next? 73 called the turn on 
SSB, on RTTY r on SSTV, on tran- 
sistors and ICs, so keep watching: 
Whatever it is, it will be in 73 first. 

As an author, then, you are inter- 
ested in placing your article where it 
will get the best readership, where 
you'll get the most money for it, and 
where it won't get mangled by some 



"editor" who doesn't really under- 
stand what you've written. How do 
the four ham magazines shape up in 
these respects? 

On the payment end of things, we 
seem to have 73 on one end, paying 
the highest dollar for articles . . . and 
paying upon acceptance (which means 
right away). The other magazines 
range from somewhat less pay, to very 
little and wait a year or so, down to 
no pay whatever. 

Readership? You probably have 
this figured out . . . one magazine is 
aimed mostly at contesters .,. 
another at engineers . . - and one 
seems to be largely going to libraries 
these days. 73 has been reaching both 
the active old-timers and the new- 
comers . . . it's where the action is* 



34 



ONLY 

HENRY RADIO 

OFFERS THE WORLDS 

MOST COMPLETE LINE OF 



AMPLIF 




30 MODELS! THE WORLD'S FINEST LINE OF AMATEUR AMPLIFIERS. BOTH 
VACUUM TUBE AND SOLID STATE. ..FOR HF, VHF AND UHF... FIXED STATION 
AND MOBILE. ..LOW POWER AND HIGH POWER. NEVER BEFORE HAS ONE 
COMPANY MANUFACTURED SUCH A BROAD LINE OF AMATEUR AMPLIFIERS 



2K-4...THE "WORKHORSE*' 

The 2K-4 linear amplifier offers engineering, construction 

and features second to none, and at a price that makes it the 
best amplifier value ever offered to the amateur. Constructed 
with a ruggedness guaranteed to provide a long life of reliable 
service, Its heavy duty components allow it to loaf along even 
at full legal power. If you want to put that strong clear signal 
on the air that you've probably heard from other 2K users, 
now is the time. Operates on all amateur bands, 80 thru 10 
meters Move up totfte2K-4. Floor console.,, $995, 00 

3K-A COMMERCIAL/ MILITARY AMPLIFIER 

A high quality linear amplifier designed for commercial and 
military uses. The 3K-A employs two rugged Eimac Z-S00Z 
grounded grid triodes for superior linearity and provides a 
conservative three kilowatts PEP input on SSB with efficien- 
cies in the range of 60%, This results in PEP output in excess 
of 2000 watts. It provides a heavy duty power supply capable 
of furnishing 2000 watts of continuous duty input for either 
RTTY or CW with 1200 watts output 3.5-30 MHz... ..$1395. 
4K-ULTRA 

Specifically designed for the most demanding commercial 
and military operation for SSB, CW, FSK or AM. Features 
general coverage operation from 3,0 to 30 MHz. Using the 
magnificent new Elmac 8877 grounded grid triodes, vacuum 
tune and load condensers, and a vacuum antenna relay, the 
4K-ULTRA represents the last word in rugged, reliable, linear 
high power RF amplification. 100 watts drive delivers 4000 
watts PEP input, Can be supplied modified for operation on 
frequencies up to about 100 MHz, ...$2950,00 

TEMPO 6N2 

The Tempo 6N2 brings the same high standards to the 
6 meter and 2 meter bands. A pair of advanced design Eimac 
8874 tubes provide 2 t 000 watts PEP input on SSB or 1,000 
watts on FM or CW. The 6N2 is complete with self-contained 
solid state power supply, built-in blower and RF relative 
power indicator, ...$395,00 



TEMPO 2002 

The same fine specs and features as the 6N2, but for 2 meter 
operation only. ...$745. 00 

TEMPO 2006 

Like the 2002 r but for 6 meter operation $795.00 

TEMPO VHF/UHF AMPLIFIERS 

Solid state power amplifiers for use In most land mobile 
applications. Increases the range, clarity, reliability and 
speed of two-way communications, FCC type accepted also. 



Drive 


Output 






Drive 


Output 




Model Power 


Power 


Price 


Model 


Power 


Power 


Price 


LOW BAND VHF AMPLIFIERS (35 to 


\ 75 MHz) 








Tempo 100C30 30W 


100W 


S159 


Tempo 10OC10 


10W 


100W 


$149. 


Tempo 100C02 2W 


100W 


SI 79 










HIGH BAND VHF AMPLIFIERS [135 


to 175 MHz) 








Tempo 130A30 30W 


130W 


51 89 


Tempo 60 A 02 


2W 


80W 


$159. 


Tempo 13GA10 10W 


130W 


$179- 


Tempo 50A10 


10W 


sow 


$ 99. 


Tempo 130A02 2W 


130W 


$199 


Tempo 50A02 


2W 


50W 


$T19. 


Tempo S0A3O 30W 


BOW 


$149 


Tempo 30A10 


10W 


30W 


$ 69. 


Tempo 60A10 10W 


SOW 


$139 


Tempo 30A02 


2W 


3QW 


$ 89. 


UHF AMPLIFIERS (400 to 512 MHz) 










Tempo 7GD3Q 30W 


70W 


$210, 


Tempo 4QDQ1 


1W 


40W 


$185. 


Tempo 7QD1Q 10W 


70W 


$240. 


Tempo 25D02 


aw 


25W 


$125. 


Tempo 70D02 2W 


70W 


$270, 


Tempo 1QD02 


2W 


10W 


$ 65 


Tempo 40D10 10W 


40W 


S14&. 


Tempo 10D01 


1W 


10W 


$125. 


Tempo 40D02 2W 


40W 


$165 


Linear UHF models also aval 


table 



TEMPO 100AL10 VHF LINEAR AMPLIFIER 

Completely solid state, 144-148 MHz. Power output of 100 
watts (nom.) with only 10 watts (nom.) in. Reliable and 
compact ...$199.00 
TEMPO 100AL10/B BASE AMPLIFIER ... $349.00 

please call or write for complete information. 



ton tito 



11240 W, Olympic Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 90064 
931 N, Euclid, Anaheim, Calif. 92801 
Butler, Missouri 64730 



213/477-6701 
714/772-9200 
816/879-3127 



Prictt mbjKl to chinp without notict. 



vcc 



t 



ftt 



g W t » 



sror^i 




i i , 



5*7490 OH 

SN749 5 

D C B A 



■ M 



14 



1/ 




L 



D C ■ A 
5U744& 

H tt i n it 



«■■ !iii Jiiiii 



1, 



U1 5N7AOO 




J 



* II It » ' J 11 

mi r i i rtfij ^i 

HULK « WAftfr « ITC 



dJ 






Fig, I, Basic counting test circuit 



Alexander JWacLean WA2SVT/NNmzVB 
18 Indian Spring Trail 
Denville NJ 07834 



Before leaving the 
wonderful world of 
counter displays, there are 
several other ICs which you 
should know about* Not that 
they are especially useful, but 
they sound as if they were, 
and you might be able to use 
them. 

Specifically, there is the 
SN7492 divide-b y-twel ve 



counter and the SN7493 4-bit 
binary counter. They don't 
really sound promising, but 
they must have been built for 
something. 

The first looks the most 
promising, as if it remotely 
lud something to do with 
time, and the other is just 
there. However, for a reason 
which will become obvious, 



- 

I - 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 


1 


1 


M 


1 


l_ 


_J 


1 


_l 


l_l 


1 



I I 



I I 



a 



10 



ii 



12 



14 



15 



Fig. 2. 



we will start with the second. 

Before plunging in, review 
Fig. 1 . This is the schematic 
of one counting digit using 
the SN7490 decade counter. 
This test circuit will count 
from one to ten (zero), 

In particular, notice the A, 
B, C, and D outputs and how 
they connect to the SN7446 
decoder/driver. The pin con- 
nections for the SN7493 arc 
exactly the same as for the 
SN7490 (except there is no 
nine reset circuit), so you can 
just substitute one for the 
other with no changes. Now 
you see why it comes first. 

But what does it do? With 
this hookup it counts to 16. 
This will take a bit of explain- 
ing. The first thing you want 
to know is how to count up 
to 16 with just one digit. It 



How Do You 
Use ICs? 



- - part VI 



can be done. It's weird, but it 
can be done. 

The key to understanding 
actually lies in the decoder/ 
driver and the readout IC In 
most applications, the de- 
coder/driver is only called 
upon to count up to ten, but 
the circuitry is built in to 
decode up to 16 pulses. The 
next problem is how do you 
display a counl of 16 on a 
seven-segment readout de- 
signed for zero through nine 
count? 

There is a very simple 
answer. You cheat. If you 
look at Fig. 2 you will see 
how it is done. They simply 
chose arbitrary combinations 
of segments for the additional 
figures. One of the combina- 
tions blanks out the readout 
on that count. You have to 
be watching for it or you will 
miss it. 

There does not appear to 
be any normal type of device 
that uses this feature in ama- 
teur use. It appears to be used 
for some data instrumenta- 
tion purpose rather than a 
specific counting purpose, 

TTie SN7492 divide-by- 
twelve counter sounds like it 
might be related to a 12 hour 
type of thinking. It is, but 
not directly. 

Notice in Fig. 3 that the 
pin connections for the 7492 
are not the same as for the 
other two ICs. The B, C, and 
D outputs are not the same 
pin numbers. Apart from 
these changes, the circuit is 
the same for the rest of the 
test circuit. 

When in place, the inclina- 
tion would be to assume that 
it would count from 1 to 12 
in the same manner as the 
7493 counted from 1 to 16. 
Not so . 



36 






5*7490 



S C 1 4 



I 



" ? 



X 



* 



tlftlPuT 



r l»g la 



T 






Bt II 



5N T446 



L 



I 



* 



lUPyT 



■J 



.ill p IT 



: ■ * 

1*74*6 



fij. 3. /Vofe /I, B } C } and D pin connection differences. 



To understand this, refer 
to the logic tables in Fig, 4, 
This is the table of the coded 
output for each number of 
pulses that gets fed to the 
decoder/driver. 

Notice thai they are all the 
same from zero to five, but 
after that they are not the 
same. If you try to go past 
five in the count sequence 
with the 7492, you will not 
get six, So much for its abil- 
ity to count. 

The reason lies in the truth 
tables* Notice that the output 
codes for the 7490 and the 
7493 are in binary code, the 
same as they would be writ- 
ten out. They are both binary 
couniers. 

The 7492 is not. Its out- 
put follows the binary code 
up to five and ceases to be 
binary after that. If you look 
at the table, you will see that 
six has the binary code of 
eight, seven has the code of 
nine, and so forth. 

After nine, it goes into the 
arbitrary segment selections 
for the higher numbers. This 
still follows the binary cod- 



ing, but with the break in the 
middle, the continuity is lost. 

So what can you do with 
it? Getting back to time, 
there is an obvious answer. 
To count seconds, you go 
from one to ten (zero), but 
when you get to tens, it goes 
57, 58, 59 seconds, one 
minute, in other words, from 
zero to five. This is six 
counts. 

The 7492 is also a divide- 
by -six counter. The trick is to 
make it reset to zero after the 
fifth count. This is easy once 
you know how. 

Look at the truth table 
again. Notice that the output 
at six is exactly the same as 
for zero except for the D 
output. Also notice that the 
D output does not appear in 
any of the sequences from 
zero to five. Therefore, we 
can do without the D output. 

To do this, we lift the D 
output from the 7492 
counter and leave it floating. 
Then ground the D input pin 
of the decoder/driver. Now 
the circuit will count from 
zero to five. 

One obvious application 





7493 


7490 


7492 




DCBA 


DCBA 


DCBA 





0000 


0000 


0000 


1 


0001 


0001 


0001 


2 


0010 


0010 


0010 


3 


0011 


0011 


0011 


4 


0100 


0100 


oi oo 


5 


0101 


0101 


0101 


6 


0110 


0110 


1000 


7 


0111 


0111 


1001 


8 


1000 


1000 


1010 


9 


1001 


1001 


1011 


10 


1010 




1100 


11 


1011 




1101 


12 


1100 






13 


1101 






14 


1110 






15 


1111 








Binary 


Binary 


Non-Binary 




Code 


Code 


after five 



would be to cascade units to 
get a seconds and minutes 
readout for an elapsed time 
counter circuit. This gets you 
into reset circuits a tittle 
more deeply. 

Resetting is usually done 
with logic levels, but in a 
simple circuit like this one, 
it's done by grounding (0 or 
low logic) or ungmunding (1 
or high logic) the correct 
pins. 

With the 7492, both reset 
pins must be high (1 ) to reset 
to zero. At least one of the 
reset pins must be at low (0 
or grounded) to count. 

With the 7490, there are 
two sets of reset pins. To 
reset to zero, both zero reset 
pins must be at logic 1 (high), 
and at least one of the nine 
reset pins must be at logic 
(grounded)). For proper 
counting at least one of each 
set's reset pins must be at 
logic (low or grounded). 
The 7493 is the same except 
there are no nine reset pins. 

This is mostly done for 
you on the published sche- 
matics, but when you roll 
your own, you may forget to 
see that those pins are ac- 
counted for. 

One of the first things to 
look for when you don't get 
proper counting action is an 
error in the basic hookup or 
the incorrect use of the reset 
pins. 

These gadgets are designed 
to be compatible, so there is 
no real problem when cascad- 
ing them to get a timing 
readout. Two digits are 



shown in Fig. 5. Except for 
the obvious changes in wiring 
for the two different counter 

ICs, the circuit is the same as 
for the regular readout. 

The external circuitry 
would be very similar to what 
a counter would use. In a 
simple setup like this, there 
would be a timing chain 
derived from the ac line fre- 
quency, a gating circuit to 
start and stop the count, and 
a reset circuit. 

External to the unit would 
be some method of keying 
the elapsed time counter 
mechanically or electronical- 
ly. Something must tell it 
when to start and when to 
stop. There are a wide variety 
of switching methods depend- 
ing upon the application. 

Still, this is similar to the 
frequency counter applica- 
tion, and may in fact be 
somewhat simpler. However, 
neither of these counter ICs 
has found wide application 
in amateur counting circuits. 
They are, however, familiar in 
frequency dividing circuits. 

Just as the 7490, the 7492 
and the 7493 have both been 
used to get different fre- 
quency divisions. This usage 
was covered in a previous 
article. 

If you have a few of these 
ICs on hand for frequency 
dividing, you might try them 
in this test circuit so that you 
will know how they behave. 
Then when you run across 
them in an application you 
want, they will not be un- 
familiar to you,« 



VCC*iV 



m .Jl — 1st — 



SN7492 
DCBA 



*JC 



¥ 



n 



12 



14 



kEE 



ie_ 



SNT49 

d c a a 



It 



D C B * 

5*7 4*6 



13 



W\ 



clnlnhb 



El 



if 



4* 



ii 



7 



>4 



PULSE 



J HULSt 

™ INPUT 



12 



D, 



DCBA 
SN744& 



M 



LEO Di SPLAT 



r r r 



L_Lsj£ 



tQ 9 



R 



W 



LEO DISPLAY 
MAUI- 1 



TTT 



VCC+5V 



Fig, 4. Logic table. 



tig. 5, Sixty event counter (0-59). 



37 




Super Low Volta 
Power Supply 




- - with overcurrent protection 



THANSFOfflMCR. 

DlOOCS. 

FILTEft CAP 



CURRENT 
5£H5»NG 



1 



CURRENT 

SENSING 






DUAL 

T PACKING 
VOLTAGE 

REGULATOR 



TFHUafOBHtH, 
DIODES. 
riLTEft CAP 



CUPBE-HT 
SENSING 



n 



DiOOCS, 
FILTER CAP 




OR 



TRIGGER 
ft LATCH 



Ip 



OTD ZOV 
lOOmA 



OTO -20V 
1 00mA 



SHL>T DOWN 
SIGNAL 



SHUT DO** 
SIGNAL 



Thomas E. Hutchinson VE3CWY 
3$ Wajrender Ave +i Apt, 203 
Islington, Ontario 
Canada M9B 525 



VOLTAGE 

REGULATOR 



■*-GTO*MV 
IA 




liSLC 



!■■_■*■> 



>EL* T 



1 



VOLTAGE 
REGULATOR 



T 



A?av 

5£*iSE 



I 



5Z5V 
SENSE 



I 



IA 



F/ff. /. Basic layout 



The following article was 
prompted by the many 

disasters I have had while 
experimenting with unfamil- 
iar ICs and untested circuit 
designs. This past year I have 
destroyed two TRV2000 
voltage regulators! one 
XR205 function generator, 
two 741 op amps, two 709 
op amps, one optical isolator, 
and so on. Sometimes it hap- 
pens when the meter probe 



slips and sometimes it hap- 
pens because of incorrect 
design of the circuit. In near- 
ly all cases, however, things 
burn out because of excessive 
current drawn for too long a 
time. The remedy is a power 
supply that abruptly removes 
the voltage from the circuit 
once a preset current is ex* 
ceeded. I felt this would be 
superior to the usual type of 
current limiting in which the 
power supply delivers a con- 
stant current to the load and 
less voltage once the current 
limit is reached; the objection 
to the latter is that the user 
may not be aware that the 
current limit has been 
reached and that the voltage 

is no longer regulated, espe- 
cially if it happens for only a 
very brief interval, A circuit 
may not operate correctly 
with the unregulated voltage 
during this interval and the 
user would be hard pressed to 
discover the reason for the 
malfunction, 

Basic Layout 

Three power supplies were 
constructed as shown in Fig. 
"L The first is a dual tracking 
supply with variable output 
voltage to ±20 volts and 
current to 100 mA on each 
output (200 mA total current 
capacity). Also available is a 
+12, -6 volt option. Current 
sensing is done in both the 
positive and negative legs, and 
when the current exceeds a 
preset level, a signal is devel- 
oped to shut down the out- 
put from the voltage regula- 
tor. This signal latches so that 
output voltage can only be 
restored by pressing a reset 
switch. 

The second supply has 
variable output from 2,6 to 
25 volts and current to 1 
Ampere, Up to 34 volts is 
available at reduced current. 
This supply also has adjust- 
able current sensing and, like 
the first supply, the output 
voltage shuts down when the 
current exceeds a preset leveL 
Voltage is restored by press- 
ing the reset switch. 

The third supply provides 
a fixed 5 volt output at cur- 
rents to 1 Ampere for operat> 



38 



ing TTL circuits. This supply 
has output voltage sensing 
and will shut down if the 
voltage moves outside a pre- 
set range from 4.75 to 5>25 
volts. 

The first supply provides 
the power for the sensing 
circuits used in all three sup- 
plies. Also, if any one supply 
shuts down, the other two 
will shut down also. 

All three supplies use volt- 
age regulators that are short 
circuitproof, an added safety 
bonus in the event that the 
current sensing circuits are 
manually disabled or in the 
event of the failure of some 
component in the current 
sensing networks. 

Current Sensing 

The current sensing net- 
work in Fig, 2 operates as 
follows: Assume that initially 
no current is drawn from the 
supply. With R2 set to SOOfi, 
R2+ R3 = 21k and R4 + R5 
= 21k, With the wiper of R4 
set closest to R3, the voltage 
at pin 11 of voltage compara- 
tor IC1A will be 14 volts, 
exactly half the voltage across 
CI. Assuming for the mo- 
ment that no current flows in 
R1 , the voltage across R6 and 
R7 will be 28 volts and the 
voltage at pin 10 of IC1 A will 
be 14 volts also. When cur- 
rent is drawn from the posi- 
tive leg of the supply, a volt- 
age drop develops across R1 
and the voltage at pin 10 of 
IC1A drops below 14 volts. 
This drives pin 13 of IC1A 
positive and the resulting 
current in R21 charges C3« 
Q1 fires, sending a pulse 
through C4 to SCR1. SCR1 
turns on, operating relay K1 
and forcing Q2 to switch on. 
Q2 shorts out R27 t thus re- 
ducing the output of IC3 to 
nearly zero volts. K1 inter- 
rupts the current to IC6 in 
Fig, 3. Q1 also sends a pulse 
to C14 in Fig. 3. This pulse 
turns on SCR2, forcing 04 to 
switch on; this action reduces 
the output of IC5 to zero 
volts, 

When the load is removed 
from the output of IC3, the 
power can be restored by 
opening S2A and S2B (nor- 



mally closed switches). By 
moving the wiper of R4 
closer to R5, the voltage at 
pin 11 of IC1 A is lowered. It 
then requires a greater voltage 
drop across R1 (more current 
in the load at output of IC3) 
to lower the voltage at pin 10 
of IC1 A so that pin 1 3 will go 
positive. Thus the setting of 
the wiper of R4 determines 
what current will drive pin 13 
of IC1 A high. 

An identical network con- 
sisting of R8 to R14 and IC2 
senses the current in the 
negative leg of the supply. 
The output of IC2 switches 
between volts and -26 volts 
approximately. Since IC1 B 
will not operate normally 
with any input below -0.3 
volts, the voltage from pin 6 
of IC2 is divided down by 
R15 and R17 so that the 
voltage across R17 switches 
between volts and -0.25 
volts. R16 and R18 form 
another voltage divider 
which provides -0,15 volts to 
pin 8 of IC1B. Thus IC1 B 
switches like IC1 A in re- 
sponse to an overcurrent in 
R14. D5 and D6 form an OR 
gate, hence isolating the out- 
puts of IC1A and IC1 B from 
one another. 

In Fig. 3, current sensing is 
done in the same manner as 
described for the positive leg 
of Fig. 2. Since the maximum 




Bottom view of power supply. 

current for this supply is 10 first supply, resistance values 
times greater than for the have been adjusted according- 



In all diagrams, all resis- 
tors are % W, except as 
otherwise noted. All 
capacitors are in uF. 



+ 2GV TO (CI, IC4, 01 
ft 

RE 

10 




-mv to ice, scm 



Fig, 2. Dual tracking regulated supply. 



39 



HO VAC 
racM 
54 FtG Z 




R57 
-*** — 



2*11 



IG$ 
TV* 2000 



CO** lShi LS^vt c< et 



0«T 2 



s 



-Lew 

*V20*l 1 



QOS^F 



JX 



CH 
.01 



SHUT DOWN 
CDMMAfJO TO 
FIG. Z 



■tt 



PULSE 
FROM BASE 

OF 01 




/ft 



Fig, 3, Variable voltage power supply. 



ly. D9 forms another part of 
the OR gate that feeds R21. 

Voltage Sensing 

For the 5 volt supply in 
Fig, 4 ( it is more desirable to 
have output voltage sensing 
than current sensing. This is 
because there are wide varia- 
tions in the current de- 
manded by TTL circuits 
when they are switching from 
stale to state. The cur rem 
limit point would always have 
to be set rather high, and 
consequently only gross over- 
currents could be sensed. On 
the other hand, a circuit that 
senses when the voltage falls 
betow 4.75 volts, the lower 
operating limit for 7400 
series TTL, is quite useful. 
Suppose, for example, that 
you are operating near the 1 
Ampere limit of IC6; a brief 



current pulse could exceed 

this limit and the internal 
circuit of IC6 would then 
allow the output voltage to 
drop* Without voltage sensing 
this could easily go unnoticed 
and your circuit would mal- 
function. 

In Fig. 4, D14 provides a 
reference voltage. R41 acts as 
a voltage divider and is set to 
5.25 volts, R42 is another 
voltage divider and is set to 
4.75 volts. IC1C and 1C1D 
compare the output of IC6 to 
these voltages and, if the out- 
put moves outside the win- 
dow from 4.75 to 5.25 volts, 
pin 1 or pin 2 will go high. 
This signal goes to R21 of 
Fig, 2 and eventually shuts 
down all the supplies. 

Response Time 

R21 and C3 determine the 



response time of the circuit. 
With R21 = 3k and C3 = 1 
uF, the circuit responds to an 
overcurrent, overvoltage or 
undervoltage that lasts 3 
milliseconds or more. Kl 
adds an additional 7.5 ms to 
the time required for the 5 
volt supply to shut down, By 
reducing C3 to 0.1 uF, re- 
sponse time can be made as 
low as 03 ms, R21 can be 
increased to as much as 10 
megohms if desired to length- 
en the response time, but 
should not be reduced below 
3k. 

The Voltage Regulators 

The 4194TK regulator is 
available through advertisers 
in this magazine. It is inter- 
nally current limited at about 
350 mA when the positive 
output is shorted to 



ground. It also has internal 
thermal limiting that will 
reduce the output when it 
gets too hot. A small heat 
sink is required when the 
operating current is 100 mA 
in each leg of the output. In 
Fig. 2, S3 is normally open. 
When S3 is closed, R27 can 
be adjusted to give +12, -6 
volts output for the operation 
of certain types of voltage 
comparators. 

The 309 K also has current 
limiting and thermal limiting. 
It will provide a little over 1 
Ampere when mounted on a 
heat sink with the circuit 
shown, 

The TVR2000 has been 
available from Poly Paks for a 
number of years and is quite 
inexpensive. It is surprising 
that in spite of its outstand- 
ing performance and low cost 
I have never once seen it used 
in a magazine article. Perhaps 
it is because the information 
on how to use it is hard to 
find; the specification sheets 
that come with it do not give 
enough information on how 
to use it. A very complete 
article on its use in a wide 
variety of applications can be 
found in the periodical called 
EEE {Electronic Equipment 
Engineering), Volume 17, No. 
6, June, 1969, pages 82 to 
90, available at large libraries. 
The name of the article is 
"VoStage- Regulator ICs with 
Foldback Current Limiting," 
by D.R. Sullivan and H.W. 
Mamie. 

In Fig, 3, the foldback cur- 
rent limiting option is not 
used. Instead, simple short 
circuit sensing is used. R37 



120V AC 

TOM S 
FIG 2 




SHUT DOWN 
^COMMAND 

to nc z 

tut 



Fig, 4, 5 vo/t power supply. 



+30 



2ZO 



J 00 



;jl00 



:K» 



TUB* 



100mA 



4DmA 



S*4A 




TO IC I A 



5 Tift 



TO #5 



tq na 



430 



22D 



100 



i 'JO 



\\mo 



SW«B 



TO IC2 



TO RIO 



Fig. 5. Switch selected resistors replace R4 and R9. 



40 



and R38 set the short circuit 
current to a value of about 
1.2 Amperes, The relation- 
ship here is R$c*Iout*^-1 
volt, where R37 and R38 in 
parallel make up R^. R39 
sets the output voltage, Q3 
acts as a current booster and 
is mounted on a heat sink. 
C10 stabilizes the current 
limiting circuitry and C11 
stabilizes the regulator sec- 
tion of IC5. Different values 
from those shown may be 
required to drive high capaci- 
tance loads. 

Selecting Resistors 

Resistors of 1% tolerance 
are best for R1, R3, R5 to 
R8, RIO, and R12 to R14. 
This will make the final ad* 
justments simpler and will 
keep tracking errors in R4 
and R9 to a minimum. In Fig. 
3, 5% resistors will suffice for 
R32, R34, R35, and R36, 
providing you choose them 
such that R32 < R34 and 
R36>R25. 

Regarding the tracking of 
R4 and R9: Since they form 
a tandem control , it is impor- 
tant that they both exhibit 
approximately the same resis- 
tance between their wipers 
and their ends for all rota- 
tions of the shaft. Failure to 
do so will mean that the 
positive and negative legs of 
the supply will trip at differ- 
ent currents. Several dual 
controls I bought did not 
track very well. If you want 
very good tracking, replace 
both R4 and R9 with a series 
of 5% resistors and use a two 
pole rotary switch to select 
the current limit you want as 
shown in Fig. 5. 

Construction 

All three supplies were 
constructed on a single 4 M x 
5 M printed circuit board as 
shown in Figs. 6 and 7, IC3 
does not plug directly into 
the board; the holes in the 
board have been spaced out 
to assure clean etching. 
Solder a short wire to the 
outside of each pin of IC3; 
insert the wires into the PC 
board and solder. A piece of 
aluminum was bolted to IC3 
as a heat sink. There are so 




many connections to the PC 
board from the external 
switches, controls, transform- 
ers, etc., that it was not pos- 
sible to arrange for an edge 
connector on a board of this 
size; instead there are about 
35 wires soldered at various 
points around the edge of the 
board and all are routed to 
one end of the board so that 
the board can be hinged 
outward from the chassis if 
parts on it need to be re- 
placed in the future. 

All components fit nicely 
on a chassis 10" x 6 M x 2" as 
shown in the photograph. 

Final Adjustments 

Switch S2 to reset. Leave 
S3 open. This disables the 
shutdown mechanism. Con- 
nect a high impedance volt- 
meter between pin 7 of IC1D 
and ground. Adjust R42 for a 



Fig, 6. Parts fay out 

reading of 4.75 volts, Con- 
nect the voltmeter between 
pin 4 of IC1C and ground, 
Adjusi R41 for a reading of 
5.25 volts. 

Set the wiper of R33 to 
the end closest to R32, Con- 
nect a voltmeter between pin 



6 of IC4 and ground. Adjust 
R31 so that the reading just 
goes to zero. 

If you are using a dual 
potentiometer for R4 and 
R9, proceed as follows: Set 
the wiper of R4 to the end 
closest to R3; the wiper of 





Partial Parts List 


IC1 


339 


IC2, IC4 


741 


IC3 


4194TK 


IC5 


TVR2000 (available at Poly PaksS 


IC6 


309K 


D1-D4 { 


2 A 100 piv bridge rectifier 


D10-D13 \ 




D7-D8 


halt of 2 A 100 piv bridge rectifier 


05,6,9,1 5,16 


1N4143 


D14 


1N957B 6.8 V, 0.4 W zener diode 


Q1 


2N2646 


G2 


2N4249 


03 


MJE3055 


Q4 


2N55S0 


K1 


ITT type 24A02C18A 


R4,R9 


dual section control; see text 


3CR1.SCR2 


C103B 



4T 



Fig. 7. PC board. 




R9 should then be at the end 
closest to RIO. Connect a 
voltmeter between pin 13 of 
fC1A and ground. Adjust R2 
untfl the reading just drops to 
zero, if you run out of adjust* 
merit with R2, interchange 
R6 and R7 and try again. 

Connect the voltmeter 
between pin 14 of I CI B and 
ground. Adjust Rl 1 until the 
reading just drops to zero. 

If you elect to use the 
switched resistors in Fig. 4, 
proceed as follows: Set the 
switch in Fig. 4 to the 5 mA 
position. Connect a load 
between the positive and 
negative output terminals of 
the supply and adjust the 
output voltage so that the 
load draws 5 mA, With a 
voltmeter from pin 13 of 
ICIA to ground, adjust R2 
until the voltage just drops to 
zero. If you run out of adjust- 
ment with R2, interchange 
R6 and R7 and try again. 
Connect the voltmeter 
between pin 14 of IC1 B and 
ground. Adjust R11 until the 
reading just drops to zero, ■ 




from page 12 

FREQUENCIES; 

1810, 3550, 3735, 3000, 7050, 
7135, 7235, 14050, 14280, 2t05G, 
21135, 21300, 28050, 28600, 
50-50.5, 144- 14a 
EXCHANGE: 

RS<T) and QTH - Wisconsin 
stations will send their county for 
QTH; others send ARRL section or 
country, 
SCORING: 

US, and VE contacts count one 
point, while OX contacts count 3 
points for Wisconsin stations. All 
others score T point per Wisconsin 
contact. Wisconsin stations are to 
multiply the total QSO points by the 
number of ARRL sections and Wis- 
consin counties contacted 4146 max. I 
KP4, KH6, KL7 and KZS count both 
as 3 point QSOs and as section multi- 
pliers. All non Wisconsin stations 
should multiply the number of Wis- 
consin QSOs by the number of 
Wisconsin counties worked (72 max.). 
Multi-county portable/mobile oper- 
ations will keep a single log For the 
entire operation and will multiply she 
contact points by the total number of 
different sections and counties 
worked 
AWARDS: 

Certificates will be awarded to the 
high scoring fixed, portable, mobile. 








Novice and VHF stations, in Wiscon- 
sin as well as each ARRL section and 
each OX country. The Neenah- 
Menasha Club is sponsoring a magnifi 
cent traveling trophy to be awarded to 
the high scoring Wisconsin entry of a 
club each year. This trophy will be 
awarded to the club submitting the 
highest total combined score of its 
members. 
ENTRIES: 

A summary sheet and station log 
are requested. Indicate each multiplier 
the first time worked Logs must be 
received no later than May 6, 1977 
(OX fogs by May 20). Wisconsin clubs 
should forward a fetter stating the 
calls of their members whose score 
counts for their club's total. Club 
members should be sure to identify 
their club on the first page of the log 
submitted. All entries should be ad- 
dressed to: Kenneth A, Ebf>eter 
K9GSC, 822 Wauona Trail, Portage 
Wl 53901. Enclose a business size 
SASE for notification of results. 

1977 MASSACHUSETTS 

QSO PARTY 
Starts: 1200 UTC, May 14 
Ends; 2200 UTC, May 15 

The contest is sponsored by the 
South Shore Repeater Assoc., Wey- 
mouth MA. No time limit. A station 
may be worked once per band, CW 
and phone considered separate bands. 



No crossband or repeater QSOs per 
mitted. Mass. stations may work each 
other. 
EXCHANGE: 

RS(T) and county (for Mass.) and 
ARRL section {or country) for others. 
SCORING: 

Count two points for each com- 
pleted exchange. Outside stations 
multiply total QSO points by dif- 
ferent Mass, counties worked (total 
14), Mass. stations muttiply total QSO 
points by different Mass. counties plus 
ARRL sections and DXCC countries 






worked. {Do not include E. Mass. or 
W. Mass, as sections. ) 
FREQUENCIES: 

CW - T810, 3560, 7060, 14060, 
21060, 28060. 

Phone - 1820, 3960, 7260, 14290, 
21390, 28590, 50.110, 146.52, 

Novices - 3720, 7120, 21120, 
28120, 
AWARDS: 

Suitable awards. Mailing deadline, 
June 30, SASE for results and awards, 
c/o R.J. Doherty W1GD8, RFD #1, 
14 Pine St., Sandwich MA 02563. 




The latest Brazilian amateur prefixes, with Thanks to PT2JB. Map courtesy of 
the Communications Ministry of Brazit. 



42 



GENAVE 





GTX-IT 

Hand-Held 
2-meter FM t 6- 

channel , 3.5 
watts hand- 
held with 
t actor y- 
in staffed tone 
encoder 

GTX-I 

Hand-Held 

2-meter FM, 6- 
channel, 3*5 
waffs hand- 
held 

CHECK THESE 
FEATURES: 

• All metal case 

• American made 

• Accepts standard 
plug-in crystal! 

• Features 10,7 
MHz crystal 
filter 

• Trimmer caps on 
TX and RX 
crystals 

• 3,5 watts output 

• Battery holder 
accepts AA 
regular, alkaline 
or nicad cells 

• Mini handheld 
measures ft" 
hiftlX 2,625" 

wide x 1,281" 
deep 



$ 



249 



95 



Rubber ducky 
antenna. 

Wrist safety- 
carrying strep 
included 
6 channels 
Factory-direct 
to you! 



Accessories 

Available 

• Nicad battery 
pack 

• Charger for 
GTX-1 battery 

Cack 
eat her carrying 
case 

• TEH J tone 
encoder for 
auto patch 



TONE ENCODER PAD 

Plug-In installation on most 
amateur transceivers. 



TE-II 



$49« $59 



TE.I 

95 




INTERMOD? Virtually None! 



aitv aaa in i enmuu f vinuany none: 
la I A-ZUZ SELECTIVITY? Really Super 
$00095 NUMBER OF 
JLyi CHANNELS? From 1 to 22 



(iMd. 14S.34 MN2) 




The GTX-202 is adaptable anywhere — at half the 
price of synthesis — so, buy at low acquisition cost t 
and add crystals later as you want them. 

CHECK THESE OUTSTANDING FEATURES: 

• Massive heat sink to maintain power 
over prolonged transmissions 

• 30 watts (nom.) output 

• 8- pole crystal filter 

• 15-pin accessory jack 

• Dual-gate MOSFET front end 

Same Circuitry as used in Genave's famous Land 
Mobile transceivers , . . Manufactured in America by 
the same Government-Inspected facility that pro- 
duces high quality reliable communications and 
navigations for marine and aircraft industries. 






GTX-200-T 

2-mtttr FM, too chiaatl 

CBmbinj! fins 10 Wlttt 
with ficiory installei 
(lit f ■tiler (incl. I4ft.fl 




GTX-200 
7-mitfr FM. 
cambiiutioRi 
(lid t4€ W 



100 tliaitl 

3D wjtti 
MHl} 





GTXtO-S 

2 meter FM, IB channels, 
II wittl (Xtili nit ia- 
Clilta) 



MHt} 



249 



95 



M99 



95 



GTX-2 

2 meter FM. II cfaiiatls. 
IS witt; with pushbul- 
tan freueicy stleciar 
flncL 146.94 MHl) 



r 
i 

i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 

L 




NAME. 



ADDBfSS. 



STATE & ZIP. 



Payment by: 

Certified Check /Money Order Q Personal Check 
" C.CKO. include 20% Down 

Note: Orders accompanied by personal checks will require 

two weeks to process, 

Z0% Down Payment Enclosed. Charge Balance Tor 

§B«nkAmericard # Expires 
Master Charge # Expires 
Interbank # Expires 

IN residents add 4% sales ta*:t - 

CA residents add 6% sales tax:j * 



$14995 

•HURRY! USE THIS HANDY ORDER FORM 1 

D GTX »Z $239 9S 
D BTX-MI-T *249 95 

a tn-m $14095 

H49" 
*Igo« 

$24995 

d nxiT $29995 



»I89 



95 



4141 Kingman Dr T Indianapolis, IN 46226 
Phone-in orders accepted (317 +546-1111) 



-CITY 



JtMATEUR CALL 



□ ffra-iw 

QITX-I 

DlTX-1 



Q Utf • Ittitf ARX 2 M 2-M 

Bis* Aitina 

D Uniii/4 Mi ni Ml Tna* 

Antuna 
D TM Tata Eieifer H$ 

O TMJ Tut Encoder Hi 

G PS I AC Power Supply fir ill 
with ill makes of transceivers 
HVDt-fiiHfl 

and the fallowing lUndirl crystals 

f 14.50 eacri .$ 

Han- standard crystals 

#) |6.50 tICh: .... % 



$29« 
$2995 
$5995 
$4995 

$69" 



about 



73*3 



Alt orders shipped postpaid within continental U.S. 



Add 14 per Radio Tor Shipping, Handling, and Crystal Netting, 

ACCESSORIES FOR GTX-1 and GTX-1T 
D PSM8 Optional Nicad battery pack *29** 

Q PS-2 Charger for GTX4(T) battery pack *39* 5 

□ GLC-1 Leather carrying case ...„ „„. *IZ 

□ TE-IM Tone Encoder (for use with GTX-1) ... *49 95 ^/ 



1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
j 



With no apologies due 
the electronic keyers 
and the modern keyboard or 
"CW" typewriters, a tele- 
grapher's "fist** is as in- 
dividual as handwriting. We 
observe this, of course, by 
listening to the other guy. 

It can be a pleasure to 
listen to some hand keying, 
or it may be almost impos- 
sible. For instance, how often 
do we hear persons sending 
things like, M My nag is 
Bobbob"? The Lone Ranger's 
nag is "Silver, 11 We should 
remember this the next time 
we send letters in words that 
need accurate spacing. This 
used to be called QSC, 
meaning "your spacing is 
bad." The OBCQ5, or Official 
Board for Changing Signals, 
replaced this with QSD for 
some obscure reason. Still, 
QSD is one of the rarest and 
littlest used ol all the Q 
signals, 

While on the subject of the 
QBCQS, someone of course 
had to take over eventually! 
Think of conditions that used 



David H. Atkins W6VX 
1SQN. Westgate Ave. 
Los Angeles CA 90049 



QLF? 
Not with the 



Great Lakes Sideswiper! 



f 



- - almost perfect CW 




Fig. J. A; Support for the 
blade and paddle. B: Posts 

(parallel connected, or for 
electronic hug, a terminal for 
each post). Distance from A 
to contacts on blade and 
posts is 2W (63 cm), C: 
Paddle, to overhang front 
edge of base D about !4" 
(],25 cm). Distance from 
front end of C to contacts is 
approximately 2 " (5 cm). 
Dimensions of C t approxi- 
mately %" x I" x VA'* (0.6 
cm x 2.5 cm x 3.2 cm). 
Center of paddle to deck, 
W" (3 J cm), ft Base, 3/8" 
x 3" x 6" (0,95 cm x 7.5 cm 
x 15 cm). Front of D to 
center of B or contacts Is 1%*' 
(4 A cm). Anti-skid hole in D, 
same as above. 



44 



to exist. When you heard the 

signal ORL immediately fol- 
lowed by twenty of the 
abbreviations for M t under- 
stand/ 1 it was reasonable to 
assume that the station 
sending all that was busy. 
They simply removed the 20 
"I understands/* 1 See how 
logical the work of this secret 
board turned out to be? Now 
we have just ORL, meaning 
**l am busy," though inferred 
is the added information, 
"Please QRT or QSY or turn 
your receiver on before clob- 
bering my QSO." I hope the 
OBCQS has been disbanded 
for malfeasance, as it loused 
up a number of things (like 
"Q5B"), so nowadays you 
have to spell it out to find if 
your spark is bad. 

Now to get back to QSD. 
Recently I read an article by 
J. K. Bach entitled "Glass 
Arm." 2 I would like to con- 
firm his interesting, factual 
observations regarding this 
affliction. Many newcomers 
are so devastated when they 



realize their spacing is terrible 
that they go out and purchase 
a microphone. This usually 
happens after their friends 
ask, "QLF? M (This is the un- 
official, impolite way of 
saying "QSD," or "are you 
sending with your left 
foot?") The result of going 
on phone at this point is that 
when some rude person 
comes on code with SOS, our 
phone man answers, "This 
frequency is in use, you lid!" 
He cannot read his own call 
any longer; CW is smoke 
signals to him. 

When glass arm set in 
about two days after I got a 
ticket to operate, I had to 
find a reasonable cure. I had a 
Ford coil going, and no way 
to get on phone. Some of my 
peers had built sideswipers 
(sometimes called cootie 
keys). They were sailing along 
at 20 wpm. They had found 
that running ten Amps 
through a telegraph key, or 
most bugs, would cause the 
contacts to weld closed. So 



many small silver coins 
became 20 Amp contacts. 
Bugs and big fast relays were 
hard to come by, too. So 
build a cootie. You never 
have to worry about glass arm 
again once you get used to a 
Great Lakes Sideswiper; But 
glass arm does last. After 
reading Bach's article, I 
loosened the bearings on the 
straight key and tried his 
remedy. I could go about 15 
wpm fairly well. Above this, 
QSD. Some good operators 
can do about 30 wpm on a 
pump. Not I, alas. 

The reason for going into 
the "fist 11 aspect of teleg- 
raphy is that, as Bach points 
out, you have to have the 
ri^it amount of "feedback" 
(no pun intended). Loosening 
the bearings on a straight key 
seems to increase this. 

Let's look at the meaning 
of feedback for a moment, 
"Once you get the fee! of it" 

is an expression one often 
hears when trying to get used 



to some new experience* 
Your own built-in servo 
system has to become accus- 
tomed to lake the necessary 
cues from your vision, or 
hearing, or other senses. The 
pilot of a boat or plane will 
readily admit that the auto- 
pilot can surpass his ability in 
the long run. The experienced 
race driver is in a life or death 
situation during competition, 
hanging on the end of a 
thread which can snap. The 
ones with the good circula- 
tory ducts and range finding 
vision live longest. Feedback 
controls your speech and 
handwriting and temper and 
keying - in fact, everything 
you do while awake or asleep. 
An interesting experiment in 
balance is to close your eyes 
and try to stand steadily on 
one foot for a moment or 
two. Sooner or later, if one 
does not peek, one starts 
searching for that lost 
horizon by hopping - to 
remain upright. Norbert 
Weiner demonstrated feed- 
back with an automated toy 
which could move about on 
the stage avoiding obstacles 
put in its path. Real magic. 
Now we have the "sleeping 
torpedo" lying on the ocean 
floor waiting for its victims 
above, We hope it retains its 
faculties! 

The three keys on the left 
in the illustration are self- 
explanatory. But that black 
box on the right is another 
version of the cootie. It was 
built to key screen voltage 
and is shock proof. It may be 
used as a pump in the posi- 
tion shown. To the left of the 
home brew bug is my 1921 
air-cooled Sideswiper with 
the 20 Amp contacts. It has 
been around the world twice 
with me and still will key a 
large spark set if you can find 
one. With it, when a ship rolls 
to port it will not send a dash 
of its own as a bug will. This 
type key is the traditional 
favorite in rough seas or 
mobile on rough roads. The 
tag "Great Lakes" comes 
from operators there trying 
to send with one foot on the 
bulkhead in a storm. You can 
usually tell who is using one 




by the spacing it induces in 
one's fist. The dots are 
usually longer than the spaces 
in between them, and the 
dashes may be a little uneven. 
This depends on that "fist." 
To send with precision is 
to learn to turn up the feed- 
back turn on the code prac- 
tice oscillator, and listen care- 
fully* If you get used to it, 
make a tape recording of 
what you think passes for OK 
stuff. Now play this back. 
Horrors, you say? So what's 
the big technique for im- 
provement? 

1 . Ungrit your teeth and take 
a warm bath. Then with the 
thumb and the next two 
fingers, lightly grasp the 
paddle in the space position. 
Breathe normally. Start at 15 
wpm with a few Vs. 

2. Start every letter by 
moving the paddle to the left 
side. 

3. In between letters for the 
spaces, let go of your light 
grasp without removing your 
hand. 

4. To send every letter or 
number, go from left to right 
to left until the letter or 
number is completed. 

Letter A would be left, - RIGHT. 

B L-f-l-r. 

C: L - r - L - r. 

0- L - r — i and so on. 

Figure number one: l-R— L — R — L_ 

Take a few runs at the 



alphabet and some numbers 
while recording yourself and 
try the playback again. Better 
now? 

Stick to the procedure. 
Very important is #S, the 
loosening of the grasp 
between letters. This gives 
you dash length spaces. Try 
not to rush through the dot 
sequences {such as in the let- 
ters 5 and H), When you 
begin to make error s, stop. 
Weiner's machine got psycho 
and ran into walls when it 
was tired out. He had to put 
it to bed and turn off the 
lights! 

When signals are weak and 
covered with pulses of QRN 
or M, any sloppy sending is 
very difficult to copy. Good 
spacing will permit much 
better copy by your victim. 
This of course goes for all 
keying and for any speed. 
This also goes for handwriting 
or skywriting. 

The Stdeswiper is no toy. 
It has been manufactured in 
the past by Bunnell & Co. of 
sounder and relay fame. 
Lately a Scandinavian outlet 
has been advertising one. You 
may wish to build your own. 
The outline drawing gives the 
dimensions. You can use 
pieces of Mechano, pieces of 
hacksaw blades, and angle 
brackets, plus your imagina- 
tion. 



The fixed contacts may be 

made adjustable for gap 
width. A gap on each side of 
about 50 thousandths of an 
inch with plus or minus 30 
thousandths adjustment (1,0 
mm ± 0,5 mm) is best. A 
wide space is recommended 
for best inter-dot spacing 
time. If, after practice, you 
find the spaces are still too 
short, a relay adjusted to give 
a few milliseconds delay may 
be placed between the key 
and the transmitter. This 
remedy is a move of despera- 
tion and only complicates 
things Practice some more. 
The Sideswiper will never 
replace the bug types as a 
speed key, but it is a cut 
above a straight key. You will 
hear it in use by both ama- 
teur and commercial stations 
throughout the world. With 
care, a speed of 30 words per 
minute is feasible. You 
probably will have a fist that 
your friends will recognize. !f 
you send poorfy, and you 
have a KX prefix, some guy 
will turn his beam toward YU 
land and give you a call. It 
happens with other keyers, 
too, however. Whatever key 
you use, try for good spacing 
or your NAG will be MUD. ■ 

References 

Robinson's Manual, U.S. Naval 
lnst. P 1918, p, 222. 

2 73, May, 1976, p. 38. 



45 



FCC 



Before the 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS 

COMMISSION 

Washington, D.C, 20554 

In the matter of 

Deregulation of Part 97 
of the Commission's Rules 
to simplify the licensing and 
operation of complex systems of 
Amateur Radio stations and modifi- 
cation of repeater subbands. 

Docket No. 2 1033 

RM-2664 
RM2780 

NOTICE OF INQUIRY AND 

NOTICE OF PROPOSED 

RULEMAKING 

Adopted: December 22, 1976 
Released: January 6, 1977 

By the Commission: Commissioner 
Quel I o absent. 

1, The Commission has before it the two 
above captioned Petitions for Ruie Making. 
Submitted in accordance with the Admims- 
tritum Procedure Act 5 U5,C 553leL and 
the remission's Rules, 47 CF.fi. §1.401. 
Etch of these Petitions for fiuie Making 
neks revision of Parr. 97 of the Commit 
sion'i Rul«, 47 C.F.R* §B7J, et *eo ., 
concerning the licensing or operation of 
station* In the Amateur Radio Service, 

2, The petitioner* in RM*2664. Mr, 
Gordon Schlesinger end Mr. William F. 
Kelfey. request explicit recognition in the 
Rules of so-called "remotely controlled base 
stations." They state that considerable con- 
fusion axlltS concerning the definition and 
operation of remotely controlled base sta- 
tions, and that there 1& a need for specific 
rules to regulate the opera tiorv of such 
stations. Petitioners have proposed specific 
rules which, if adopted, would both add to 
the rules several provisions concerning 
remotely controlled base stations and sub- 
stantially relax the requirements for the 
operation of such stations. We have also 
received severe I comments from interested 
parties supporting the basic proposals of 
RM-2S64. 

3, The Middle Atlantic FM and Repeater 
Council IT-MA AC I, petitioner in RM 2780, 
seeks simplification of the Amateur Radio 
Service logging requirements, particularly 
the rules requiring the notation of all third 
party traffic sent and received, the retention 
of station logs for one year, and the record- 
ing of transmissions from "open access" 
automatically controlled repeater stations. 
T-MARC stales that much of the logging 
required by the Rules is of little benefit to 
either Amateur operators or the Commission 
and requests that logging requirements be 
re taxed accordingly. 

4, We be N eye some of the proposals in 
the petitions we have received merit serious 
discussion, and we are herein proposing 
revisions of Part 97 of the Rules which, it 
adopted, would result in a substantial simpli 
fi cation of the licensing and operation of 
stations in the Amateur Radio Service 
presently licensed as repeater stations, con 
trot stations, auxiliary link stations, and all 
Other rumotely controlled station*,, such as 
remotely controlled base stations. The revi- 
sions we are Considering, which are discussed 
at greater length below, would both accom- 
modate many of petitioners' wishes and 
would be a significant step in the Commis- 
sion's program of deregulation of the Ama- 
teur Radio Service. 



5. Since adopting rules governing the 
operation and licensing of repeater and 
associated stations in 1 972 in Docket t B803. 
37 FCC 2d 225 (19721, the Commission has 
steadily reduced the burden placed on appli- 
cants for and licensees of complex systems 
of amateur radio stations and has afforded 
such licensees increasingly greater flexibility 
<n the operation of such stations For exam- 
ple, In Orders adopted January 10, 1074, 
and November 17. 1975, we deleted tht 
requirements that certain technical showings 
be submitted with license applications for 
repeater and remotely controlled stations. In 
Reports and Orders in Dockets 20073. 
20112, and 20113, adopted May 26, 1975, 
June 11, 1975, and October 29, 1975, 
respectively, the Commission revised its 
Rules to permit the linking, automatic con 
trol, and cross-band operation of amatrjur 
repeater stations. 

6. Our experience since adoption of the 
rules regulating the licensing and operation 
of repeater and associated stations in Docket 
18803 has demonstrated (hat amateur radio 
operators are fully capable of developing and 
operating complex systems of nations with a 
minimum of regulation by the Commission, 
We are iware of no compelling reason why 
amateurs wishing to operate repeater, auxil- 
iary, control, or remotely controlled stations 
should Continue to be required to obtain 
Commission per miss ton before beginning 
SUCh operation, as they have in the peat For 
this reason, we propose to delete those 
provision* of Sections 97.40. 97.41. and 
97 43 of the Rules requiring that I milieu 
obtain prior approval of the Commission to 
operate a remotely con trolled station and 
requiring mat repeater stations, control sta- 
tions, end auxiliary link stations be sepa- 
rately licensed, We would discontinue the 
issuance of station licenses with '"combined" 
station privileges: ail amateur station licenses 
would convey authority to operate as re- 
peater, control, auxiliary link, and rtrnotety 
controlled stations now operate. Functions 
now conducted by repeater stations would 
be conducted under a form of station 
operation known as "repeater operation.'' 
Functions now conducted by control sta- 
tions and auxiliary link stations would be 
combined In a single form of station opera- 
tion known as "auxiliary operation, 1 ' Auxil- 
iary operation would serve to meat the need 
for point to point links within a system of 
stations, Including the transmission of con- 
trol and communication signals to other 
stations within a system, and the need for 
the automatic relaying of signals received at 
one location in a system of stations to 
stations at other locations within the system. 
Section 97,3 of the Rules would be revised 
to include new definitions of repeater and 
auxiliary operation. 

7. Similarly, we believe that operators of 
Other remotelv controlled stations, such as 
remotely controlled base stations, have 
demonstrated the capability of adequately 
controlling the emissions of such stations, 
and that the prohibition against the opera- 
tion of such stations from control points in 
portable or mobile operation, presently 
contained in Section 97.1 1 0f h) of the Rules, 
may be unduly restrictive. Accordingly,, we 
propose to revise the Rules to permit the 
portable and mobile operation of all pri- 
mary, secondary, and club stations when 
such station I at* in repeater or auxiliary 
operation, 

8. Because no new station licenses would 
be issued to repeater stations, as such, we 
propose to discontinue our policy of assign- 
ing call signs prefixed with the letters "WR". 
Stations presently assigned such call signs 
would ba permitted to retain them indefi- 
nitely. A licensee wishing to engage in 
repeater operation end wishing to obtain a 
"WR" call sign would be required to request 
that prefix. Stations with "WR" call signs 
would be restricted to repeater operation, 
however, 

9. Because stations in repeater or auxil- 



iary operation would be taking advantage of 
specialised modes of operation, we believe 
the transmissions of such stations should be 
distinctively identified. We propose to 
require that auxiliary or repeater operations 
conducted by stations with "traditional" call 
signs (that is, call signs not prefixed with the 
letters "WR") be identified by the addition 
of a distinctive suffix to the station call sign. 
Stations in repeater operation would be 
identified by the addition of the suffix "Ft". 
**RPT", or the word "repeater" to the 
regular call sign. Stations in auxiliary opera- 
tion would be identified by the addition of 
the suffix "A". "AUX rt « Or the word "auxil- 
iary'" to the regular call sign, We also 
propose to revise the Station identification 
requirement for stations in repeater opera- 
lion or stations in auxiliary operation auto- 
matically relaying (he signals of other sta- 
tions in a system to require identification of 
intervals of at least ten, rather than five, 
minutes. 

10, Petitioner in RM-27BQ seeks relaxa- 
tion of certain logging requirements, and we 
are considering deletion of the requirement 
found In Section 97,11l(gK2t of the Rules 
that communications from open access 
stations In repeater operation under auto- 
matic control be either monitored in real 
time by the duty or control operator or 
recorded and the recordings retained for a 
period of thirty days. This requirement, 
which was originally intended to ensure that 
licensees have the capability of determining 
whether their stations were being used 
properly during periods whan no control 
operator was on duty, has proven to be of 
little bent fit to the Commission and may 
unduly burden licensees operating "open" 
repeater stations under automatic control. 
Of course, the licensee of a station would 
continue to be responsible for its proper 
operation, and we wish to receive comments 
addressing the issue of the continued useful- 
ness to the Amateur Service of the recording 
requirement in ensuring the proper opera- 
tion of "open" automatical I y controlled 
repeater stations. 

11, We are proposing to revise the 
present rule that all remotely controlled 
stations have entered in their logs a list of all 
authorized control points and copies of all 
control and auxiliary link station licenses to 
i e qui re the entering of the names, addresses, 
and primary call signs of all authorised 
control operators. Such a revision would be 
based on the proposition that the responsi- 
bility for the proper operation of a remotely 
controlled station should be traceable to 
specific control operators rather than specific 
land Locations. We also propose to require 
the posting of a li«t of authorized control 
operators at the remotely controlled trans- 
mitter site, We are not proposing to da lata 
the requirements that the logs of stations in 
repeater or auxiliary operation contain car- 
tain specialized technical information, how- 
ever. 

12, Additionally, it appears that many 
Amateur operators seek greater flexibility in 
the choice of frequencies for repeater and 
auxiliary operation. Operators of remotely 
controlled base stations, for example, are 
not restricted to the repeater frequency 
subbands listed in Section 97,81 of the 
Rules, although remotely controlled base 
stations closely resemble repeater stations 
and it may be that such stations should be 
treated identically. We are therefore propos- 
ing to permit both repeater and auxiliary 
operation on alt frequencies allocated to ihe 
Amateur Radio Service, except 435 to 436 
MHz, and to delete the requirement that 
frequencies below 225 MHz uied for auxil- 
iary operation be monitored by the control 
operator before and during periods of opera- 
tion. We would revise Section 97.63 of the 
Rules, however, to emphasize the two 
principles which have made possible the 
efficient operation of many amateur radio 
stations in relatively small spectrum space, 
namely, that a station using e frequency has 
first priority in such use over other stations, 
and that all frequencies allocated to the 
Amateur Service are shared on a non- 
exclusive basis- It is presently the responsi- 
bility of amateur licensees to strike an 
appropriate balance between these principles 



to ensure the fair and efficient use of 
available spectrum. 

13. The Commission is aware that 
adoption of the rules proposed herein could 
result in a significant increase in the number 
of repeater, remotely controlled station, and 
associated activities pursued by amateur 
licensees. We are also aware that severe 
frequency congestion ts, presently being 
experienced in some parts of the country, 
and that the possibility exists that increased 
interference might result from adoption of 
these revisions. Many amateurs have volun- 
tarily established techniques for managing 
available spectrum, and we commend such 
efforts, We are not prepared to make specific 
recommendations in this area at Ihe present 
time, but we are nonetheless interested in 
receiving comments concerning present and 
future anticipated interference patterns, 
whether present techniques used by amateur 
operators to limit interference are adequate 
or could be improved, and whether present 
levels of voluntary cooperation are sufficient 
to justify continuation of the existing 
cooperative system, In this regard, we wish 
to receive comments concerning the utility 
of the limitations on the effective radiated 
power of stations In repeater operation 
contained in Section 97.67 of the Rules, 
Should such limitations be eliminated in 
their entirety, modified, or retained without 
change? What limitations, if any, should ba 
placed on the effective n dieted power of 
stations in repeater operation operating on 
frequencies not currently listed in Section 
97.67 of the Rules? 

14. The specific rule revisions we are 
proposing are set forth in the attached 
Appendix, Authority for these proposals is 
contained in Sections 4|i) and 303 of fhe 
Communications Act of 1934, as amended. 
We invite interested parties to submit com- 
ments concerning our proposals on or before 
April 1 F 1977 and reply comments on or 
before April 15, 1977. An original and five 
copies of all comments submitted shall be 
furnished the Commission, pursuant to 
Section 1.419 of the Rules Respondents 
wishing each Commissioner to have a 
personal copy of the commeno may submit 
an additional six copies. Members of the 
public wishing to express interest in our 
proposals may participate informally by 
submitting on a copy of their comments, 
without regard to form, provided the correct 
Docket number h specified in the heading of 
the comments. 

15. Individuals wishing to inspect the 
comments and reply comment! filed In this 
proceeding may do so during regular busi- 
ness hours, 8;Q0 A.M. to 4; 30 P.M., in the 
Commission's Public Reference Room, 1919 
"M" Street N,Vv + , Washington, DC. 20654. 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS 

COMMISSION 

Vtncamt J, MulJini 

Secretary 

APPENDIX 

Part 97 of Chapter 1 of Title 47 of ihe Code 
of federal Regulations is proposed to be 
amended, as follows 

1. In §97.3, paragraphs |iL M and (n) ire 
revised, as follows: 
§97,3 Definitiont, 

(i) Additional itation An amateur radio 
station, other than a primary station, includ- 
ing ihe following: 

Secondary station. An amateur radio station 
licensed for a land I oca! ion other than the 
primary station location. A station assigned 
a call sign prefixed with the letters "WR" It 
also considered to be a secondary station, 
Specie! event station. An amateur radio 
station licensed for a specific land location 
for operation designed to bring public notice 
to the Amateur Radio Service and related to 
the celebration of an event, past or present, 
lArhich Is unique and nf general interest to 
either the public at large or amateur radio 
operators, 

{ml Amateur radio operation. Amateur radio 
communication conducted by amateur radio 
operators from amateur radio star ions, 
including the following 
Mob He operation Radiocommunication 



46 



conducted while in motion or during halts at 
unspecified locations 

Repeater Operation. Radiocomm unicati on, 
other than auxiliary operation, for retrans- 
mitting automatically the radio signal* of 
other amateur radio stations. 
Auxiliary operation. Ratirocom muni cat ion 
for remotely controlling other amateur radio 
stations, for automatically relaying the- radio 
signals of other amateur radio stations in a 
system of stations, or for intercommunicat- 
ing with other amateur radio stations in a 
system of stations, 

(n) CorttroL Techniques used to operate an 
amateur radio station. Must tie one or more 
of the following: 

Automatic control. The use of devices and 
procedures for control so that a control 
operator does not have to he present at the 
control point at all times, (Only rules lor 
automatic control of repeater operation have 
been adopted. Automatic control of ail 
other types of amateur radio operation must 
be approved by die Commission in advance 
on i case by case basis.) 
2- In §97.40, paragraphs (rj) and it) are 
deleted, and paragraph (c) is revised as 



§97,40 Stmtiort license requited, 
<d An amateur radio operator may be issued 
one or more additional station licenses. A 
secondary station license shall not be issued 
to an amateur radio operator for a land 
location where a primary station license has 
been issued to the same amateur radio 
operator, This section does not apply to 
stations assigned call signs prefixed by the 
letters "WR". 

3. In §97 41. paragraph (cl is deleted, 
paragraphs (dj, (er P (fl, and Igl are redesig- 
nated paragraphs (cj. Id), (eh and If}, 
respectively, and paragraph (b) is revised', as 
follows 

§97.41 Apptfcaoon for station Hcense, 
lb) Except for applications for club stations 
and military recreation stations, each appli- 
cation must state whether the proposed 
station is a primary or additional station. If 
the proposed station is an additional station. 
the application must state the type of 
additional station. 

4. §97,43 is revised, as f ol lows: 
§97 43 Location of station, 

Every amateur radio station must have one 
land location, the address of which appears 
on the station license, and at least one 
control point, 

5. In §97.53* paragraph ti) is redesignated 
paragraph (k), and a new paragraph (i) is 
added, as follows: 

§97.53 Policies and procedures appttcahfe to 
assignment of call signs. 
(j) A station only engaging in repeater 
operation may be assigned a call sign pre- 
fixed by the letters "WR". 
& In §97.61, paragraphs la) and let are 
revised end a new paragraph (tf) is added, as 
follows: 

§97.61 Authorized frcQuencres and emis- 
ajMBX 

la) The following frequency bands and 
associated emissions are available to amateur 
radio stations for amateur radio operation, 
other than repeater and auxiliary operation, 
subject to the limitations listed in paragraph 
|b) of this section and §97.65 
|c) All frequency bands and the associated 
omissions authorised by paragraph (a} of this 
section, except 435 to 433 MHz, are avail- 
able for repeater operation, including input 
(receiving) and output I transmitting), 
(dl All amateur frequency bands, except 435 
to 438 MlHt, are available for auxiliary 
operation. 

7, In §97,83, the headnote is revised and 
the text amended, as follows: 
1 97,63 $*t*C tron and use of freouenctes. 
(a I Although an amateur station occupying a 
frequency lilted in §97.61 has first priority 
in the use of that frequency over other 
amateur stations, such frequencies shall not 
be assigned for The exclusive use of any 
amateur licensee or licensees and must be 
shared. 

(b) All Amateur Radio Service licensees shall 
cooperate in the selection and use of autho- 
rized frequencies and shall take such other 
steps as may be necessary to minimize 
interference to other amateur radio s cations. 



Licensees making prolonged use of a particu- 
lar frequency or frequencies shall cooperate 
with Other licensees in the use of such 
frequency or frequencies, 
fc) Sideband frequencies resulting from key- 
ing or modulating a carrier wave shall be 
confined within the authorized amateur 
band. 

Id) The frequencies available for use by 
control operators of amateur stations an 
dependent on the operator license classifica- 
tion of the control operator and are listed m 
§97.7. 

8 In §97.67, paragraph id is revised, as 
follows: 
§97.67 Maximum authorized power. 

(c) Within the limitations of paragraphs (a) 
and {bl of this section, the effective radiated 
power of an amateur radio station in 
repeater operation shall not exceed thai 
specified for the antenna height above aver 
age terrain in the lot rowing table: 

9. §97J3 is redesignated §97.82 as fol- 
lows: 

§97.82 Availability of operator ficefts* 

10. §97.85 is redesignated §97.82. as fol- 
lows: 

§97 A3 Amiability of station license. 
11 §97 87 is redesignated §97,84. and 
paragraphs (cl. id), and I el are revised, as 
follows 

§97.84 Stat ion identification. 
(cl Amateur radio stations in repeater opera- 
tion or stations in auxiliary operation used 
to re Fay automatically the signals of other 
stations in a system, shall be identified by 
radiotele phony or radiotaleo/aphy at inter- 
vals not to exceed ten minutes. 

(d) When an amateur radio station is in 
repeater or auxiliary operation, the follow- 
ing additional information shall be trans- 
mitted: 

11} When identifying by radioteJephony* 
a station in repeater operation shall transmit 
the word "repeater" at the end of ttw 
station call sign When identifying by radio 
teiegraphy. a station in repeater operation 
shall transmit the fraction bar 5N followed 
by the letters **IT or "RFT' at the end of 
the station call sign. {The requirements of 
paragraph id)f 11 of this section do not apply 
to stations having all call signs prefixed by 
the letters 'WfV'J 

121 When identifying by radiotelephone 
a station in auxiliary operation shall transmit 
the word "auxiliary" at the end of the 
station call sign, When identifying by radio* 
telegraphy, a station in auxiliary operation 
shall transmit the fraction bar DM followed 
by the letters "A" or "AUX" at the end of 
the station call sign. 

(e) A station in auxiliary operation may be 
identified by the call sign of its associated 
stauon. 

12. A new §97.85 is added, as follows 
§97.85 Repea tet opera tion . 
lat Emissions from a station in r e pe a ta r 
operation shaH be discontinued within five 
seconds after cessation of radiocommunica 
lions by the user station Provisions to limit 
automatically the access to a station in 
repeater operation may be incorporated but 
are not mandatory. 

lb) Except for automatic control operations. 
as provided in paragraph |e| of this section, 
the transmitting and receiving frequencies 
used by a station in repeater operation shall 
be continuously monitored by the control 
operator im mediately before and during 
periods of operation. 

tcj A station in repeater operation may 
concurrently receive and retransmit amateur 
radio signals on one or more frequency 
bands authorized (or repeater operation. A 
station in repeater operation, operating in 
conjunction with one or more stations in 
auxiliary opera lion relaying radio sign aft 
received at other locations to stations in 
repeater operation, may use input fre- 
quencies not available for repeater opera 
tion. provided the input frequencies to the 
stations in auxiliary operation are in fre- 
quency bands authorised for repeater opera 
tion. 

Id) A station in repeater operation shall be 
operated in a manner ensuring that the 
station is not used for one-way communica- 
tions, except is provided in §97.91. 
(e] A station in repeater operation, either 



locally controlled or remotely controlled, 
may also be operated by automatic control 
when devices have bean installed and pro- 
cedures have been implemented to ensure 
compliance with the rules when the duty 
control operator n not present at the control 
point of the station. Upon notification by 
the Commission of improper operation of a 
station under automatic control, such opera- 
tion shall be immediately discontinued until 
all deficiencies have been co^ecied- 
(f) A station assigned a call sign prefixed by 
the letters "WR" shall engage only in 
repeater operation. 

13, A new §97.86 4s added, as follows: 
§97.86 Auxiliary operation. 

A station in auxiliary operation, either 
locally controlled or remotely controlled, 
may also be operated by automatic control 
when it is operated as a part of a system of 
stations in repeater operation operated 
under automatic Control. 

14. §97 88 is ret i tied and revised, as fej* 
lows: 

§97.88 Operation of stations by remote 
GOntrof. 

An amateur radio station may be remotely 
controlled when there is compliance with 
the following: 

la) A photocopy of the remotely controlled 
station license and i Hit of authorised 
control operators, their names, addresses, 
and primary call signs, must be posted in a 
conspicuous place at the remotely controlled 
operator, or shall be carried in the possession 
of any control operator controlling the 
remotely controlled station from a station in 
auxiliary operation being operated portable 
or mobile. The transmitting antenna, trans- 
mission line, or mait. av appropriate, associ- 
ated with the remotely controlled trans- 
mitter must bear a durable tag marked with 
the station call sign, the names of the station 
licensee and all author ized control operators 
and such other information as may be 
necessary to enable the Commission to 
quickly contact the control operators, 
(c) Except to* operation under automatic 
control, a control operator designated by the 
licensee must be on duty when the station is 
being remotely controlled. Immediately 
before and during the periods the remotely 
controlled station is in operation, the fre- 
quencies used for emission by the remotely 
controlled station must be monitored by die 
control operator. The control operator shall 
terminate all transmissions upon any devia- 
tion from the rules. 

|e) A station in repeater operation shall be 
operated by radio remote control only when 
the control link uses frequencies other than 
the station's receiving frequencies- 
15 §97.89 (Amended*. 
In §97.89. paragraphs (cl and (d) are 
deleted- 

16. In §97.103, paragraph (cM5> is deleted, 
and paragraphs (cl* (dl. and (e) are revised. 
as follows: 

§97.1 03 Station log requirements. 
fc] The log of a remotely controlled station 
shall have entered the names, addresses, and 
primary call signs Of all authorized control 
Operators and a functional block diagram of 
a technical explanation sufficient describe 
the operation of the control link. Addi- 
tionally, the following Information shall be 
entered: 

(1) A description of the measures taken 
for protection against access to the remotely 
controlled station by unauthorized persons; 

(2) A description of the measures taken 
for protection against unauthorized station 
operation, either through activation of the 
control link, or otherwise; 

\3) A description of the provisions for 
shutting down the station in case of control 
link malfunction; and 

(4) A description of die means for mom 
taring the transmitting frequencies, 
(dl When a station has one or more associ- 
ated stations, that is, stations m repeater or 
auxiliary operation, a system network dia- 
gram shall be entered in the station log. 
(el The log of a station in repeater operation 
shall have the following information entered 
for each frequency band in use: 

|1| The location of the station trans- 
mitting antenna, marked upon a topographic 
map having a scale of 1i 250,000 and con 



tour intervals; 

121 The antenna transmitting height 
above average terrain; 

131 The effective radiated power in the 
horizontal plane for the main lobe of the 
antenna pattern, calculated for maximum 
transmitter Output power, 

(41 The transmitter output power; 

151 The loss in the transmission line 
between the transmitter and the antenna, 
expressed in decibels: 

{61 The relative gain in the horizontal 
plane of the transmitting antenna; and 

{71 The horizontal and vertical radiation 
patterns of the transmitting antenna, with 
reference to true north (for horizontal pat- 
tern onlyfc r expressed as relative field 
strength (voltage) or in decibels, drawn upon 
polar coordinate graph paper, and the meth- 
od used in determining these patterns. 
(II The log of a station in auxiliary operation 
shall have the following information 

entered" 

IDA system network diagram for each 
system with which the station is associated; 
(2) The station transmitting band Is*, 
I3J The transmitter power input: and 
(4) If operated by remote control, the 
information required by paragraph ic) of 
this taction. 

|g) Notwithstanding the provisions of 
§97,105, the log entries required by para- 
graphs (c). (dh leL and If) of this section 
shall be retained in the station log as long as 
the information contained In those entries is 
accurate. 

U. §97.109 (Deleted), 
§97.109 is deleted, 
IS, §97,110 (Deleted). 
§97.110 is deleted 

19. §97 111 (Deleted). 
§97,111 is deleted 

20. §97. ! 2fi is revised, as follows: 
§97,1 26 Retransmitting: radm signals. 

Ho amateur radio station, except a station in 
repeater or auxiliary operation or a radio 
remotely controlled station., may auto- 
matically retransmit the rad*o signals of 
other amateur radio stations. A remotely 
controlled station, other than a remotely 
controlled station in repeater or auxiliary 
operation, shall re Transmit only the radio 
signals of stations in auxiliary operation 
shown on the station's system network 
diagram, 

21 . §97.131 is revised, as follows: 
§97.181 Availability of RACES station 
//cerise and operator licenses. 

lb) In addition to the operator license 
availability requirements of §97,82, a 
photocopy of the control operator's amateur 
radio operator license shall be posted at a 
conspicuous place at the control point of the 
RACES station. 



Before the 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS 

COMMISSION 

Washington, DC 20554 

In the Matter of 

Editorial amendments of Parts 0, 
1, and 97 of the Commission's 
Rules to change the name of the 
Amateur and Citizens Division to 
the Personal Radio Division. 

ORDER 

Adopted: January 5, 1977; 
Released: January 6, 1977 



1. This Order is being issued to change 
i he organization statement ol the Safety and 
Special Radio Services Bureau. The Amateur 
and Cili/ens Division has recently undergone 
reorganization, and the name of the Division 
is herewith changed to the Personal Radio 
Division. 

2. This amendment relates to internal 
Commission organization, and hence, the 



47 



prior notice, procedure, and effactiinj date 
provisions of the Administrative Procedures 
Act IS USC 553* are not applicable. 
Author sty (or the promulgation of this 
amendment is contained in Sections 4(i), 
5(b), Sid), and 303 of the Communication* 
Act of 1934. k amended and Section 
231 Id I of the Co mrniss ion's Rules, 

3. Accordingly. IT ISORDEfiED, effec- 
tive January 20. 1977, that Parts 0, 1 . and 
97 Of the ft uTes and Regulations if* 
amended as set forth tn the Appendix 
attached hereto. 

FEDERAL 

COMMUNICATIONS 

COMMISION 

Richard D. Lichtwardt 

Executive Director 

MOTE: Rules changes herein will be covered 
byT,S.lt74t-7 + 

APPENDIX 

Parts 0, 1, nnd 97 of Chapter 1 of Tiilu 
47 of the Code of Federal Regulations are 
amended, as follow*: 

In Sections 0,1 32(e). 1.951(a). 97.25dJl. 
and 97.41(d), the words "Amateur and 
Citizens Division" are deleted, and the words 
"ftrsonal Radio Division" are substituted in 
each Instance there fore. 



Before the 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS 

COMMISSION 

Washington, DC. 20654 

In the matter of 

Revision of Part* 0, 1 r and 97 
of the Commission's Rules to 
institute a system of Interim 
Amateur Permits in the 
Amateur Radio Service 

ORDER 
Adopted: January 5, 1977 
Released: January 13, 1977 

By the Commission: Commissioner 
Lee absent. 

1. Under the existing Amateur Radio 
Service licensing system, Amateur Radio 
Service licensees successfully completing 
examinations for higher class licenses than 
the licenses they hold must wait while their 
new license applications are processed at the 
Com mission's Gettysburg. Pennsylvania, 
facility before they may take advantage of 
the added privileges afforded them by their 
new operator licenses. A delay of several 
weeks may be involved, although both the 



licensee and the Commission am aware of 
the results Of the examination and know a 
new license will be issued. 

2. By thts Order, we are revising Parts 0, 
1, and 97 or the Commission's Rules to 
permit the issuance of Interim Amateur 
Permits by the Engineers in Charge of the 
vinous Commission field office*, Interim 
Amateur Permits (FCC Form 660 B) will be 
issued to applicants already holding amateur 
operator licenses as soon as possible after 
successful completion of higher class license 
examinations and will author ire immediate 
utilization ol all additional operating pnv 

I leges acquired. Licensees operating under 
the authority of Interim Amateur Permits 
wilt be required to add distinctive suffices to 
(heir station call signs denoti no the Commis- 
sion district office at which their higher class 
hcrtties were obtained. Interim Amateur 
Permits will be valid for a period of 90 days 
or until issuance of the permanent station 
and operator licenses, whichever is less. A 
record of the issuance of an Interim Ama- 
teur Permit will be retained at the office ol 
Issuance, and requests for confirmation ot an 
operator's status must be directed to that 
office. 

3. Authority for these amendmenti 
appears En Sections 4{\\ t 5{d), 303, 307, 308, 
and 309 ot the Communications Act of 
1934. as amended. Some of the amendments 
adopted herein are editorial and procedural 
in nature, and the prior notice and public 
procedure provisions of the Administrative 
Procedure Act. S U.S.C. 553. are not 
applicable Further, because of the enor 
mous number of Amateur and Citiitns 
Radio Service license applications we receive 
each month, rapid implementation of the 
interim permit system is essential, and we 
are, for good cause, dispensing with the prior 
notice and public procedure provisions of 
the Administrative Procedure Act as im- 
practicable, 

4. Accordingly., in view of the foregoing, 
the public interest being served thereby. IT 
IS ORDERED that Parti 0, 1. and 97 ol the 
Commissions Rules ARE AMENDE D as iet 
forth in the attached Appendix effective 
March I, 1977, 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS 

COMMISSION 

Vincent X Mullins 

Secretary 

NOTE: Rules changes herein will be covered 
byT.SJ(74)-7> 

APPENDIX 

Parts 0, 1 f and 97 of Chapter 1 of Title 47 of 

the Code of Federal Regulations are 

amended, as follows: 

1, In §0.314, a new paragraph, lv). is 

added, as follows: 

§0.3 1 4 Addtoonaf authority delegated. 

Iv) To issue Interim Amateur Permits to 

Amateur Radio Service licensees, pursuant 

to Part 97 of this Chapter. 



Tracking 

the Hamburglar 



LOOTED; Regency H R-2A with extra 
osc. deck for xmrt section, s/n 
0406931. Has following crystals 
(xtnit) 146.37, 52, 34, 07, 19, 16. 94 
(revr) 146,97, 52, 76, 67, 79, 94 
marked with Dymo tape on front* Has 
special telephone female jack hanging 
from back for touchtones. Also 
Regency AR-2 two meter amplifier, 
s/n 11 5-0 388. These were stolen 
between December 18 and 22, 1976 
from under dash of two tone green 
pickup truck in my driveway at 11313 
Gravenhurst Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



A 50 dollar reward is offered leading 
to convictions of suspects involved. 
Notify Herbert L Drake WSQtL, 
11318 Gravenhurst Drive, Cincinnati, 
Ohio 45231, or your local police 
department. Items have been entered 
into (NCIC) FBI computer, by Police 
Dept., Colerain Twp (Hamilton 
County] Ohio 0H031 4200. 

LOOTED: I com 22S, s/n 2265. Chan- 
neled for: 94/94, 22/82 r 28/88, 
52/52, 16/76, and 90/30. Homebrew 
1800 cycles osc. built into AM radio 



2. In §1.922, a new FCC Form and Title 
are added, as follows: 
§ 1 .922 Forms to be used. 
FCC Form Tilt* 

6&0-B Interim Amateur Permit 

3 in § 1 ,925, the headnote ■* amended, and 
a new paragraph, let. is added, as follows: 
§1.925 Application for specie/ temporary 
Authorization, temporary permit^ or mterfm 
amateur permit- 

1t) Upon successful completion of a Com 
mission supervised Amateur Radio Service 
operator examination, an applicant already 
licensed in the Amateur Radio Servict may 
Operate his amateur radio station pending 
issuance of his permanent amateur station 
and operator licenses by the Commission for 
a period of 90 days or until issuance ot the 
permanent operator and station licenses, 
whichever comes first* under the authority 
of a properly executed Interim Amateur 
Permit I FCC Form 660 B I An interim 
Amateur Permit conveys all operating priv- 
ileges of the licensees new license, but may 
be set aside by the Commit inn within th« 
90 day term if it appears that the permanent 
operator and station licenses cannot be 
granted routinely. 
4. §1.934 is revised, as follows: 
§1,934 Procedure with respect to amateur 
radio operator license. 

After an application for an amateur radio 
operator license is accepted and an examina- 
tion conducted by the Commission in 
accordance with Part 97 of this Chapter, the 
examination is graded by the office super vis 
inq the examination, IF the applicant is 
successful, and if the applicant already holds 
a license in the Amateur Radio Service, the 
supervising office issues the applicant an 
Interim Amateur Permit conveying all 
operating privileges of the applicant's new 
operator license The results of the exam* na- 
tion are forwarded to the Commission's 
Gettysburg. Pennsylvania facility for issu- 
ance of ■ license. 

5 In §1.1 US, paragraph (cK8r H revised, 
as follows: 

§1.1115 Scnedute of fees tor me Safety and 
Special Radio Services. 
Id 

(6) Applications for Interim Amateur Per- 
mits Oi Novice Class licenses in ine Amateur 
Radio Service, applications foi amateur sta- 
tions under military auspices, and applica- 
tions in the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency 
Service IRACES1 

8. In Section 97.3(d), the definition lor 
"operator license" is emended and a new 
definition, "Interim Amateur Permit/' is 
added, as follows: 
§97.3 Definitions. 
tdf 

Operator license. The instrument of authori- 
zation including the class of operator priv- 
ileges. 

Interim Amateur Permit, A temporary 
operator and station authorization issued to 
licensees successfully completing Commis- 
sion supervised examinations for higher dan 
li 



Station license. The instrument of authoriza- 
tion for a radio nation in the Amateur 
Radio Service. 

7. Anew §37 ,32 is added, as foJ low? 
§97.32 interim Amateur Permit*. 
la I Upon successful completion ot a Com- 
mission supervised Amateur Radio Service 
operator examination, an applicant already 
licensed in the Amateur Radio Service may 
operate his amateur radio station pending 
issuance of his permanent amateur operator 
and station licenses under the terms and 
conditions of an Interim Amateur Permit 
evidenced by a properly executed FCC Form 
660- B. 

|b) An Interim Amateur Permit conveys all 
operating privileges of the applicants new 
operator license classification, 

(c) The transmissions of amateur radio sta- 
tions operated under the authority of 
Interim Amateur Permits shell be identified 
in the manner specified in §97.87. 

(d) The original: Interim Amateur Permit of 
an amateur radio operator shall bo kept In 
the personal possession of or posted in a 
conspicuous place in the room occupied by 
such operator when operating an amateur 
radio station under the authority of an 
Interim Amateur Permit, 

(e) Interim Amateur Permits are valid for a 
period of 90 days from the date of issuance 
or until issuance of the permanent station 
and operator licenses, whichever domes first, 
but may be set aside by the Commission 
within the 90 day term if it appears that the 
permanent operator and station licenses can- 
not be granted routinely. 

If) Interim Amateur Permits shall not be 

renewed. 

8. In Section 97.87. paragraph (fl as 

amended, "a redesignated paragraph (gl and a 

new paragraph H) is added, as follows: 

§97.87 Station identification. 

(f) When operating: under the authority of en 
Interim Amateur Permit with privileges 
authorized by the Permit* but which exceed 
the privileges of the licensees permanent 
Operator license, the station must be identi- 
fied in the following manner 

111 On radiotelephony. by the transmis- 
sion of the station call sign, followed by the 
word "interim." f ot lowed by the special 
identifier shown on the interim permit; 

(2) On radintelcqraphy. by the transmit' 
srnn of the station call sign, followed by the 
fraction bar Eft, followed by the special 
identifier shown on the interim permit. 

(g) The identification required by this sec- 
tion shall be given on each frequency being 
utilized for transmission and shall be trans- 
mitted either by telegraphy using the inter- 
na tionaj Morse code, or by telephony, using 
the English language. If the identification 
required by this section is made by an 
automatic device used only for identification 
by telegraphy, the code speed shall not 
exceed 20 words per minute. The Commis- 
sion encourages the use of a nationally or 
internationally recognized standard phonetic 
alphabet as an aid for correct telephone 
identification. 



was stolen with rig. Stolen from: Ed 
Weiss W0SSJ, 4501 West Kentucky 
*56, Denver CO 80210. 

ABDUCTED: Regency HR-2M5, */n 
11-01554. Channeled for: 34/94, 
22/82, 16/76, 143-99/148.01, 94/94 
and 82/82* Stolen in Topeka, Kansas 
from: C. E. Widsieen 303-687-3142, 
Box 937, Woodland Park CO 80863. 

RUSTLED: Motorola JUletrum II, 



-C064 with 94, 76, 88, 82 r 67. 75, 

85, 34, 70, 52, 91, 79. 1B PL 
Motorola HT220 H23FFN *TP1174C 
with separate 12 freq t&r sw, 1BPL, 
TT on back, "custom WB9BVT" on 
rear. Robert Scott WB9BVT, 200 W. 
Chicago Ave., Oak Park IL 60302, 

VANDALIZED: Swan 350, s/n 
0-84887 from my van. Bill Zimmer- 
man K8BEB, 18071 Floral, Livonia, 
Michigan 481 52. 



Corrections 



My article "\C Audio Frequency 
Meter," Holiday issue, has an error on 
the schematic. Pin 4 of the 555 should 
connect to pin 8 instead of pin 2. 



Thanks to Hubert Minchow for find- 
ing this error. 

Gene Hinkte WA5KPG 
Austin TX 



48 



Walt Pinner WB4MYL 
7304 Lorenzo Lane 
Louisville KY 40223 



If your junk box is like 
mine, tucked way back in 
the corner is a spot where 
you throw all those un- 
marked, unidentified capaci- 
tors that you just KNOW will 
come in handy some day. 
Round ones, square ones, flat 
ones, fat ones, piston and 
bypass ones, and those a guy 
could have a great time 
screw-drivering if he just 
knew where to use *em. 

The simple circuit here is 
an easy one-evening project 
that when completed will 
provide an audio tone com- 
parison of a built-in reference 
capacitor to an unknown 
capacitor connected to the 
test clips. Bearing in mind 
that the larger the capacitor 
the lower the tone, it is a 
simple matter to establish the 
value of unmarked units. The 
circuit, as described, will 
identify caps between .5 pF 
and .001 uF by providing 
tones between 8 kHz and 100 
Hz, The heart of the tester is 
a 555 timing fC and may be 
operated from any dc voltage 
source between 8 and 14 
volts. 

An LED indicator is pro- 
vided for testing values larger 



The Capacitor 
Comparator 



- - super simple test equipment 



than ,001 uF which do not 
produce a tone but meVely 
turn the LED off and on, A 
.1 uF unit will trigger the 
indicator at approximately 5 
Hz. 

Piston, compression, and 
rotary trimmers may be iden- 
tified by first making a com- 
parison fully closed and then 
fully opened. Small gimmick 
caps made from twisted leads 
are also easily sized. 

The LED is, of course, 
optional, as well as the 
number of reference capaci- 
tors. Any NPN switching or 
audio transistor may be used 




TEST 
PEAKER CLIPS 






Fig. I. LED indicator and RX — see LED specs. Capacitor 
bank: J = . 7 pF; 2 = 3 pF; 3 = 5 pF; 4 = 10 pF; 5 = 25 pF; 6 = 
50 pF; 7=W0pF; 8 = 330 pF; 9=470pF; 10 - 680 pF; 11 = 
820 pF. Test switch - SPDT push-button. 



in place of the MPS6512, If 

the LED is not needed, the 
transistor may be eliminated 
and the speaker with its 1 uF 
coupling capacitor is con- 



nected directly to pin 3 of 
the IC Why not try a Poly 
Paks unmarked assortment — 
100 caps $1.98?? Happy 
sorting. ■ 




The LED indicator is located behind the jewel on the speaker 
grili The test clips are mounted on small bronze springs for 

easy attachment to various caps. 



49 



Logical Storage 

for Logic 



- - not recommended 

for CMOS 




My first method of storing integrated circuits left me with the wgue feeling that perhaps I 
hadn V arrived at a perfect solution to my problem. 



D, E, Sianfieid 
5406 Ga talma Dr. 
Atlanta GA Z0341 

To be honest, I really 
don't care if you paid 

less for your chips than I did 

for mine. Nor am 1 interested 
in the psychological motiva- 
tions that caused you to buy 
them. What really counts is 
that we both know that inte- 
grated circuits in a jumbled 
pile do not facilitate rapid 
retrieval of specific chips. 

By way of illustration, 
assume that today's mail 
brought several plastic bag of 
assorted chips- Their price in 
the magazine had been so low 
that you rushed off a check 
and now you have them in 
your hands, If you are like 
most of us, you will take 
your bags and find a place to 
examine their contents. 

Those who have hunted 
for buried treasure or used 
metal detectors know the 
special emotions you will feel 
as you sort through your 
chips. A 7400. Nice but 
ordinary. A 7425. What is it? 
A 74196, Maybe it's not gold 
but it sells for more than this 
whole bag cost. And so on. 
You recognize many numbers 
and remember several 
projects involving their use. 

Eventually, you've seen 
them all and, hopefully, are 
pretty pleased with your 
assortment. At this point, 
what do you do? You can do 
what I used to do and dump 
them into boxes for storage. 
You can throw them out or 
immediately build a super, 
self-clocking digital do-it-all. 

If you choose the first 
option, let me point some 
things out. First, you prob- 
ably won't remember every 
type of chip in those boxes 
for more than two minutes. 
Second, even if you do 
remember a specific chip 
being in a certain box, odds 
are that it won't be among 
the first twenty-seven you 
check. Finally, the pins on 
integrated circuits do not 
possess ama/ing mechanical 
strength. Once in a pile, these 
pins have the irritating habit 
of so interlocking themselves 
with the pins of neighboring 



50 



chips that severe bending 
leading to breakage can result 
from trying to separate them. 
One solution to all of 
these problems would be to 
mount integrated circuit 
sockets on perf or circuit 
board and plug in all your 
chips. However, a couple of 
moments spent checking the 
prices of such sockets will 
probably convince you that 
there must be a better way. If 
they don't, please send me all 
the money you can spare as I 
need it more than you. 

When I faced this problem, 
I sought a solution that 
would allow me to plug in my 
chips, but I didn't want to 
spend a lot of time or money. 
I evolved two simple solu- 
tions that quite adequately 
met these requirements. My 
first method was to punch 
small holes in a piece of 
cardboard and insert the 
chips into those holes, The 
primary advantages of this 
technique are extremely low 
cost, readily available 
materials, and the fact that 
the stacking of several boards 
results in a compact, htgh- 
density storage system. The 
principal disadvantage is that 
it does take a little time to 
punch the holes. 

My other answer to these 
problems was to stick the 
chips into a sheet of styro- 
foam and go enjoy some 
liquid refreshment. This 
method takes less time but I 
had a lot trouble finding the 
styrofoam I wanted and the 
sheets run about a dollar 
each. 

Either method works very 
well and, for various reasons, 
I use them both. However, I 
tend to use the cardboard for 
chips I don*t need right away 
and the styrofoam for those 
I've targeted toward specific 
projects. Using both methods 
is a logical choice for me, but 
you can certainly use either 
one by itself. 

There are two other points 
that may assist you in 
selecting which method to 
use: It is possible to use both 
sides of the styrofoam (which 
cuts costs in half), and the 
punched holes in the card* 



board act like sockets (which 
allows you to reinsert other 
chips into a vacated position). 
This is handy if you are 
trying to arrange the chips by 
type. 

If you decide to use card- 
board, your first step should 
be to gather your materials 
together. These include corru- 
gated cardboard, graph paper 
ruled ten spaces to the inch, a 
suitable punch, a knife, a 
ruler, some masking tape, and 
a pen or pencil. The card- 
board should be larger than 
the overall dimensions you 
desire so that it can be 
trimmed to size. I cut mine 
eight by ten inches but you 
can adjust these figures to fit 
your requirements. 

I found the graph paper 
ruled off at ten spaces to the 
inch at an office supply firm. 
While I had to buy an entire 
pad, this particular size of 
graph paper lends itself per- 
fectly to laying out boards 
using integrated circuits. 

The punch can be any- 
thing from a small nail fitted 
with a handle to a sharpened 
test probe, i used a little 
gadget called a Seam Ripper, 
used in sewing to open but- 
tonholes and pick threads. 

Once you've gathered 
these materials, you can begin 
fabrication of the board by 
using the knife to trim the 
cardboard to the size you 
want, I used eight by ten 
inches, but another size may 
suit your purposes better. A 
metal ruler or yardstick 
makes cutting a straight line 
very easy. If you anticipate 
needing more than one board, 
now is the ideal time to cut 
them. 

After the cardboard is cut, 
you may lay it aside and 
prepare a sheet of graph 
paper which will be used as a 
guide when punching the 
holes. My paper measured 
eight and one-half by eleven 
inches, so my first step was to 
draw off a block the size of 
my boards (eight by ten 
inches), If your board will be 
larger than your graph paper, 
you can glue or tape several 
pieces together to form a 
larger sheet. Again, draw off a 




Use a metal ruler or yardstick and a knife to cut a piece of 
cardboard to the desired size. 




A sheet of graph paper ruled off with ten spaces to the inch is 
prepared as a guide to be used when punching holes in the 
cardboard. 



51 




After the graph paper Is properly ruled, it is cut to the same 
size as the cardboard and attached to it with masking tape. 
Then t each of the seven intersections on the segments of the 
horizontal lines measuring six spaces in length are punched. 
The tool shown in use is called a Seam Ripper, normally used 
in sewing. 



block on your paper corres- 
ponding to the size of your 
board. 

The next objective is to 
draw off a grid marking 
where the chips will be 
placed. The most common 
chips have fourteen pins 
arranged seven on a side. The 
pins are spaced 1/10 of an 
inch apart and the spacing 
between the two sides is 3/10 
of an inch. As the chips pro- 
trude a bit beyond the pins, 
each chip will require a mini- 
mum space measuring 3/10 
by 7/10 of an inch. 

Some of the more 
complex integrated circuits 
having more than fourteen 
pins use a spacing of one-half 
inch between rows of pins. If 
you are using these types, 
you will need to make 
allowance for this fact and 
develop your own layout. 

Whether you wish to 
devise your own spacing 
arrangement for ordinary 
fourteen pin chips or the 
larger variety, let me suggest 
that you leave a good bit of 
room around each chip. This 
will make inserting and 
removing chips much easier 




After all the holes have been punched, the graph paper is removed from the cardboard and the 
chips are inserted. 



since your fingers will have 

enough space to get a gpod 
grip on the chip. 

If you wish to duplicate 
my spacing, begin by ruling 
off a rectangle measuring 
eight by ten inches. Then, 
arrange your graph paper so 
that one of the eight inch 
sides is at the top. Place a 
mark in the upper left-hand 
corner at a point six spaces 
from the top and seven spaces 
from the left of the eight by 
ten inch rectangle. Similarly, 
in the upper right-hand 
corner, place a mark six 
spaces from the top and seven 
spaces from the right side of 
the rectangle. 

In the lower left and right 
comers, place marks at points 
seven spaces from the bottom 
and seven spaces from the 
sides. Join the four marks to 
form a smaller rectangle 
within the eight by ten inch 
borders. 

Then, starting at the lop 
of this new rectangle, count 
down three spaces and draw a 
horizontal line from edge to 
edge of the smaller rectange. 
Next, count down four spaces 
from the previous line and 
draw another horizontal line. 
Continue by alternating the 
spacing between horizontal 
lines three and four spaces 
until you reach the bottom 
line of the small rectangle. 

When you finish the hori- 
zontal lines, begin in the 
upper left corner and count 
six spaces to the right. Draw a 
vertical line from top to 
bottom of the inside rec- 
tangle. Then count four 
spaces to the right of the 
previous line and draw 
another vertical line. Con- 
tinue by alternating six and 
four spaces until you retch 
the right side of the inside 
rectangle. 

At this point, cut the 
graph paper along the lines of 
the eight by ten inch rec- 
tangle. Use masking tape and 
fasten this eight by ten inch 
graph paper to the top of the 
eight by ten inch cardboard 
previously prepared- Be sure 
to align the edges of the 
graph paper and cardboard 
correctly. 



52 



With the graph paper side 
up, lay this cardboard on a 
piece of wood and begin 
punching. Punch a hole at 
each intersection along the 
horizontal lines that are six 
spaces in length. Punching 
both ends and all points 
between them will give you 
seven holes in a row* This 
corresponds with one side of 
a chip. 

As you are punching, 
penetrate the graph paper and 
the cardboard until you feel 
your punch against the wood. 
It is not necessary to go 
through the bottom layer of 
the cardboard, just be sure 
that you touch it 

After you have punched 
all the six space segments on 
each horizontal line, you 
should remove the graph 
paper from the cardboard. 
This graph paper can be used 
as a punching guide for many 
other pieces of cardboard, so 
don't throw it away. 

All that is left is to insert 
your chips. Remember to 
check for bent pins and to 
push each chip into place 
firmly. 

For those of you who feci 
that the previous method 
would take up more of your 
time than you can spare, let 
me strongly recommend that 
you give the following system 
of chip storage a try. The 
reason styrofoam lends itself 
so well to holding chips is 
that you can easily push the 
pins into the styrofoam with- 
out having to drill or punch 
holes to hold them. 

While there are two ways 
(neat and not so neat) to use 
the styrofoam, both require 
at least one sheet of styro- 
foam, I thought that this 
would be easy to find, but 
some quick looking around 
proved me wrong. Not only 
did 1 look in all the wrong 
places, 1 finally ran out of 
wrong places to look. My 
search eventually led me to 
one of those craft shops 
where they sell string and 
weeds. 

After I had finally located 
my styrofoam, someone men- 
tioned that friendly florists 



are a great source. I haven't 
checked this out yet. I feel 
that it is my duty to warn 
you that as you search you 
can expect a lot of busy 
clerks to direct your path to 
their supply of styrofoam ice 
chests. 

Once you have your styro- 
foam, you must decide how 
neat you want your finished 
stock of chips to look. If you 
really don't care, simply start 
pushing one chip at a time 
into any area of the styro- 
foam that looks inviting. 
When you run out of room or 
chips, you can stop. 

If you would prefer to 
have the results of your 
efforts look more profes- 
sional, allow me to suggest a 
simple way to do so. In 
essence, you will make a ruler 
with appropriate marks to 
show the proper location of 
each chip. This rutcr should 
be about 3/8 of an inch thick 
so that when placed on edge, 
this thickness will serve as an 
easy to use guide for setting 
the spacing between rows of 
chips. 

To make this ruler, choose 
a length of wood (such as 
molding) roughly 1/2 by 3/8 
inches high and wide. One of 
these dimensions should 
equal the spacing you want 
between rows of chips. The 
length of this wood should be 
an inch or two greater than 
the width of your styrofoam 
sheet- 
Next, lay this piece of 
wood across the width of 
your styrofoam so that the 
side whose thickness you 
want as the distance between 
horizontal rows of chips is on 
the bottom. In other words, 
imagine that there are already 
two rows of chips correctly 
spaced on the board and 
place the wooden strip so 
that it would exactly fit into 
the space between the rows. 

Using a pen, draw a mark 
on the wood at each edge of 
the styrofoam. Try to 
equalize the lengths of the 
wood extending beyond each 
edge of the styrofoam before 
making the marks. 

Now you will have to 
determine the spacing 




This fully populated board is being held upside down to show 
that the cardboard will hold the chips quite securely. 




ItlllUU 
".WWW 

unit 
iinit% 

1 1 1 inn 

iiiinii 

limit! 
iiiinii 



This photo demonstrates how the homemade ruler serves as a 
spacing guide to set the distance between horizontal rows of 
chips. 



53 




Marks on the homemade ruler show where to place each chip. Marks near each end of the rufer 

serve to align the ruler with the edges of the styrofoam. 



between the individual chips 
on the horizontal rows. An 
easy way to figure out the 
spacing is to set out a row of 
chips on a sheet of graph 
paper and working with the 



width of your board setting 
the outside limits of the row, 
line up the chips at different 
spacings until you have them 
like you want. 

Once you are satisfied 



with the spacing, bring your 
ruler next to this row of chips 
and mark the locations of the 
edges of each chip on the 
ruler* Do not forget that the 
two marks you previously 



% % % \%% YW\ 










Once all the chips have been inserted \ you will have a neat and very practical storage system. 



placed on the strip of wood 
located the edges of the 
styrofoam. Therefore these 
two marks should be lined up 
so that they are spaced equal 
distances beyond their respec- 
tive chips. 

To use this ruler, set it 
across the styrofoam so that 
the marks for the edges line 
up with the edges of the 
styrofoam. Place it near the 
top edge of the styrofoam so 
that all chip and edge locating 
marks are visible to you and 
the correct side is on the 
bottom. Adjust its location 
until the edge nearest you 
corresponds to the place 
where you want the top edg£ 
of your first row of chips. 
Then, while holding the ruler 
firmly in place with one 
hand, use the other to plug in 
the chips. 

An easy way to do this is 
to line up the ends of the 
chip with the chip location 
marks and then align the pins 
so they are flush with the 
edge of the ruler. Once these 
conditions are met, push the 
chip straight into the styro- 
foam. When seated correctly, 
the pins on the side of the 
ruler will be touching it. 

Once you complete the 
first row, shift the ruler down 
and reposition it so that its 
top edge is touching the 
bottom edge of first row of 
chips* Again, line up the edge 
locating marks with the edges 
of the styrofoam and insert 
chips at the marked locations. 

Follow this procedure 
with all succeeding rows and 
you will finish with a neat set 
of stored chips. While things 
may sound a bit involved, 
you will find that once you 
get started, things proceed 
quite rapidly. 

For those of you who like 
systems thinking, it is not 
difficult to keep a record of 
the location of every chip. 
Assign each board a number, 
each horizontal row a letter, 
and each position on the hori- 
zontal rows another number. 
Then an entry such as 
07-F-O5/7410 would tell you 
fifth chip on the sixth row of 
the seventh board was a 
7410.- 



54 




SOUTHCOM HEAVY-DUTY SLIDE MOUNTS ARE 
DIFFERENT, HEAVY-GAUGE STEEL SLIDES 
ON PLASTIC GUIDES FOR SMOOTH OPERATION, 
POWER AND SPEAKER CONNECTIONS ARE SE- 
CURE THROUGH COMPUTERTYPE CON- 
NECTORS, A STAINLESS STEEL LATCH HOLDS 
THOSE CONNECTIONS UNTIL YOU REMOVE 
YOUR UNIT, PROVISION IS MADE FOR LOCK 
BY A USER-PROVIDED PADLOCK, 



FOR TWO-WAY RADIO USERS, THE MB-3 PRO- 
VIDES A NEW MINIATURE COAX CONNECTOR 
DESIGNED FOR DEMANDING UHF APPLI- 
CATIONS. OTHERS MAY CLAIM NO SWR OR 
LOSS, , ,WE CAN GUARANTEE IT! 

WHETHER YOUR UNIT IS A "MICRO" OR A 
HEAVYWEIGHT, , .MOUNTED IN CAR, TRUCK 
OR BOAT, A SOUTHCOM SLIDE MOUNT INSURES 
"PERMANENT INSTALLATION" OPERATION 
WITH INSTANT IN/OUT SAFETY AND CON- 
VENIENCE, ASK YOUR DEALER FOR A SOUTH- 
COM SLIDE MOUNT TODAY. 



MB-3 (ILLUSTRATED! FOR 2-WAY RADIO $19.95 

MB-2 (NO ANTENNA CONNECTIONS) FOR TAPE DECKS $1 4.95 
MB-1 MOUNT ONLY t WITH NO WIRING S 7,25 



SOUTHCOM, INC. 

P.O. Box 11212, Dept. 403 

Ft. Worth TX 76109 




CB Can Do 
Some Things Better 



- - are you missing some fun ? 



David F, Norman 

622 W. Sunset Blvd. 

Fort Walton Beach FL 32548 

Much has been written 
about "stepping up M 
to amateur radio from CB. As 
amateur ranks begin to swell 
with newcomers from 
Citizens Band, we can expect 
to see many more articles on 



the subject. However, transi- 
tion between services should 
not be - and isn't — a one 
way process, A great many 
amateurs have realized that 
CB does things that no phase 
of amateur radio — including 
2 meters — can do, Let's take 
a look at some of the reasons 
why the "compleat ham 
shack" should include a CB 
transceiver. 



Travel Aid 

Use of CB by amateurs is 
seldom limited to the shack. 

Nowadays, you can see quite 
a few mobile operators with 
both 2 and 11 meter antennas 
and rigs installed in the 
family car. And why not? 

Amateurs on the highway 
have the same problems to 
cope with as other motorists, 




More and more amateurs are finding CB a useful addition to their mobiles and shacks — with 
good reason, 

56 



Perhaps in your area you can 
always hit the nearest re- 
peater; you would find many 
other locations in sparsely 
populated areas where you 
could not reasonably expect 
to reach anyone, anywhere, 
with a 2 meter mobile. Even 
if you are equipped with high 
frequency gear, your contacts 
are more likely to be enter- 
taining than helpful as far as 
your circumstances on the 
highway are concerned* 

Let's assume that you are 
well within range of a local 
repeater. What is the chance 
of receiving timely informa- 
tion regarding road condi- 
tions and traffic jams on 2 
meters? Pretty slim, right? 

Okay. At present there is 
no better system than CB for 
finding out what is happening 
a few miles ahead. There is no 
more reliable way — on the 
average - of requesting help 
when faced with car trouble 
or the discovery of a serious 
accident. Despite the short 
range and interference of CB, 
it has proven its worth time 
and time again to the travel- 
ing public. 

Perhaps you don't care for 
his operating procedure, but 
if you have a bad back and 
your wife is faced with 
changing a tire on the camper 
in one hundred degree 



weather, are you going to 
refuse help from the 
"Trot tin' Turkey?" Not 
unless you are a damn fool. 

If the XYL has never been 
quite able to grasp the neces- 
sary theory and code — or 
didn't care to — you may 
have wished that there were 
some legal way for you to 
keep in touch when she is out 
in the car. This is the beauty 
of CB. All that is necessary to 
operate a CB unit is a simple 
application. Under one 
license, your entire family is 
covered. But you knew that 
already. 

One of the large CB manu- 
facturers used to run ads to 
the effect that no woman 
should drive alone without 
one* An awful lot of CBers 
agree* 

Of course, no amateur 
would be guilty of speeding, 
so under most conditions 
"Smokey reports' 1 would not 
be of value to him. However, 
no one likes to be surprised 
when he is a long way from 
home. 

One thing more about 
traveling with a CB: You 
don't have to worry about 
CBers holding against you the 
fact that you hold an amateur 
ticket. Most of them are 
pretty tolerant. 

Introduction to Radio 

It is not at all uncommon 
for someone to be exposed to 
amateur radio and then vow 
to get his own ticket. Unfor- 
tunately, a great many 
aspiring amateurs get dis- 
couraged by how much code 
and theory they have to learn 
before they can do any phone 
work. Perhaps even your 
XYL would get on the ball, if 
she only knew how much fun 
radioing really is* 

A little taste of honey 
often makes someone want 
more. With the encourage- 
ment that you can give and 
the fun and experience that 
C8 can offer, your XYL (or 
YM or YL) has a good chance 
of making the grade. Even if 
you have been licensed for 
several years, there is a good 
chance that your XYL has 
never talked to you over a 




Fig. I. Tom Goldsmith WB4EQU is only one of the active amateurs who have added CB. Tom r s 
highly modified 2 meter rig with its T/T pad still has the place of honor on the hump, but the 
CB comes in handy, too. 



radio. With CB, you can put 
her on the air in a couple of 
hours. 

Overcoming Mike Fright 

You might not believe it, 
but every CBer that you hear 



on the air had a first time 
just like you. The same 
trembling, proud, sweaty 
feeling that grabbed at you 
grabbed him. Atone time the 
10-signals that he now uses so 
glibly and the CB slang that 



assaults your ears were as 
awkward to him as Q-signals 
and amateur pleasantries were 
to you. I know that this 
statement will probably 
prompt a lot of argument, 
but the fact is that most 




Fig. 2 + One of the major pluses in CB \ favor is the "family style " license. This means that wives 
— such as the author's XYL — may have the advantages of two-way communication, even if 
they are not electronically inclined. 



57 



QRL 


1£>6 


ORG 


10-93 


QRT 


103 


QSL* 


10-4 


QSM 


10*9 


QRV 


10-8 


QSP 


ias 


QSY 


10*27 


QTR 


10-36 


QTH 


10-20 


QRS 


1CM1 


ORRR 


10*33 



• Roger is usually phone acknowl- 
edgement. 

Fig. 3* Partial comparison of 
CB "JQ-$ignals ft and amateur 
"Q-signafs." Not alt of these 

translate exactly, 

CBers are people just like 
amateurs: They simply like to 
talk on the radio. 

Whether you agree with 
that or not, you will have to 
admit thai the enthusiasm of 
CBers is contagious. If you 
nourish that enthusiasm, and 
spring for a CB unit — per- 
haps trade that old receiver 
for one - for the family car, 
there is a good chance that 
within a few weeks there will 
be more than one amateur in 
your family. 

The CB in the Shack 

If you decide to install a 
CB in the car, you will prob- 
ably want to install a match- 



ing unit at home. Not only 
would you then be able to 
call home when you are on 
the way home from work, 
but you would also have the 
peace of mind that comes 
from knowing that your wife 
or daughter can call you for 
help — without having to 
leave the car. 

Even if you are reluctant 
to install the CB in your 
domain, the shack, you can 
find a corner in the kitchen 
or family room where it can 
repose in all of its humble 
glory. Ask the XYL She is 
bound to have an opinion. 

Public Service 

So far we have talked 
about all of the wonderful 
things that CB do for you. 
However, this is another of 
those two-way streets. Along 
with the rights and privileges 
which come with that CB 
license come certain responsi- 
bilities — moral, if not legal. 

It goes without saying — 
almost — that you will 
operate the CB unit in as legal 
a manner as you operate that 
ham rig, but there is more to 
it than that. When you 
receive a road report, you 
obligate yourself to the 
sender of it. Since you will 



likely not have a chance to 
return that favor to him 
personally, this obligation 
makes you bound to do the 
same for others somewhere 
down the road. 

Your obligation to CBers 
probably already exists, even 
if you don't have a CB unit 

Remember that last 
disaster that struck your 
area? U might have been a 
hurricane, a brush fire, an 
earthquake, or a tornado. 
Whatever il was, you can bet 
your favorite QSL card that 
there were CBers right in 
there donating their time and 
equipment, and even risking 
their lives, to do their part 

During Hurricane Eloise, I 
was busy on the CB base in 
the Civil Defense Center, 
talking to and encouraging 
brave, scared CBers who 
stayed out until the last 
minute to warn sleeping resi- 
dents in low-lying areas that 
the hurricane was going to 
strike Fort Walton Beach and 
not pass west as the weather 
wizards had predicted Most 
of these men had families 
that they would have much 
rather been with, Few of 
them were even regular 
members of the CD. The 




major qualification that most 
of them had was the CB unit 
in the car or truck. 

I don't mean to imply that 
hams weren't there; the job 
that they did on 2 meters was 
great And then the lights 
went out all over town. 

Emergency repeater power 
is fine. However, when the 
water is up to your headlights 
and the wind is blowing at 
125 mph, it is damn hard to 
get to most repeater sites. 

Another instance comes to 
mind. 

During the same storm, 
emergency shelters were 
opened in the schools. Antici- 
pating power and phone 
failure, we sent a mobile unit 
to each school to provide 
communications back to CD 
control (we stopped using 
callsigns early in the storm 
and used only unit numbers; 
there was simply too much 
traffic to handle). After the 
storm had abated, but before 
the people were released from 
the shelters, one of the 
shelter CB operators wanted 
to secure, We (I) told him to 
hang tight for another hour. 
It is a good thing that I did 

Within a few minutes, he 
called in asking for an ambu- 
lance. A young girl was 
hemorrhaging badly. All at 
once, another station broke 
in. The breaker was another 
of the CBers. This one was 
parked beside the ambulance 
at one of the hospitals - his 
own idea — and as he re- 
ported that the ambulance 
was on the way, I could hear 
the siren wailing. 

Would anyone like to try 
to compute the odds of 
having two units equipped 
with 2 meter rigs in both of 
those places at that particular 



Fig. 4. Terry Bishop, owner of this wrecker^ is typical of community -minded CBers who 
volunteer their time and equipment during emergencies and disasters 



Any amateur who claims 
to be interested in com- 
munity service should 

definitely equip himself with 
CB, In several emergencies, 
stretching over the last 
decade, I have personally seen 
CB used as both the common 
denominator providing inter- 
face between various radio 
services and as the main 
bulwark of communications 



58 



when everything else quit. 

Then, too, there is simply 
the matter of numbers. If 
your small child turned up 
missing, you could get every 
amateur in the area to look. 
If you happen to live in a 
fair-sized city, the only prob- 
lem with asking for help on 
the CB channels would be 
that you might have more 
help than you'd know what 
to do with. Every single car 
would be CB-equipped and 
able to maintain contact with 
all of the other units. 



Get With It 

If all of the above isn't 
enough reason for you to trot 
out and get one of the 
23-channel units or a more 
sophisticated 40-channel 
model, look at it this way. 

Any CBer could tell you 
that the skip conditions on 
1 0/1 1 meters are pretty bad 
— pretty good, depending on 
how you look at it, [f you are 
wondering whether 10 is hot 
or not, all that you have to 
do is turn on the CB and 



listen for the "Golden Boy" 
to come booming out of 
Nova Scotia. Then turn off 
the CB and fire up the 10 
meter rig for a good crack at 
a little DX. 

Or you can always tell 
yourself that the CB unit 
hidden in the bottom of your 
shopping bag and smuggled 
into the house will be con- 
verted to 10 - just as soon as 
you check it out with a 
"good buddy 1 ' or two. The 
same goes for that Moon raker 
beam. All that you have to do 



is shorten the elements a bit. 
Of course, you had first 
better put it together like the 
manufacturer says. 

Whatever words you might 
have to eat, or rationalization 
you feel compelled to make, 
don't let misguided pride 
stand between you and one 
of the handiest pieces of gear 
that you have ever seen. Just 
think what your knowledge 
of radio and antennas can 
accomplish with something 
that works well for the 
rankest tyro. ■ 




Vanguard has a frequency 
synthesizer that will save you time 
and money. It will give you 8000 
thumbwheel selected channels 
from 140.000 to 179.995 MHz in 
5 kHz steps at .0005% accuracy 
and your cost is only $179,95. 

Our standard model is for re- 
ceivers with the crystal formula 
Fc = Fs - 10.7 MHz divided by 3. 
However, we can make it for 
almost any other formula. 

For complete details of this 
synthesizer and others priced as 
low as $139.95, see our half page 
ad in the January 1977 issue of 
this magazine. 

VANGUARD LABS 

196-23 Jamaita Ave., Hotlis, New York 11423 



fc»^^^^^V«*^WVEWVWV^ ^ * 



Out of Band 




Shortwave Listening 

Our only business is supply- 
ing everything needed to tune 
outside the Amateur Radio 
bands and identify what you 
hear. Our mini-catalog de- 
tails Barlow Wadley, Drake 
and Yaesu receivers, WORLD 
RADIO TV HANDBOOK, logs, 
antennas, calibrators, CON- 
FIDENTIAL FREQUENCY LIST, 
receiving antenna tuners, 
FM or TV station guides, AM 
pattern maps, audio filters, 
special ITU lists, QSL 
albums and every book pub- 
lished on 'listening/' 

GILFER ASSOCIATES, INC 

P.O. Box 239, Park Ridge, NJ 07656 



ANTENNA SUPERMARKET Dept A P.O. Box 1682, Largo, Florida 33540 



DIPOLE AND WIRE ANTENNA KITS, complete with Hl-Q BALUN, 100' rope, 

copper antenna wire and insulators, 

80/40/15 parallel dipole ... S3&.95 

J0/20/15 parallel dipote $30,95 

80/40 trap dipole J4J.P5 

40/20 trap dipole . . . *, $36,95 



160 short, 130' length $36.95 

80 short, 63* length V* $31.95 

40 short, 33' lengfh . . . . $28.95 

Single band models from - $24.95 



VERTICALS — complete with Universal Mounting Base, Folds NEW 

to 5' for Easy Transport, Hvy. Duty Aluminum Tubing. Apartment/ Portable 

' apt. roof or patio, 

. $29.95 160 compact 23' hgf. ... $44.95 camper, trailer, mo- 

. 44.95 80 compact 20' hgt 39.95 tor home. All bands 

. 69.95 40 compact 15' hgt 34,95 80-10, folds to 5' easi- 

. 59.95 20/15/10 full size vertical 29.95 ly 13' height. 

B0 40 20 15 10 $49.95 



20/15 trap, 13' hgt. ... 
40/20/15 trap 22' hgt. 
80/40/20 trap 30' hgt. 
80/40/15 trap 20' hgt. 



JlbilriHiFJkp 



TO ORDER - Include Shipping - Diqores $2.50, verticals S3. Cfl 
24 hour shipment. 30 day guarantee Telephone: 



For Info: SASE or 1st Class Stamp 



813-5B5-Q63S 



tntlude Interbank ^ and 
Expiration date on fJr^dii- 

Card orders, 



What is Your Gear 
Really Worth 

Consumer Pricing Service will 
be glad to tell you. Wholesale, 
retail, trades and insurance 
appraisals, by an independent 
service with your interests in 
mind. 

Send us a list of your gear 
showing options, age and 
condition of each item, an 
SASE and $5*00 for an imme- 
diate quote. 

You will also receive at no 
additional cost our brochure 
on how to get the most for 
your gear, along with some 
tips on buying new and used 
ham gear* 

DONT SETTLE FOR LESS 
THAN YOUR GEARS 
ACTUAL VALUE. ACT 
TO DA Y AND SA VE A 
BUNDLE. 

Consumer Pricing Service 

P.O. Box 454 

SomerviOe MA 02143 



SAVE 



FM144-1QSXRII 




■■>-, 



^ r - t i j 1 



"SSl^- . ■ 



--s*^- 



1 > 



•■ 



OlCOM p|EW! 

IC-245 

146 MHz FM 10 W 
TRANSCEIVER 



p tease Call or Write for Special Deal* 

IC 22Ss ■ KDK FM 144 n s ■ YEASU 

ALL YOUR 2 METER FM NEEDS 

W. B. COMMUNICATIONS 

1 6401 S.W. 142nd Ave. * Miami, Fla 33177 
TELEPHONE (305) 253-7440 



59 



1 






J f: * x 



&K 








r* £4 t l 



Band radio service/' The following 
frequencies were offered; 27.54 to 28 
MH; and 222 to 224 MHz. 

You should be aware that the ama- 
teur service use of the 220-225 band is 
increasing explosively, plus the pro- 
posed "Communicator" license with 
its reduced licensing requirements for 
citizens will necessitate full use of this 
band by the amateur service. 

We at this time question your com- 
mittee's judgment in the matter. From 
the Table of Frequency Allocations, 
FCC Vol. 2 Rules and Regu- 
lations, we look at the following 
frequencies being held or possibly 
"hoarded" for total government use: 
225 236 MHz, 235-267 MHz, 
335.4399.9 MHz, and 406-420, These 
are all fixed and mobile frequencies 
and exclude Space Telemetry and 
Aeronautical Radionavigatiom 

Please submit to us the following 
information: 

faarnes of each agency with its 
representative and his position with 
the agency, methods used to deter- 
mine spectrum avail ability, and were 
the Following tools used: 1. % of 
occupancy level based on monitoring 
to determine actual usage; 2. Accurate 
user records and forecasting; 3, 
Careful evaluation of the priorities of 
the needs of the United States 
citizens. 

Please notify me within ID days if 
it will be necessary to invoke the 
Freedom of Information Act to 
expedite this request for information. 

Merrill See W8BGZ 
Kalamazoo Ml 

77je results next month. — Ed. 



KENTUCKY -EAT CROW 



G 



>' i 



Big Brother" is here and now in 
the shape of Uncle Charley, and only 
Uncle Charley has the constitutional 
authority to regulate the transmission 
of energy on the airwaves (in the 
USA). 

And not even the FCC yet has the 
power to tell us what we can hear. We 
are not yet to the degree df regulation 
held by the Russian government over 
their citizens. 

I believe that if any of those poor 
KenLuckians who have lost equipment 
and money in fines were to fight back, 
they could make the State of Ken- 
tucky eat crow. It is highly unlikely 
that the ami scanner law is constitu- 
tional, and it most likely violates the 
Federal Statutes that set up the FCC 
in the first place. 

If you will recall, some states 
attempted to outlaw radar detectors 
(receivers) but were unable to enforce 



the laws, and you never hear of 
anyone having any problems on that 
score any more. 

I would think you could suggest in 
one of your columns that those poor 
Kentuckians should get in touch with 
the American Civil Liberties League, 
their lawyers, their congressmen, etc., 
and have the stupid law repealed. 

0. D, Whitwell WB5YBG 
Austin TX 

DOWNHILL 



I am a computer repairman for the 
U.S. Army Hawk missile system. I 
read your magazine for the computer 
content. However, you have opened 
the world of ham radio to me. 

Being a CBer 1 1 years, and Watch 
ing it go downhill, well, I no longer 
have a CB. Several months ago I 
purchased a Hallicrafters S-120. This 
and your magazine made me decide to 
try. 

I borrowed some 05 Charlie (radio 
operator) tapes from a friend. I am 
also interested in learning more about 
how the radio works* 

Anyhow, I want to thank you for 
putting out such a good magazine. It 
has helped me quite a bit. Keep up the 
good work. 

Michael P. Olbrisch 
APO New/ York 



SKIP LAND 






I was into CB before I got into 
amateur radio, and still do both. With 
all the Novices and Techs now work- 
ing the Novice bands, 1 am surprised 
at the lack of activity on 10 meters. 
The problem must be no one knows 
when the band is open. For the hams 
with CB rigs, better yet SSB CB rigs, if 
there is any opening at all, you will 
hear it on channel 16 lower sideband. 
When I hear skipland on 1 1 meters, I 
go to 10 meters and usually make a 
contact or two, Hope this stirs up a 
little more activity on 10 meters. 

LeonR. Harris WD8BYM 
Battle Creek Ml 

And the Novices shaff lead them, — 
Ed, 



TIMES CHANGE 



I think I will let 73 go for a year or 
so. I first subscribed due to an interest 
aroused by a pile of back issues from 
the late 60's — the magazine had a 
different spirit then. There were a lot 
of articles for beginners, written in a 
way that encouraged the less knowl- 
edgeable hams to become involved in 



good stuff like construction. Building 

- sometimes that's all there was. 
While QST was laying out all the 
mathematical formulas for calculation 
of the celebration of the angle of the 
disinclined pandemonium, 73 was 
telling us about the projects we could 
have on the air by Wednesday night 
(well, Thursday afternoon, anyway) . 

The magazine that arrived in 
response to my subscription didn't 
remind me much of the old 73. The 
thing that struck me as most out of 
place was the obsession* with conv 
puters. They obviously have some 
application in amateur radio tech- 
nology, but enough's enough. 

That you would finally publish a 
computer magazine was a foregone 
conclusion - I'm sure it will set the 
pace for the hobby computer crowd. 
I'm wondering what will happen to 73 
once you get fully occupied with 
Kilobaud, til be glancing at someone 
else's issue from time to time to find 
out. 

K.W. FarlowWA3DBL 
Wilmington DE 

*That word wasn't used as an epithet. 
You, of all people, would probably 
agree that a moderate amount of 
obsession is better than some other 
things one could mention. 

Built a circuit with a CK722 yet, 
Farfow? Times change. — Ed. 



I 



BACK TO BASICS 



I would like to congratulate you on 
the type of articles which appeared in 
each issue of 73 during 1976. For the 
most part they were superb, and I will 
readily agree that same was far ahead 
of GST for the same period. 

Also, you are absolutely correct in 
guessing that my interest in computers 
has grown steadily through the past 
year, but one thing bugs me. In several 
issues of 73 during 1976, there were 
articles on learning the machine or 
basic language needed to program a 
computer and at least one article 
describing how to use a Model 15 
teleprinter for a readout device, and 
one page of the "Holiday" issue lists 
various publications beneficial for use 
after you have built a computer or 
acquired one. BUT r to my knowledge, 
there has not been a SINGLE article 
on how a beginner or experimenter 
can build his first basic fundamental 
computer. Please correct me if I am 
wrong. 

Popular Electronics in their August, 
1976, issue gave what appears to be a 
very good article on building the 
"Elf" basic computer and promised 
future articles dealing with readout 
devices, but to my knowledge none 
has appeared. 

I have on order Texas Instruments* 
computer manual for beginners and 
the advertisement says the manual 
describes how to build a basic 
"machine/* 

Would it be violating house rules to 
tell me if an article on "computer 
construction" is forthcoming in an 
early issue of 73? 

I have E & L Instruments' "Digi-De- 



signer" and also their "Breadbox," 
which I find to be of tremendous help 
in building up test circuits such as 
were in "How Do You Use lCs? J ' and 
other similar articles in 73 for 1976. 
Again, congratulations for a job 
very well done in 1976, and I am 
convinced that the 1977 issues will be 
of the same breed. 

John W. Yochum W9URQ 
Princeton IN 

Authors, take note! — Ed. 



THE AVERAGE HAM 

Would like to see fewer articles on 
computers, etc., which are written at 
the level of graduate engineers, and 
more articles of interest to the average 
ham, especially those who are rela- 
tively new to amateur radio. I like 
your propagation forecasts. 

R. C* Mader WN4AGT 
Englewood FL 

Try Kilobaud, OM> - Ed. 



ACCELERATED FUROR 



I just simply had to write and say 
that I enjoy 73 so much! Being a 
student confronted with an ever-in- 
creasing financial crisis, I have had to 
systematically eliminate "unneeded?" 
items with an accelerated furor, 73 
gets passed over every time (I'm sorry 
to say t can't say the same for other 
magazines). I have enjoyed reading the 
various letters from readers for quite 
some time and now feel a need to 
make a few comments of my own, 

I really can't see the reason why 
some readers look down upon, or only 
simply tolerate, the various I/O arti- 
cles in 73. As I see it, a ham who 
enjoys his hobby and takes it and 
himself seriously can't afford not to 
be even remotely interested in the 
truly fascinating area of microproces- 
sors. For example, a ham who is active 
in any two, three, or four of the 
various aspects of ham radio such as 
RTTY, DXing, CW, Contests, OSCAR, 
and EME could save a bundle in $$ as 
well as space by integrating most of 
the peripheral equipment needed for 
these various modes into one unit. 
Enter the microprocessor! Load a 
cassette and you have an FSK con- 
verter, generator, and display. 
Another program and your EME 
antennas are aimed at the moon and 
follow it across the sky. Run another 
program and you have a contest 
keyer/ memory and a good log. How 
about a digital signal processor for 
those weak DX signals down at the 
low end? 

Sure, you might have to learn some- 
thing about the uP r but we all had to 
learn something about electronics 
before we got our ham tickets, too! 
The next time you find yourself down 
at one of the radio shops, make a 
physical movement with your arm and 
pick up one of the books on micro- 
computers (pay for it, though I). I 
guarantee it will be the first of many 
devoured before you have been even 



60 



partially satiated, All I can say is that 
a modem ham station utilizing a 
microprocessor for control of its 
various operations results in a very 
powerful system to be sure, one that 
many a non-ham computer buff 
would be envious ol 

Thanks for a good magazine- 
Scott G. Turner WB2DLE 
Princeton NJ 



I/O HELP 

73 is responsible for getting me 
interested in microprocessors and I 
have ordered my SC/MP and 8K of 
memory from a couple of the advertis- 
ers in your magazine. But many basic 
questions are starting to bother me. 
For instance, I want to make the 
busing system compatible with the 
Altai r bus system so I can use boards 
and peripherals made for these sys- 
tems. Can I make the bus in such a 
manner and then wire the connections 
for the SC/MP to work or is the 
SC/MP busing totally different? I 
guess what I want to know is more on 
microprocessor hardware in general. I 
know some of my questions will be 
answered by the National manual with 
the kit, but I still need more. What 
does a computer do when it receives a 
command to AND the accumulator or 
to Exclusive OR the accumulator? 
This I do not know either. Can you 
recommend any good reference mate- 
rial on these subjects, hardware and 
machine programming? 

One more question, or two really. I 
have purchased the keyboard kit from 
Poly Paks, another advertiser in 73 \ 
and have some questions on it also. 
The keyboard produces negative logic 
by using 7404 hex inverters; they are 
also used to produce TTL compatibil- 
ity. I am wondering if 1 can use 7407 
hex drivers which would then not 
invert the logic and give me positive 
output. The ROM used with the key- 
board is an AY 5-2376; the control 
and shift inputs are not wired and I 
want to know what input is necessary 
to cause the ROM to produce a 
shifted and control output. Can you 
answer the question or can you give 
me an address to write where 1 can get 
an answer or spec sheet? 

John W. Daugherty WB8DEG/ON8II 

SSG Radio, IX Site 

USA ELM SHAPE 

APO NY 09055 

Can someone give John a hand here? 
If you've ever been stuck overseas 
trying to get information on some- 
thing like hobby computing, I'm sure 
you can appreciate what he's going 
through. I answered most of hts ques- 
tions, but f'm sure be would stilt 
appreciate some help. — John. 



INSTANT REPLAY 



I just got my first issue of 73 after a 
few months vacation from your sub- 
scription lists. I notice that there is 
some debate concerning the I/O sec- 
tion. Some of those letters sound like 
an instant replay from a few years 
ago. 



I can remember back tn 1969 when 
I put my Motorola 5-V in the car and 
got on 2 meter FM for the first time. I 
was in Des Moines, Iowa then — FM 
may have been big on the coasts by 
J 69, but in the Midwest there were 
just scattered pockets of activity 
around the cities. Everything was on 
94, You worked through the repeater 
on 34/94 when you wanted to ptay 
with the new toy (it was in some guy's 
basement, I think — very primitive 
and experimental), but if you wanted 
to understand the other station's 
audio, you switched to 94 simplex. 
The signals were usually stronger on 
simplex anyway! 

The point is that we were more or 
less shooting tn the dark back then as 
far as repeaters were concerned, and 
about the only place to get informa- 
tion and any ideas at all from repeat- 
ers in other parts of the country was 
73. I used to get a chuckle every 
month reading letters from those "old 
goats" who kept telling you (and us) 
that there was no future in FM and 
that you should get back to printing 
articles on "real" ham radio. 

Now it's microprocessors. I have to 
admit that I was one of the "old 
goats" myself this time. 1 was upset 
with 73 because all of my precious 
FM and repeater articles were being 
shoved aside for computers (or so it 
seemed). Since you weren't into 
"real" ham radio anymore, I let my 
subscription drop- 
But now we're talking about com- 
puter control for our repeater, and 
those little uP chips have been 
showing up in ovens, sewing machines, 
even cars. Some of the local hams who 
work for the big electronics outfits 
here assure us that they'll be in just 
about everything soon. Maybe your 
present transceiver works without 
one, but you can bet a uP will be the 
heart of your next one! Not to men- 
tion a dozen other things in the shack 
that will be controlled by them. 

So I'm back, Wayne, and I can sit 
and chuckle again about the guys 
who'll be out in the cold when corm 
puters revolutionize our hobby. It's 
going to be soon. 

Mark Johns WA0RGV 
Minneapolis MN 



THE UNINFORMED 



I have been reading the letters from 
others for the last few months and 
am tired of hearing the same old 
thing, that is, that 73 Magazine is all 
computers and no radio. Just did a bit 
of research and came up with some 



interesting figures on the subject 
which you might want to pass along 
to the uninformed. 

I also took the data for the entire 
year of 1976 from the master index 
printed in the Holiday issue and it 
bears out the fact that 73 Magazine Es 
still very much a ham magazine and 
not a magazine for the microprocessor 
users as many would like us to believe* 
There were 493 major articles listed in 
the index for 1976 of which only 48 
were "I/O" or 9.736%. In the areas of 
receivers, transmitters, FM, VHF r 
antennas and mobile operation, there 
were 140 major articles or 28.397%. 
The 140 articles do not include such 
things as commercial equipment, con- 
struction, theory, new products, 
Novice, power supplies, RTTY, ATV, 
SSTV, surplus, test equipment, or 
touchtone pads, which wiJI increase 
the total to 343 major articles or 
69,57% of the total, 

It seems to me that when a person 
is condemning a magazine, they 
should take the time to get their facts 
straight, as it only took me about ten 
minutes to add up all the numbers, 
which does not seem to be much to 
ask. 

There, I feel better now. Keep up 
the good work on the magazine and 
keep the I/O articles coming as every 
thing new that comes out is always a 
help in understanding our hobby, The 
I/O articles help broaden my knowl- 
edge of electronics in general and thus 
broaden my knowledge of ham radio. 

By the way, I am in the process of 
preparing an article for a later issue 
covering the field of converting the 23 
channel CB rig to ten meter operation. 
With the shift in sunspot activity, ten 
meters will be the DX band that it was 
back in 194B-1952 when I was work- 
ing the world with 5 Watts, 

Bob Wilder W4NVH 
Theodore AL 

I'm waiting for the article. — Ed. 




Perhaps Doug DeMaw W1 FB, QST 
Technical Editor, should read 73 
Magazine to keep up with the times. 
In the December issue of QST, his 
article titled "Measuring Transmitter 
Power" says the following: "Perhaps 
st is time for some manufacturer to 
develop a directional wattmeter which 
can be used to read both power 
characteristics — Average and Peak 
. . ." For Mr. DeMaw's information, 
such a meter has both been already 





Dec. 1976 Issue 


Holiday 1976 Issue 


Jar*, 1977 Issue 


t/O Articles 


5 


7 


7 


I/O Advertisers 


14 


14 


11 


Other Articles 


18 


48 


44 


Other Advertisers 


85 


85 


74 


Total Articles 


23 


55 


51 


Total Advertisers 


99 


99 


85 


% I/O Articles 


2T.74 


12.73 


13,73 


% I/O Advertisers 


14.14 


14.14 


12,94 


% Other Articles 


78.26 


37.27 


86.27 


% Other Advertisers 


85.86 


86,86 


87,06 



developed, and Is also advertised in 73 
Magazine. It is the Swan WM 3000, 
which does exactly what the Techni- 
cal Editor of QST wants. And I might 
add that keeping up to date means 
that articles published will be up to 
date, and this is what readers want in 
the magazines they pay thetr hard- 
earned money for. To me, 73 not only 
keeps up with the times, but stays 
ahead of them. 

My reason for writing this as a 
letter to the editor is that I am quite 
fed up with the poor quality of 
articles in QST, their verbosity, and 
this is a prime example of their own 
editors not even knowing what's what. 

William Vissers K4K I 
Cocoa Beach FL 

I've been saying that for years. - Ed. 



VEAL CURRY 



Would you please haw a building 
article in a forthcoming issue of 73 
which is for an LED digital clock which 
presents time in the 24 hour mode? In 
addition to being powered by an ac 
power supply, incorporate a secon- 
dary supply {battery) in case of power 
(ac) loss. 

Secondly, how can I get the recipe 
of the veal curry which Wayne Green 
spoke of in the Editorial? 

L. A.WattsWBflWQD 
Colorado Springs CO 

Veal curry? Sure. Sautee 4 diced 
onions; when slightly browned and 
tender, add 2# veal cut into small 
cubes (about i "} and sear the veal. 
Sait . . . pepper ... 2 tablespoons of 
curry powder . „ . add garlic {about 
two cloves cut up fine) . . . then add a 
cup of white wine {doesn't have to be 
atf that good wine); cover and simmer 
for about SO minutes. Add more wine 
if the level gets low . , ■. you want to 
have plenty of gravy, you know. Mix 
2 heaping tablespoons of flour and a 
half cup of cold water and add slowly 
to the curry to make the gravy. 
Simmer a bit longer, stirring to keep it 
from sticking. Salt to taste. If you like 
a '*hot" curry, add some red pepper. 

You'll want some condiments. 
Small dishes of these are passed 
around the table and sprinkled over 
the curry and rice. Oh yes, the rice . . . 
make some white rice ... put the 
curry over it when you serve . . . then 
everyone can sprinkle the condiments 
a$ they please on top of the curry. 

Condiments: crushed pineapple 
(Hawaiian, if at all possible . , , not 
Taiwan, Philippines, etc.}, chopped 
peanuts, shredded coconut, toasted 
coconut shreds or chips, raisins which 
you've simmered a while to plump, 
Major Grey's Mango Chutney, 
chopped hard boiled egg, some people 
like shredded toasted bumalo fish 
{known also as Bombay Duck}, but I 
hate the stuff, chopped well-done 
bacon, chopped dill pickles. 

That should feed four well . . , and 
you won't forget it. — Wayne. 



Continued on page 104 



61 



Jim Traiove WA7ABV 
2545 W. Kathleen Rd, 
Phoenix AZ 8B02Z 




New Breed 



of 



Voltage Regulators 



throw away your old 309$ 



Amateurs are probably 
building more elec- 
tronic circuits today than 
ever before. With the multi- 
tude of IC circuits that are 
available these days to do 
complicated functions, fre- 
quently one has little more to 
do than build up the manu- 
facturer's recommended 
circuit to complete his 
project. However, in bread- 
boarding these new circuits, 
one piece of equipment that 
is an absolute must for the 
test bench is a good, well- 
regulated power supply. 

Several manufacturers 
have offered three-terminal 
fixed voltage IC regulators for 
some time. These ICs just 
about took all of the work 
out of power supply design, 
as long as you only wanted 
one fixed power supply volt- 
age. However, making up a 
variable supply was a little 



messy. 

Well, designers at Fairchild 
Semiconductor 1 realized 
many IC users require 
voltages other than the ones 
that they had standardized 
for their series of fixed 
voltage regulators- So they 
recently introduced two new 
IC circuits that fill in the gaps 
in their series of fixed voltage 
regulators. These two circuits 
are the 78MG positive regula- 
tor and the 79MG negative 
regulator. 

This article will introduce 
basic circuits for using these 
two ICs at fixed voltage 
levels, as well as for variable 
power supplies. As with most 
IC circuits, it doesn't do to 
simplify, so we will also show 
some of the pitfalls to avoid. 



Features 

The 78MG and 79MG vari- 
able output voltage regulators 
offer unique features which 
make the circuits very simple 
to use, while providing pro- 
tective features which are 
hard to obtain in a discrete 
design. 

The most outstanding 
characteristics of these IC 
regulators are protection 
ajpinst output short circuits 
and protection a^inst exces- 
sive power dissipation. These 



features make the regulators 
difficult if not impossible to 
destroy through misuse. A 
third related characteristic 
limits the ICs' output tran- 
sistors to safe area operation. 
The regulators are 
designed to supply up to 500 
mA of current, with input 
voltages in the range of +5 to 
+35 volts for the 78MG, and 
•2.2 to -30 volts for the 
79JVIG, The maximum input 
voltage for either is 40 volts* 
The devices are packaged 
in what is called a "mini-bat- 
wing four-terminal package.' 1 
The wings on the package 
allow the device to be secured 
to a heat sink to increase 
power dissipation capabilities. 
Both devices feature line 
regulation of 1% when the 
input voltage is varied from 7 
volts to 35 volts, and load 
regulation of 2% when the 
load current is varied from 2 
mA to 500 mA. The 
quiescent current is 2.5 mA, 
and the regulators require a 
minimum of 2 volts margin 
between input and output to 
stay in regulation. The power 
dissipation is internally 

limited to 7.5 Watts. 

The older three-terminal, 
78 series fixed voltage regu- 
lators had an internal voltage 
reference which was sensed 
through a resistive voltage 
divider network. The ratio of 
resistance in the voltage 
divider network was preset 
internally when the chip was 
manufactured. The 78MG 
and the 79MG regulators use 
the same concept, except that 
there is no internal voltage 
divider network. Instead, this 
point is brought outside the 
package by means of a fourth 
pin. Thus, all you have to do 
to set the regulator for any 



UN' *^-< 

REGULATED I 
INPUT 

I 



T 



SAFE -ARE* 

UMlT 



CURRENT 
SOURCE 



THERMAL 

SWT DOVII 



1 Fairchild Semiconductor, 464 
Ellis Street, Mountain View CA 
90402, 




SERIES- PASS 
TRAJtSlSTOR 



ShOPT 

Circuit 

PROTECTION 



I 
COMMON 



CONTROL 



REGULATED 

OUTPUT 



Fig. J\ Block diagram of the 78MG/79MG regulators. 



62 



*V INO- 



:••: > 




O-VOUT 



OG*D 



* VOUT * ».0 






-V »N» 



GfJDO 




■VOUT 



oGKlD 



-VCWT -2Z3 



Fig* 2. Basic regulator circuits, (a) Positive regulator; (b) 
negative regulator. 



voltage within its range is 
supply two resistors of the 
proper value to supply the 
feedback voltage to this 
fourth terminal. 

It is the addition of this 
fourth terminal which meant 
that the familiar three- 
terminal, power tab package 
had to be abandoned in favor 
of a four-terminal package. 
The package that was chosen 
is basically a stretched out 
four-pin plastic dip package 
with two "wings" protruding 
from each side for a heat 
sink. 

The In sides 

Fig, 1 shows a block dia- 
gram of the 78MG and 79MG 
regulators. The internal struc- 
ture, with a few minor refine- 
ments, is identical to that of 
the earlier three-terminal 
regulators. The major excep- 
tion is that one input to the 
error amplifier is brought 
outside the package so that 
you can supply any reference 
voltage you wish. 

Let's get a brief idea of 

internal circuit operation 
before we get caught up in 
applications. The start-up cir- 
cuit contains a zener diode 
and two transistors which 
have the purpose of bringing 
the circuit into initial regula- 
tion. After it is in regulation, 
the start-up circuit is biased 
off. The error amplifier com* 
pares the voltage at the 
control input to the internal 
voltage reference and gen- 
erates an error signal of the 
proper polarity if the two 
voltages are not the same. 
This error signal either in- 



creases or decreases the bias 
current into the series pass 
transistor, which in turn 
increases or decreases the 
regulated output. The safe 
area limit and thermal shut- 
down circuits provide protec- 
tion against normal operating 
overloads. The short circuit 
protection reduces the cur- 
rent available to the series 
pass transistor in the event of 
an output short circuit. 

The regulators also contain 
a 30 pF MOS capacitor to 
increase stability and lessen 
the possibility of oscillation. 
The regulators achieve 
thermal stability through 
careful balancing of positive 
and negative temperature- 
coefficient components, 

Basic Regulator 

Fig. 2 shows the simplest 
configuration in which the 
positive and negative regu- 
lator can be used. This is 
really all you need to place in 



, I L - 



TO 

OR 
79HG 



Fig. 3. Unregulated supply. 



front of an unregulated 
power source in order to pro- 
duce a stable well-regulated 
voltage source. The input 
capacitor, CI, is necessary to 
stabilize the regulator under 
all possible conditions. Al- 
though the manufacturer lists 
this input capacitor as an 
optional item "needed only if 
the regulator is located more 
than a few inches from the 
unregulated supply filter 
capacitor," I would very 
strongly suggest always in- 
cluding it For the few 
pennies of extra cost, you 
may save yourself from 
destroying a regulator chip. It 
also allows you a lot more 
freedom in locating the un- 
regulated source, and in 
choosing the unregulated 
supply filter capacitor. 

Conversely, C2, the output 
capacitor, is really not neces- 
sary for regulator operation, 
although it docs tend to 
improve transient response. I 
would suggest, if you intend 
to use the regulator to supply 
power to switching loads, 
such as TTL circuits, you 
would be well advised to in- 
clude an output capacitor of 
approximately the value 
shown. One further comment 
about output capacitance: If 
there is any chance that you 



might drive a very large 
capacrtive load (e.g., as large 
as the unregulated supply 
filter capacitor), you must 
provide extra protection for 
the regulator to prevent 
possible destruction of the 
chip. A diode in series with 
the output, large enough to 
handle all the output current, 
will provide quite adequate 
protection from reverse volt- 
age. In all cases, the applica- 
tion of a reverse voltage 
between the output and input 
pins of the 78MG and 79MG 
regulators must be avoided. 

You might notice that the 
input and output capacitors 
of the negative regulator are 
larger vaiues. The larger 
values are required to main- 
tain the same level of stability 
as the positive regulator. The 
formulas for calculating the 
output voltage are given in 
the figure. The two constants 
of +5.0 and -2.23 are the 
magnitudes of the internal 
voltage references and 
represent the lowest obtain- 
able regulated voltage. If a 
pot is used in place of R1 and 
R2, an additional fixed 
resistor should be included in 
the ground leg of the pot. 
This linearizes the relation- 
ship between the rotor posi- 
tion of the pot and the 



Vrms 


Vdc 


Vout 


11 


CI 


NOMINAL 


AVERAGE 


DESIRED 


MAX. 


MM. 


TRANSFORMER 


DC 


REGULATED 


LOAD 


CAPACITOR 


SECONDARY 


OUTPUT 


OUTPUT 


CURRENT 


SIZE 


VOLTAGE 


VOLTAGE 


VOLTAGE 






(Vrms) 


(Vdc) 


(VdcJ 


{Amps) 


(Microfarads) 


6.3 


8.2 


2.23* to 5.3 


0.5 


1 200 @ 20 V 






2.23* to 5.3 


1.5 


3600 @ 20 V 






2.23 to 4.5* 


0.5 


600 @ 20 V 






2.23 to 4.5* 


1.5 


1800^20 V 


12.6 


16.3 


2.23* to 12.5 


0.5** 


600 @ 35 V 






2.23* to 12.5 


1.5 


2000 @ 35 V 






2.23* toll 


0.5* * 


300 @ 35 V 






2.23 # toll 


1,5 


1000 @ 35 V 


25.2 


32.8 


5 to 29,5 


0.5" 


300 @ 75 V 






5 to 29.5 


1.5 


1000 @ 75 V 






5 to 26 


0.5** 


150 @ 75 V 






5 to 26 


1.5 


500 @ 75 V 



*This voltage is obtained only with 79MG. 

*Mf the 78MG/79MG is used without an external pass transistor, fuff current may not be available for lower 

output voltages, since the I C will limit power dissipation to 7.5 Watts. 

Table 7. Component vaiues for the unregulated supply shown in Fig. 3. 



63 




EDITORIAL 



by Wayne Green W2NSD/1 



Microcomputers are two years old, 
practically speaking. Though a few 
experimenters were messing around 
with the Intel 8008 a little before the 
Altair 0800 system was announced in 
January, 1975, ihere was tittle avail 
able in information or hardware. The 
Altair, launched with a lot of pub- 
licity and advertising, got the whole 
field going and fired up a new breed 
of hobbyist. 

Now, after two years, perhaps we 
have enough perspective to get a 
handle on what we have and where we 
may be going. 

In some ways, there has been a 
great deal of progress; in others, not 
much has changed. There are now 
over twenty different microcomputer 
systems being made for the hobbyist, 
and welf over 150 different com 
patible boards for the Altair bus. 
There are over 50 computer stores 
around the country helping to sell 
these ly stems to hobbyists. 

In the "not much change" area is 
programming. It took about a year for 
the first computer language to be 
made available . . . BASIC. Some 
systems still don't even have that 
much for the user to work with. There 
are a few games available and a couple 
hooks of business and scientific pro- 
grams, but not a lot else. Magazines 
such as Kilobaud are starting to bring 
more programs to users, but this 
aspect of computing has been slow to 
develop. Higher level languages such as 
FORTRAN and COBOL are still not 
generally available for the microcom- 
puters, so the use of these systems Is 
still quite limited. 

Many of the early hobbyists started 
building a computer kit without read- 
ing the fine print (so to speak) md 
they gradually discovered that a CPU 
does not a computer make. Their 
$500 CPU looked fine, hut it 
wouldn't do anything until $1000 or 
so of memory was put in the box. 
Then they had to hook on a printer or 
a video terminal another $250 to 
$900 out of pocket. Now, with about 
$2000 invested, and Altair BASIC up 
and running, they could play hangman 
or lunar landing games. Star Trek 
needed another $500 in memory , . „ 
sorry about that. 

Hobbyists needed some medium to 
store programs and to record data for 
the computer to use. The first choice 
was the cassette recorder, and every 



manufacturer of microcomputers 
promptly came out with a different 
system, making it so no two hobbyists 
with different systems could swap 
programs or data. This situation is still 
up in the air, with no system as yet 
satisfactory enough for the industry 
to accept it. 

Business had long been using floppy 
disks, and some eventually were made 
to work with the hobby system s. 
They are still rather expensive for the 
hobbyist, prone to mechanical prob- 
lems, and not supported with very 
much in programs to make them do a 
lot. 

The hobby market has not been a 
large one, so most of the firms in- 
volved have been very small There are 
a little over 10,000 hobby computer 
systems up and running so far, accord- 
ing to the best estimates. The reader 
ship of the hobby magazines (such as 
Kilobaud) make it plain that there are 
about 50,000 or so people who would 
like to get systems, but have been 
waiting for more information before 
getting their feet weL That's a $100 
million market, so it's well worthwhile 
for the smalt firms to court 

Even bigger, by a couple orders of 
magnitude, is the coming market for 
these systems. Hobbyists will be 
paying the costs of hardware develop 
rnent, which should bring us some 
relatively inexpensive and dependable 
computer systems which will be sold 
by the millions to business. We'll be 
seeing them in every office, in stores, 
in schools and in homes, just as we see 
TV today. It's a market that can't fail 
to come along when the hardware and 
software are ready. 

We radio amateurs have a tremen- 
dous advantage in something like this 
by virtue of our head start with 
electronics* Most computer folk are 
programmers, and they are at a disad- 
vantage because the hardware end of 
computers is much more difficult to 
understand than programming. Most 
hams have already read enough digital 
articles in the ham magazines to be 
able to understand the fundamentals 
of computer systems . . . they really 
aren't alt that complicated for us. This 
is why such a high percentage of the 
pioneers in hobby computing are 
hams. 

Hams have another major advantage 
over other computerists . . . they have 
some great things to do with their 



systems once they get them running. 
The hobby computerist is stuck with a 
bunch of games and not a lot more to 
do that can't be done better with a 
hand calculator . . . and more cheaply. 
The ham can use the computer to run 
a repeater, to find Oscar, to operate 
his RTTV station, to simplify winning 
contests, keep his log. aim his beam 
for DXing, copy Morse code . . , stuff 
like that . , . combining the fun of 
doing something practical with knowl- 
edge that is of immense value in this 
exploding field. 

One of the major needs today is for 
information. The manufacturers of 
computer equipment are way behind 
on their documentation, so we need 
to help each other. When we figure 
out how to interface a BCD keyboard 
with an ASCII computer, we should 
write it up. When you write a good 
ham program for your system, pass it 
along (via 73, of course). If you will 
pass along what you've learned to 
others, we'll all benefit 

Many of the 73 readers work with 
microcomputer firms . . or with the 
manufacturers of peripherals , . . 
please try to overcome the documen- 
tation lag by writing articles for 73 on 
the use of these gadgets. We ail want 
to know, If there are any questions on 
hnw to write just send for our poop 
sheet , . or go ahead and do it 
without said poop sheet ... as long as 
you double space your typing. 

Okay? 

KILOBAUD POSTERS 

The reader reaction to the first 
issue of Kilobaud is coming in and it is 
most gratifying, The most often com- 
plimented is the choice of articles . . . 
they are by some of the top people in 
this new field, so it is no wonder that 
they are good reading. Expert writers 
are somehow abEe to write so begin- 
ners can understand. 

The type is set pretty much like 73, 
so there are a lot of articles in the 
magazine as compared to the other 
magazines . . , 22 of them in the same 
space where another magazine gets in 
14, More for your money, you might 
say, A few 73 readers have noticed 
that articles in 73 are far more com- 
pact than those in the other ham 
magazines. 

The hobby computer field seems to 
have settled down to two main maga- 
zines . . Kilobaud and Byte, with 



Byte aiming at the computer scientist 
and Kilobaud at the beginner. Micro- 
treck hasn't been seen since August, 
SCCS interface and Interface Age 
seem bent on mutual self-destruct ton, 
with lawsuits and other time and 
money wasting jazz* This has left both 
magazines very scant on material. 

The posters? Oh yes , » . we've got 
some posters which we hope will 
interest more people in reading Kilo- 
baud . . . and we're hoping you'll dip 
in en oar to help. We'd sure like to get 
these posters hung up where they 
might bring in subscribers . , - places 
like schools with computer science 
departments, A student is going to be 
far more valuable to himself and to 
anyone he works for if he is not only 
a professional, but also a hobbyist. 
We've seen that in amateur radio for 
years. 

An employee of a firm making 
computers, accessories, or even a soft- 
ware firm will be far more valuable if 
he has the initiative to learn on his 
own. A subscription to Kilobaud 
could provide this impetus. Thus we'd 
like to have Kilobaud posters in as 
many firms involved with computing 
as possible , > ♦ the firms will benefit 
from it , , , a tot. 

If you have a school or business to 
spot one of our posters, please drop a 
note to marketing director Sherry 
Smythe and we'll get one off to you, 
complete with a bunch of subscription 
cards attached. 

FREE SUBSCRIPTIONS 

Bruce Seals called recently to say 
that he wants to see what will happen 
if he offers a free subscription to 73 
with every direct sale of an 8K memo- 
ry board . . . either the 500 ns model 
at S269 (special} or the 250 ns model 
at $295 (also special). I tried to think 
of a good reason not to — couldn'i. I 
did suggest that he offer an alternate 
of Our three microcomputer books as 
an incentive for readers who were life 
subscribers, and he agreed to that. 
Either one is a St 5 value ... so if you 
find yourself ordering an 8K memory 
from Seals you might mention 
whether you prefer a year of 73 or the 
three computer books: Hobby Com- 
puters Are Here, The New Hobby 
Computers, and Microcomputers 
Simplified? Bruce will take it From 
there- 



^*» at**' *^H l "- Jlf *-#***l*t I J .3, il't»*»*- 
4fll ti» t 1** Ml' * t*fMlt'l. t l| M*t ■• II I' •• 

Pf I t* :l H ,11 l»*r«l»*l t«r I ■*, f [^uH l 



»•• ' Hi 



•6IC0V 



ill. tv 



Kit £j£iU **- * M |«tt**» nt> i til i tW tfkfi 






Key Into 
Wlaxi-Power @ Micro 




Micromind is an incredibly flexible, 
iplete and expandable, hardware/ 
jftware, genera! purpose computer 
/stem. You won't outgrow It 

Hardware includes an 80 key, software- 
efinable keyboard, I/O interface board, 
500A-series microprocessor (powerful 
nough for advanced computing), a high- 
etail graphics and character display 
rocessor, power supply, rf modulator, 
nd connections for up to 4 tape recorders 
lus TV or monitor. An interconnect bus 




errnits 15 additional microprocessors, 
arallel processing and vastly increased 
omputing power. 

System software — including ECD's own 
lotsoBASIC high level language, on 
dvanced error-correcting tape cassettes 
-provides a word processing editor, a 



Name 




powerful assembler, a debugger, a file 
system, graphic routines, and peripheral 
handlers- We also include dynamic graphic 
games: Animated Spacewar and Life. 
ECD's standard Micromind /xM-65 
supplies 8K bytes of memory. Additional 



32K byte expansion boards and a mapping 
option give Micromind expandable access 
to 64 Mega bytes. Utilizing software- 
controlled I/O channels. Micromind's 
advanced encoding techniques load data 
from ordinary tape recorders at 3200 
bits per second, 

Micromind comes to you ready-to-use, 
factory assembled and hilly tested. Among 
microcomputers, it has the largest memory 
capacity and the fastest storage, ou're 
looking at the work of the Finest display 
processor on the market You wont find a 
microcomputer with a more powerful CPU. 
You won't find a computer with a 
more flexible keyboard, You won't 

find anything to 

touch it at 
$987.54. 
J 





So, quit the kluge scene and key into 
Micromind You'll be a main frame per- 
former, with all the comforts of home. 
We're not fooling... this is the cats fi\ 

ECD CORP. 
196 Broadway, Cambridge. Mass. 02139 
(617)661-4400 



€C3> 



Address 



City/ State 



Zip 



O Fantastic! Check enclosed: S987.54. stvppmgpaMbfBcn 
D BankAmericard D Master Charge ^»s Re***^ add 5% safes Tax 



# 



Expiration Date- 



L 



Signature 

□ Send me your brochure. 

Artnal unmtnurhpd nhntoaraohs. 




Experience 
the excitement of owning the worlds 
finest personal computer - 
IMSAI 8080 



Waiting for you — all the incredible 
performance and power of the 
IMSAI 8080. And at a price you 
would normally pay for a fine 
home music system. 

Introduced less than two years 

ago. the IMSAI 8080 is sold world- 

ide and acknowledged as the 

finest personal computer available. 

WORLD OF USES 
The IMSAI 8080 is a superbly 
engineered, quality computer. It is 
Tsatile, expandable and power- 
cutting literally hundreds of 



applications and uses at your 
fingertips. Imagine sitting at your 
desk and enjoying interaction with 
your IMSAI 8080! Press the on 
switch and you're ready for game 
playing, research, education, busi- 
ness applications, or for laboratory 
instrument control It has all the 
power you need, and more, to 
make your application ideas come 
alive. 

GROWS WITH YOU 

The IMSAI 8080 is signed for 
many years of pleasure. With its 
open-chassis engineering you can 
expand your system by adding 
peripherals and interfaces. The 22- 
slots and 28 amp power supply 
mean that you can plug in todays, 
plus tomorrows modules. 



Right now you can add a module 
for displaying color graphics and 
characters on TV; a ready-to-use 
keyboard; small and large printers, 
and a single interface that lets 
you attach multiple devices includ^ 
ing a cassette tape recorder. Ex- 
pect the latest exciting equipmt 
(rom IP4SAL We are committed 
to leadership in this expanding 
technology. 

EASY TO PROGRAM 
With our BASIC language you 
can operate the IMSAI 8080 
quickly and easily. Technte 
knowledgeable? Use oi^^jpHiDiy 
language to devt -dpffisHcated 
and unique ^oftu . 



* i ■ |# 





king personal computer, 
urself to the very best — 
8080 



.d £oi tree, foui ;• lor broch 



ure 



irw 










IMSAI 

IMSAI Manufacturing Corporation 

eandro, CA 
.093 
TV, ^67287 



European Distributee 
^er Industry P- 



SAVE 0VER$5000! 

Yes, you may be able to save well over $5,000 on psychiatric bills just by subscribing to Kilobaud. Why chance 
the emotional trauma of being unable to find the latest Kilobaud on the counter at your local computer store, 
radio store or newsstand? Why chance confinement in a state mental institution? 



AVOID THE HEARTBREAK 

OF PSORIASIS 

Psoriasis seems to follow severe mental traumas such as those experienced by computerists who have missed 
the latest issue of Kilobaud. Why take a chance? Subscribe immediately. 

WIN THE HEART OF A 
BEAUTIFUL GIRL 

What gorgeous red blooded American girl would fail to throw herself at a man who obviously knows about 
computers? Read Kilobaud and fool 'em, Talk buzzwords and you'll score every time. Who knows, you might 
fool yourself and come out of it actually understanding computers . . . that's the sneaky purpose of Kilobaud, 
After about six issues of Kilobaud you'll have to beat 'em off with a stick. Fill out the coupon {or a reasonable 
facsimile) and send it in right away . . . why take chances? 



□ YES! I want to subscribe to KILOBAUD!! 

□ 1 year- $15* Start with, .issue. 

Please find $ enclosed. DCash □ Check □ Money Order 

Bill: □ BankAmericard DMaster Charge n American Express 

*US St Canada ONLY ! Others write for foreign rates 

Card # Interbank # 



Expiration date 
Name 



Signature, 



Address 
City 



TOLL FREE SUBSCRIPTION NUMBER: 

(800) 258-5473 



State 



Zip 



Don Alexander WABVNP 
OSU Van de Graaff Lab 
1 302 K Innear Rd. 
Columbus OH 43212 



High Quality Display 



- - with complete cursor 
and video control 



The video display 
described in this article 
is a high quality display with 
large capacity (2048 char* 
acters), extremely high speed 
(normal memory cycles are 
used to enter or read data 
from display memory), and 
unlimited formatting capa- 
bility. In writing this article, I 
have assumed the reader has 
uLt feast a basic working 
knowledge of digital logic and 
is familiar with typical uses of 
a video display, 

The display itself consists 
uf32 lines each containing 64 
characters for a total of 2048 
characters. The character set 
includes both upper and 
lower case characters and the 
Greek alphabet, in addition 
to some special characters. 
Normal display of a character 
is white on black, but the 
video may be inverted on a 
character by character basis 
to produce a black character 
in a field of white. 

The display memory is 
accessed directly by the 
microprocessor as though it 
were normal memory. This 
allows information to be 
written to or read from any 
location of the display 
memory at any time, Scrol- 
ling the display then becomes 
a software process, and as 
such allows the display to be 
arbitrarily partitioned into 
several segments, each being 
scrolled independently of the 

jA 72 



Photos fay Mike Barnaby 

others* In fact, programs may 
be loaded directly into 
display memory and 
executed. 

The display does not, how- 
ever, steal cycles from the 
processor {as many who have 
seen my display immediately 
ask). Display memory is nor- 
mally isolated from the 
processor bus and is used by 
the display control circuitry 
in parallel to normal proces- 
sing, When the processor per- 
forms a read or write cycle 
utilizing a location within the 
display memory, control of 
that memory is automatically 
switched to the processor. 
This means that the processor 
steals cycles from the display 
when needed. 

A Basic Video Display 

Before I go into a detailed 
description of my display, I'd 
like to go through a sim- 
plified description of the 
fundamental process of 



creating a raster scan display. 

A raster scan CRT 
(Cathode Ray Tube), an 
example of which is a normal 
TV set, produces an image by 
moving an electron beam 
horizontally across the screen 
262 ft times (from left to 
right) while moving it once 
from top to bottom. On 
every other vertical trace of 
the beam, the start of the 
horizontal tracing is delayed 
slightly to produce a field of 
horizontal lines between the 
lines drawn by the previous 
trace. Each of the two fields 
of lines is catted a frame. The 
process of causing the lines of 
the second frame to fall 
between the lines of the first 
frame is called interlacing. 

Movement of the electron 
beam is synchronized by 
special pulses which are part 
of a video signal, the 
horizontal and vertical sync 
pulses- For instance, suppose 
that the beam has just com- 



CLOCK AND TIMING 
t*FORMAT+ON 



COU*Tt = 



SCAN 

LINE 

COUNTED 



ROW 
COUNTER 



VIDEO 
COMBINE* 



.VIDEO 
OUTPUT 



U 



c^aracteh 

GENERATOR 
[READ ONLT 

uEftfront) 



1 SHIFT 

J REGISTER 






ADDRESS 

3RMATION 



Fig. I. Video display simplified block diagram. 



pleted a trace across the face 
of the CRT. The horizontal 
sync pulse will cause the 
beam to go back to the left 
side of the tube (retrace) and 
begin a new sweep. Likewise, 
a vertical sync pulse causes 
the beam to move back to the 
top of the screen- Another 
part of the video signal is the 
blanking. Blanking pulses 
follow each of the horizontal 
and vertical sync pulses and 
serve to blank out the retrace 
of the beam so that it does 
not show up as unwanted 
light on the screen. The final 
part of a video signal is just 
the video information itself 
This information controls the 
intensity of the electron 
beam as it is being swept 
across the CRT. The lync, 
blanking, and video informa- 
tion are all combined to 
produce a single signal which 
controls the CRT monitor. 

Producing a display of 
characters on a raster scan 
CRT involves only the 
synchronization of an appro- 
priate train of pulses with the 
horizontal and vertical infor- 
mation. I have shown a 
simplified block diagram to 
accomplish this in Fig. 1, 

The clock and timing 
information block is respon- 
sible for generation of ihc 
horizontal and vertical sync 
and blanking pulses. This 
information is fed directly to 
a video combiner and is also 
used to control the operation 
of several counters, The row 
counter and the column 
counter provide an address to 
the memory (which contains 
the characters to be 
displayed). The data from the 
memory serves as one input 
to a read only memory called 
a character generator. The 
character generator contains a 
matrix of dots for each char- 
acter (see Fig, 2). Since only 
one row of dots for a char- 
acter may be produced on a 
given scan of the electron 
beam, a scan line counter is 
needed to tell the character 
generator which particular 
row of dots is currently being 
called for. The output of the 
character generator is loaded 
into a shift register and 



A3.. M 




»1 



010 



OTt 



*0 



Hi 



Ma 



fl* 



QO00 



iimirii 
rn »■ n ii 

in mm 

I » 'I H 

■ * 

B< n IB 
•I Ii I 

■ in Hi 

I'flfl. HI 



00 

ii :. 
'Mi '• 
|i M i 
pi ii I 
■ 
«i i 
ii n i 
|*i l 
■ i iB 



0001 _ 

ofl no 



i Mflfl i Hi 

■ ifli ii ifli i i 

■ i n H ii ■■- i 

Ml II II l: IB' I 

■ •>r Villi 
pi iBb- ii hi 
Bi nj:.'i:ll in 

Bmmni up 

■ nmmrjii 



DDnnuirr? 
piiriciqnc) 

nuuumv r 
[]i3(ium ii i 
UMMM-nni i 
fit i[i! inc ii i 
Otn irjni n I 
OtlrKini ii i 



Ifllfl! 
II II Ml 



It I 

■ ■in 

ll II Mil 
|l II Mil 

Mil nit 



mirniP.-Mi i 
i |-r ■ ■ n ii ii ii i 

• !l II II H II I 
LIIIBBBBB 
i IBi ii iBi n I 

Bi I ■; I 

Bl 11)1 il IBI I 
MB ill 'Bi III 
DilBBI II II J 



no 



100 



101 



110 



111 



«0 



n» 



no 



•* 



no 



HQ 



[liiilin 
b::-. mm « 
BMuniE** 
bmueibha 

BdnUHlB 

B1.fll.HKSB 
■ ■ ■: i n i : i ; ■ 
a z 

MflflBflfli i 



r'B 

■ : 
•0 

■ a 

■ a 

■ ■ 

BD 

fl.' 
CM 



nun 

non 

■ ■ 

BIB 

o-do 
nnn 



an 

UP 
GB 

: » 

,':■ 
■ G 
OD 

no 

BD 



!• 



Bitni/JUB 
• "'""' I 1 '" ' B 

al'ilgnsn'B 
■■••in 

■OGOUCJG 

Ipoejirrri 
oaDGi.:a 
■oaoonn 



oaoaoBO 

DDDDGLf 

nndoatjr) 

on ODD DO 
DDDDDDa 

yuunaan 
aaaat ao 



•D1IIDD 
■IQDDID 

■aanoBO 

■DCDDia 
BBRHDBO 
•DlflflDC 

■ arjonnr} 

IGQGGDD 
BOOOQDO 



UlfMBMU!: 

onuiniia 

TJIUJBIjIKj 

i3f]!:Bimn 

13*i!:BMlMJ 

CJJTc !i irj:*rl: 

nimi iekim 
ruiriBiitji i 



0010__ 

am rvo 



I Mil I 
■ •hi 

I ! D 

I ll'fli 
I In III 
i !•■■: 

i ••■ 
t ■ m- 

t IBBI 



ll II 

IHI 

II ll 

'B 1 
|m 
MJi 
MM 
MM 
UN 



0011 



DO 



0100 _ 

Dl DO 



i ii nun in': 
i ii im ii i nr | 
mi^im nit k 
I IBBBBBB 
BOHBI ifli I 
I 11 |l i Bill H I 
' I'! IBU 'I ! 

mutant it i 
ijumiimg 



[JNiniiiri 
MMflLIUBIl 
M-.fl: Ii I."' 

Hlililjulju 

ci^ticipiJEI 
□IWIUOdn 
tH fnriri-ncT: 
LltJEIIllKHt 

ci< s-eiij* re rri- 



i id 
nn 
i ii i 

un 
n" 

|][7 
urj 
nn 
rjfl 



ll 
11 

I J 
I 

i> 
D 

; ■ 



i mi:: 
> in:: 

I 11 113 

nnii 

: lllii 

urJu 

tino 
nnn 

■ u 



!.1|i'/U[?l r 

■GLmnrii 
lOGOODI 
Bllflflll 

■q[][:d:i 
■OOODOI 
■oonnc:i 
aaaarrci 



UCIBBIUD 

* » 

■ LHJLirjtlB 

■nonaoB 
■ugoggb 
■QDi:nra 
arLj5:ana 

L]BI ,,L 'B' i 

nr-Bii 1 ":* 



r ii?- : : r.i i.i ■_" 

i ir'.'. 'QQO 
onry-.noa 
nniHir) 

Br:;,L:r.B-J 
■donnflo 
maar.mmu 
obbbobo 



iifliflr.-flo 

aoouBin 

■DCDDID 
■OODOBCJ 

aoons on 

OflBBCBG 

onoaoaa 

DDQDOPn 



- IIBIII1 

a> r ii iiiii 

E ]L I ; 1 1 I ! . i I B 

m mi i flu 
i iririBi in 
i 11 1 14 H Hill 
I 'BI 11 
BLUM' Mil 



■ ■■■■■I! 

Ml-.'!! I(,i| IB 

aaqunnB 

niodnnai 

i ■ ■■■« 

nBcnnca 

EjflGOODfll 

niGnoni 

tlllllC 



• ■■■■■; 

tiiUUdbBI 

■ nnriKLi 
anoaona 
■Minn 

BOUlQOO 

afianaoo 
a:.:;ju:.irj 
■uodoni 



lonnnao 
inoonnn 
ir:r;tTCoa 
i: 'BBBnn 
iPwUuan 
n;ra[ian 
incanan 
nrxjoio 
II iti □ 



r,-finnno 

oaaooac 
goiigodci 
fli JAB BOO 
BBGOOBO 

Badaaaa 
aannuoa 
■<;aooao 
maaaaaa 



'III llliiLj 

■lllrBftiin 

BI II ll II ,' Ll I 
fll H ll MM II I 
i IB I II 1 1 II M i 
I '•» II 1 Ml 
Bi II IB'II Ml 
BI II ■ ii M3 
i JBSJI II M I ik 

I hi ii nn pi in 
l II ll Ii JL I r 1 1 i 

c M U Ii ie irij | 
■ BI It l> IBI I 
ElBi U -Bl ll I 
I iBi h fll II I 
I IBI i| -BI II I 
i IBI iLlfllLl I 
fll Iflfll II M i 
_ — _, _ 



r.«]BTlflU ! J 

Niiumi:; 

i Hifli :«' 111 
■■■■■■■ 

I MlBi ifll M !■ 

BBVflflBB 
ms«[:Bii-:i 
llljflllfl!;!! 
nUBtiBJifi 



III ii :<irinn 
Ml II I'M || || I 

rn iflBLint] 

I IB' I II II III 

bi ii i ir ii m 

■ ■■ii M in 

Bl II ll II II Ml 
I IBi I II II h I 
i ii <■■' ■! i ■ 



010? 

Di DD 



rim 

i ii i 

I IBI 



I II Mill 
I II llll I 

ibbi ii m 

■ « 

■ fli iBI'l I 

B ■■ !■ I 

1 ma l 1 1 

tll:B: MM Ml 

cvibiii: 1 !! i 

r ii if Iflnr Ml 
■■■■■■ 

Bill IBM MJ 

■ l M IB'II Ml 
Llltlll I 

run 'Bfir'B 
I Mi' 'B::i!B 
■■■■■111 

Ml- .'■ :: in 



1 11IIIII1 

•Ml :■ I'll IB 
;i 1 1 M ll :i ib 
riruiriEHiB 
riLlBBBBi' 
nEllJIJULJfl 

nonunnflj 
■ nricnni 

i ■■ ■ ■■ 



:.v:BB«an 
L :;i^nrrna 

■i]DDi:aD 
BEian^nn 

■ 'ji/inju 

BGnUdDD 

■ondana 

DIIJDCini 

DGint: 



UBBBBBD 

■DDGDDff 
BL.ir :-:.-i; | ., 

Bnorrana 
niitPir 
DnD'JQOB 
□ GCCi-fli 
BDDGElDfl 
DflflflBBD 



nnGG 
nnan 
fj:idn 

GBBB 

moon 
maan 

■ GOD 
■OQfl 
GBBB 



BQQ 

rnGG 
■no 
:;*o 
::i.ir.) 
cnn 
rma 

■ QU 



cm 

EMI 
tl-L I 

m ■ 

LIB 

BB 

an 



MfMUl I 
■ ■. 
■ Hi 
fl: •tlfll I 
L is !>li ai i 
BBflflB 
LILJtifli i 
L1",;-UB| I 
[lf.ltlBI I 



■ ■linn 

□BGPODB 
DIDCDDI 
DIQQDDl 
GIUUDL-0 
DPIiurjDI 
Gfl J .]n::.i.:B 
UVGHDnfl 
■■■Bflin 



Ml 1 1 i 

i m ifl-i 

I IBI II 
Bl II M 

B 

I IBBI 

1 II 11 ir 
1 M'flJ 



! I 



M ! 



i 



ono 

do ao 



II ! 



Ill 

IMi Ml 
I. II IN 
■Ml 111 
I' II Ml 
fll 1 1 r 
Ii M Ml 



I Mil it ir 11 lip 

I n> i ; i 

i I: if u 1 1 n prj 
• II MM II ■ i I 
■fli II M fli i 
Hi IB" Iflr'l I 
I 1 1 1 1 I ■ I 1 1 ! 
I Ii IBI Ifllll I 
■IB BB 

I 'fl '.. Mil ll i 
Bl fll Mil ■«) 
I Ifl.li luflo 
I ii-:n IBI Ell 
II! IBIIJPEP 

: "11 Wi'.y.i 
1 i »•: i r l r ■ ■ ■ 

B.:-!! IBI ■ 

ntirjii: ■ 



■ ■111 

BUI II 
Bi II H Yi I 

Bi I Ml Ii I 

B B ■ ■ B 
Lll IIJlll.l 
E.lllllEH'l 

■ ni/IEfl 
TiBflBBB 



*■ 

: Ii I 

Ell I 

B • 
I IB 

I '■ 
I ■ 



BBBBBBB 

aottflduu 
ngnBGDa 
nnuannn 
GGDBnua 
ciODBono 

GQLBGGD 

on lib out) 
ooL'Bnun 



□aoaaad 

OGGGG DO 
DGGGGGn 

GBBBflna 

BUEIGGBQ 
GlMOGGd 

ouoBflnn 

BGni-'iflD 
QBBBBUn 



DOGGGBO 
GGGUniD 
□OQDDIO 
aSBBOBO 
BCJODBBG 

■aaaaflQ 

»G GOG AG 
■GGDflflG 
OBBBGBG 



OGQOQOD 

□OflDGOD 
oaiooaa 

RflBflBGU 

OGBoa an 
dob man 

8QBapon 
QBr>u«d 

OODSBOd 



1 1- 
i ifli n 

■'■Bl 

ii a 

b' 

licifl: 
(■ill ii 

" 

: 



; ii 



i II I 

n: 

ll ifli l 

!. ■ 

' m. : 

mi ■ 

m i 

'i ; 1 1 i 

■ i 



0111 

Crt RO 



i ii ll IB 

pi I'iBMI IB 
I IBirfli ifli | 
I ifl iB< iBi I 
I IB i|i >B l 
I I' IBBI II I 
|l!i Bl i ii u I 
I It IllBl ll IE I 
nuliBl llJ! I 



I IBB! .'■■ 
BUI lllfl' IL I 
B>!Eiril:!ir 
LIB I iBOIlN 
J ?riB: Tl 111! I 

L»BI '■ ' B 
■ r i ; : : ■ ■ i i 
BUi ii flfl- 
UBBB ■ 



> i 



1 1 



I IE I 
IHI 
mm 
\U\ 
\:\ 
:>.['. 
IB 



i Mil ■ 

i wnui 
ihititi 

Bill ' 
IH. f 1'B 
i j ; :- 1 ; b 
nr>iiB 

Bill 



BIltJULJDG 

Boi:acoD 
pooanoa 

■ IflflDlUG 
IflGGODGG 

BaonDun 
Bnunrsnn 



BUGOGGB 
BOOGGGB 
BLJi i:.: |l IB 

BnnrrnnB 

flOUOOGB 

BOOvJui.ifl 
■ogodDi 
■nii^rujB 
<:ihii! 



OGGGEMI-a 

nnnnncLj 
uu l : i i r: u r j 
GBBBirn 
Brirjnrrfln 
Bnnni^an 

BBBBIfln 

■ nnii^iio 

nBBIflBD 



fjdotiaoo 
ddncaoa 
anoDOOQ 
BQDOOBd 
BODOGBQ 

■dddoBD 
BEinoaio 
■ DDnriBa 
ilBBlBBUO 



KKI 



IGIJI I 

nonn 

EiODU 
BGGf] 
LJUDfi 
:,:.r:' 
GCCC) 
BGGGCCr 



i: .' 
!□£ 
IBI 

idai 



in ii 

Bi II 
Bui 

BBI 

Bill 

■ ; 

• IB! 
'IHI 



IB:" IN 
M Ifli in 
Ii ii IBM 
B . 
IBB Br I 
:. pi ib: : 
II M ifli I 
M IBI II I 

Ifllll III 

'■ ii ii in- ; i 
- 11 II ll lll'l I 

F H ll Ii I Hi 

riflii.i in 
Bl ll ll in i IB 
Bl II IB Ii ifl 
Bl M 'B n IB 
Bl II 'I II IB 
I IBB IB- 



US'. I II I 
I IB:. 'I :; 
Bni.i :: ... 

EitN.il M M- i 
NUill II., 
yonn[jj r i: 
LiE.-uriiniEi 
ruKiii. 



i r.i i n : ■ 
E hi 11.11 'fllll I 
I :i ii iB inn 
r;E]BNGHLJ 
UnB;i J :rin 
i : : 2 ■ : ; : : . i : ] 

Ill.TBIJUUEi 



tooo 

m do 



i n 
fli 

i ir 

■l 

Bl 
fll I 

Bi 
i n 



nirinoi i 
i' ii niij-n 
ii II 1 1 us 1 1 1 

Mil II II II I 

n n m'i ii i 
ii ii n ii ii i 

111 II Mill 
II 111 II 111 
Ifli M II 111 



I nun ii ii-. i 
i. flflfli" i 
I -B-'n 1 1 lii 
fl i "Ifl 

■ : nil i I 
Bi n INI -fl 
I IB il II ifli - 
, Ifl .. II ifli 
Bfl Mill 



B 


fl 1 


I B '! 


I 


- a :i 


i 


i rt.tf.ii 



E llsEl 

'I I 
:: .Di ■ 

■.: 
;: »i 
:i.. ;i i 
:;•::: 
ir:in 

INul I 



■ ULindnB 
flntiLiuUB 
BnrinnnB 

■n^nnni 

BEJCEIE'CB 

■ li::flfiriB 
L'fl !;"!■:: 

ULiB. ;bi..:: 
nni'BNE" 



nrnBBncj 
diiBNiiin 
PUflnjL:f- 

ooin::!i:t 

■llll V 

nrjfljvon 

□GflODGG 
do BOO GO 
OGBOGGCI 



□dooond 
ncanooo 

nDDDLTCO 
Bl.-CnBU . 
BDGOBGO 

■ DDtllDD 

moan bdg 

oluiniotj 

DfltlDJDDni 



' Bfl 

: ■ " 
b:j:;u 
Bleg n 

• J "I I 

pBJ ■ ■ - - i ■ 

I Ifli 

T.IEJBB 



■ ■ ' 
PDI 
;: :■.: 
ncrj 



m r K ■ -"i 
in:; - ■ ■. i 
mr: ' i 



i 



fl 

KKI 
fli ill 

I ■■ 

fli 

■ LCI 

W-:ci 

DIB 



i ii :i ■ 

! I 

BBB 
Llllll 
l l ; 1 1 •■ 
:.i:;' 

Bflfl 



1001 



Dfl 



o<y 



N( PC MINI II I 
I, -t ll M II E( IE « 
BUM ", 11 El Ml 
Be El !B< IHI I 

Bi B M 

■■■ I- HEEII I 
Bl ib: H Fill I 

Bl II IBi Ifli I 
fll 1 1 I Ifli II I 

■ HlflBIBB 
' M -fli i II i 

I 'I IB 

I 'i IB 

i U IBI I; 1 1 I1 1 
Ell Ifli llll M I 
fll 'fl Mil II i 
i IBB' 'il 111 
i II Jfli ' II in 



1010 



un do 



t H Ifl 

, :i m 
i ii ii 
in in 
i i n 
Nii:" 
i]rr:j 
mill 



l-MUl 

■ "' 
■ B I 
' * 

Ji 'flli 
'-. IB'P 

• J 
b:\: 



a i 
a 
'i 

in ii 
. . i 

in ii 
i n i 
i ifli 
bi M 



II IN 
El 'I 
ll Ml 
II i 
|l in 
1 1 IJ I 



am fl 
il ■■ i 



L !. I 

t Lll 
I II I 

: ii i 
i ii i 
i ii i 
: hi 

! M I 

III 



1011 



a* 



OD 



IV 



13* 



DO 



Lli II II I 

llll IIIII"! 

Bi.. i 

I Ii i. M 'I ;B:i 
■■■■•■■ 

III i I. '■' i 
I n nil iBi il i 
I lipiM II II ii ' 
MMl'l INI ll ■ 



:: 



INDGGGI 

iGtmdui 
inr.uncii 

lorjtioui 



i, . . 
id:: 



:i 



or.n 



'■■■: flij 

a i':. flan 
a i.:: : fl! ! 
■Mi 'I :.:•! I 

■ : " fl". I 
i.aaa ;iy 
nounnao 
■oaonig 

GBBBBUEJ 



DDDCGOG 
G DOC GOG 
CIDODGGO 
BOOr-ODB 
BDCflQDfl 
BDDflGDfl 
■ EJOflJOOB 
■nGBOEIfl 
U««TiBBa 



flGnnooa 
■ :. .iui-'B 
:■ ;m::ili 
i :jb: b . ' 
,:;:.ii;Lin 
l^'BJflnn 

«BGCJ..fl 

BCEU:?aui 
•GDdiinB 



in,-H-i 
ll klfi 
IOLE1 

■fl 

IB.H. I 

il.j.;li 

I DOG 

moo 
rdoa 



nng 
nnn 
nnn 
FiDlJl 

inn 

. » 

ClBQ 
DID 
DID 



QOOGGGO 
GDOOGGO 
GDDDDDO 
BilCJODBD 
GBDCBQO 
CIUIIDDD 
GOflBnOO 
n too BOG 
•ooauaa 



■ ■Bflfl 

■mem :.::' 
i ii n in ' 
■i ii i 
• • 
"irii ■ 

I r i l - 

II IN 
IBB 



1MB 

1 I I Bfl 

: , ■ 

ib:i 



I IB Bflfl BD 

di?nfl;:no 
DUCALl:':; 
oocfl.2on 

niSlTBE.-JOG 
iZ\2 l! I LT; "* C J 
Fl'OriB'JGG 
MMNBiTU'J 
I1BBBIBN 



■DOOGOB 

anri-r^nfl 
l j ■ : , : ■ ■:. Bo 
dltb: bejo 

QlJiJBGOD 

Oi]L"Bt:oa 
odcfniDo 

'■■:::■:. I 

kigtn-rxUd 

. :fl:'!C1U 
chum: i^GG 
i_IjBB:":l3M 
i :mB% r :^D 
E.lOLJBdr^d 
DDDIGfin 

ndiJBGEJd 
nauBnuci 



i inufl 

BIIJIB 

i m ■ 
Mr.'ifl 

BflflB 

lllllfl 

llfliTB 
■1FOB 

EH1DI 



■ Hi. I 
:<N« 

■ • 
r r 



■111 

BBI 

* 

I 111 
::::■■ 

:.".i i 



nciiliicim i 
tUI ii i 
'!■:.. INEJEl 
Ell Ml; iLinu 
uniinilLJM 
Li; ;l; i.-iin 
na:il iMLKl 
LINIILIMNH 

n: wii'e?e- 



GLI 



ona«i 
onDt:i 

- 

nOD^ 1 !:]!! 

nncnann 
cii.:::MBEi[.i 
nn^narjrj 
Brj;::iBL-n 
n a ib nnn 



■ i: :m imeHi 
a i "l i Bui lei 

■ Hi IB. HIE) 

■ .'I IB.IMM 

B>>-i ■ Bfl i ■ : ■ i i 
Bflfl, l|i I! I 
fl. 'I M MM II I 
B' I M ii ii II l 

■ ■ if Un 'I H I 

I ii'Miiniiii 
I II Mil I Ml IF I 
i ii fli M n H l 

I Ifl 1 1 Ml! M | 

iiiiiii 

■ H ii I I 

NnSi l|l| pi i 
tHEt II II II ELI 
i. IMI II lllllEl 



• i M II Ills M 1 

urn iBj-uij 

1 Bin II I 

I II II Ifl - 

IIIIIII 

nr ii .a, irjn 

EIOLIISJLIIJ 
I IMIlI'li IN 
LlLlNlJ.II :i: 



narinnfPEi 
1 1 1 ■ ; ' : '•[ i p, i c r 
EEMI lEptrUEl 
1 1. 'Lie hMe m I 
Ml n '^(IMI I 
Lilfl.:. ii il i 
i ::n. s-et' cir i 

MMBMLJElM 

nBi'nnLiJ i 

aannoNB 
■nnnnBO 

BlJLir^flEJD 

■ -"■':. 

■■IDnDO 

■ :.: ■ •:■;■ 
BL-C'-ar7n 
o :ni:i 

•iltJGGi'Jfl 



CFI I, 

Ulll 

BBI 
IWi 
I IB. 
I IB: 
I IBI 
I FBI 

1 11 M 
PI- l| 

I ifli 
I ll ll 



ll 'I 



I IMI 
I I, M 

I '■ '. 



IBI 



If IM 
Ii II I 
i II I 
ifli I 
ifli I 
II 11 I 
■I ii l 
il M i 
1 1 ii i 

i ii I 

I " l 

fli i 

i. I 

'I M i 

El M I 

'. ll I 

. U I 

■i Ml 



_1101 _ 



Mi Mir in i il i 
li; ;.i M'i. i. 
LJi IMEHILIL 

E NlpLF 

Li' ilE.THI 
riflfl: HTOU 
Will IEK1I I 
P41AI :; i.: : 
E'H:IIJI:i:r 



'■'•O. 
CI 



ton nnn 
ccjoc 
on t.i-r 

OOMBLliin 

en b. jd Lin 
'■■"■■■■: 

■MOiTSfn'O 



flCTDODflQ 
■ '. ":■!: 
■GGGCflD 

■odcoio 
■ncoflflo 

OflflBOBD 

Sciaaaab 
MOiJGBQ 
OBBVBGG 



i ■. :.ic)l n 

conut«i[3 
uonnciio 
Boaouflo 

GOGGOfln 
GCLJU^flEt 
BOGGOBO 

aenr^'flo 

;, BflflB;:: : 



dOGDCGG 
OOGOCGO 
DGGOEDQ 
BBBflflflO 
ODG"IGG 
OGOBZOG 

nanncj-GG 

BBBBflBLI 



DQIflBflO 

r:nfliic;ij 
H'JlrjCdO 

nnii--- isi 

COflNGGG 

odaoonn 
DdBNJUO 

rioBN-nui 

NDBflflflQ 



BrjrjDOrjO 

BonjJddn 
■ncu'jao 
bnl.-i -mnt; 
B^roacoa 
Bflirjoso 

■DGBDDG 
BMMOBGG 
■GGGaBQ 



DCvlPIO 
i-;:-fl..u:s::i 

DL:i^r:r' 

i;UHGULLE 
nflCQCL'D 
QCflODCO 

88IBSSS 

ODOaiBG 



IHRFnBNU 
HI EITWHILI 

'III l::n 
l h Br 'i i;j/tin 

B '.IN 

MB ■: hiiui 

[U'llliJl-'O 
I IMMflJ "l!;J 
I 'NLli'flLi:'' 

m\)vo£ino 

■ ::::; 

■ :'.::•;' 

■ :.;:■ L?M 

■goocap 
■rjoocou 
■r!^E":cron 
■drrndgd 

IIIIIII 



QDU.'JfJEJLl 

■r^oQco 
dii:liooo 

DO»fJOCO 
GCL^IL^J^ 

a c:: o ■ en 
QOt:dnlr 
adijauDB 
acnaccEn 



GDI 
GDI 
UQI 
OD" 
GO! 
DCfl 
GOB 
Oflfl 
OR* 



GCOD 
OIZGD 

gcog 

ni.:r:n 
GCGD 
:;L:^r , 
>.:r.nn 
noaa 

I •ilCU.l 



GDDBGDG 
GGDflGQG 
GCCIGDG 
DDCCODG 

aaoctjao 

□OOflGOG 

a dob Odd 
aooBDoa 

DQOGQOD 



Ml ■: I 
mill 
LIB:. 
I M 'II 

I iB i. 
II' >i 
I IBBI 
I M IH' 
I i" ■: I 

1H l|li 
I Fllll. 

t I 

1 Pi '! II 
■ III 

I HUT, 
,ii I. if 

I • 'i I 

mi in: 



H il M I 

Ifl 

'i Ii 31 ■ 

l. Mlh 

M-iil i 

i. 'Ml I 
l«> •! I 
i.ifll I 
■ ■fllll i 

M II II I 
'I II II I 
|i llll I 
ML II I 



I. II 'I I 

i im i 
'i i ii i 



h 11 i;'| I 
III I II 11 llll I 
I II Ml i.'HEE 
I ii \:i '. i'i f 

■fllflllB 

i ', I.' Ml 
L1li:il M'.:: ' 
LUr.r.11 UEMM 
i m],::iii 

in ::?M: 'im 
;iM. : ■ 

■■■BflflB 

■ 

IIIIIII 

e ■ i • I V. i • ■ : - 
' ' i . ■ i i 



nnnni 



mo 

Dl I 



EMlU i 

El 1M4 ll M !." 
■I ii ■ i I il J 
II i IB. 'M'I 

■ m - ' 
E'i"in'lii 

r '■! i 

•■■■ M in ii i 

II lBfl. 'I 111 



Ifl I Ml IN 
lllfl. 'PLM I 
II ' '■ 1 1 III 

i flaii 

i. I 'BlPI n I 
i ifli 'i'i IN 
'I 'i II il 111 

laaaBia 



art 



-■ ■ 

B-:l;B 
iHCBE^-tEB 
::;b 
iogql^^b 
ias; ..:■ 
irr:3; :'ifl 



flflflu 

dnLTBG-q 

0.:::::fl-;i 

"::r^i jn 

US;CLTfl~lEl 

i ■ 
n::.-.:-mni\ 
in 1 ? 

MflflllJ- 



U\ ll n*l iMl I 
til il : U MMI I 
tPLlnsMt M i 
tKUJIUJMLI 

tninifs.ini i 
i. : i ' • . ' l j l U i 
MLir-MMEiN 
GElL'ML'LiM 
LlNflML i ' 



Mil 



qo 



mummm 
nn 'i iiiMMi 

"iii'i ■ '. , r M 

■•■an 

flCB. 'AMI F 
111 Ifl- HL'Ll 

in 'ii 1*1 ii i 
I 'MB. ifli M i 
nr ■■■'!■[ M i 

nniHT 

: Iflfll I Ml Fl I 
■Mr'*! 1. 1| 
i i. ■• u i Ifli i 

i '■■■ >\ 

-flflj. ■• ifl* i n iflflj 
. '.'• ■■ 'Ifl i 

(H FLU li:l IN 
Ml Ft II I IFL FLI 

Ll.'-ilUllHii] 
LHMI Mil :■■ 
iHit-i lilBtl 
n.t, '■fill 

PI'MN 

i . a.-MMCF 
i. m.-' 'Mil 

fli. '.'."MML! 
M-\-- JMLIM 



0\M 
E 1 ! 
L:. 
tli 

i ■; 

i 
i 



ILILUi 
IMI 

H1l '■,'. 

jii.'iE" 
>*".::>{ m 

■ 
'.' a.' 

:.'. ■■.::■; 

rva.JiTiin 



^1QOi;i 

i ■ i:';-* 
■ r :L - » 



. ■. j -. j i 



• ■ 



a lj a a 



aCCirliirr'i 
rnu:..:'. :: ■ 



»r;'i,jc.!B 

Hr!L:B:-E,lB 

dGO»rc:« 
e::lm. : ■ 

I GDI "Ml 



□ ■■ it" 1 no 
CCi^.i: flao 
gacaflGg 
ooGoioa 
Q2C"::flG 
GOGDflOG 

aga^foti 
oaozrlGG 
diaiDoc 



Blflflfl. 

■"LiLinoi 
Mi s i:i:.:.:- 
OL":"C'ICBO 

u::jLiL7on 
Gr.::Li:::?' 
qaaniifjo 

Lj i_ i ■..- iii. 



i 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . i ■. .j 

rtf:t r :;y,-£i 
■ in i 



tJL^Lr-L"!" 

GG^ra i 
e;l':u'B-j 



::BBGGL; J 

■3:i:ii 

GGGGBBO 

oooc^ro 
oDGocaa 
dflCocD:] 
o-aaacdu 
oncnGEJG 

OOOOGDG 



I 



l.. .': 

L'i . '■ 
LU",'I 
EL- 

ml: 

£■;- 



! ■::! 



.'.-L',' 

B: nil 

Bfl '" 



in ::' 



Fifjaoooo 
Ur:;;CdOO 
codz[;uo 

j— in : i * F, 'T m n 

dz!>c55g 



■ ■ - i. I 

J:-V:. :' 
L":\"'. ."i.i 
-flflflfl: .i 



■•«■■■■ 



Bflfllfll 



P>SMttBdEh*flElB. Tlfll 



k flllttid Ifflflt PMH fl> N3 it ill* lop of thi font and ftl 1 it Ehi bottom 



Fig. 2. Character set for the MCM6571 A character generator. This read only memory is a/so available with other character sets. 



shifted out to be combined 
with the horizontal and 
vertical information to 
produce white dots on the 
screen. 

My display writes 32 lines 
of 64 characters per line, I 
allow 1 5 scan lines per row of 
characters. This means that it 
takes 15 traces of the 
electron beam to produce one 
row of characters. A sim- 
plified flow of events would 
be: 

1. The system is reset 
by the vertical sync 
pulse. 

2. Several horizontal 
sweeps are allowed to 
happen before anything 
else to space the char- 
acters down from the 
top of the raster, which 
is usually distorted, 

3. Data from memory 
is presented to the char- 
acter generator. At the 
same time, the scan line 
counter tells the char- 
acter generator which 
row of dots within a 
character is needed, 

4. The output of the 
character generator is 



loaded into a shift 
register and shifted out 
into the video combiner 
one bit at a time. 

5. The column counter 
is incremented and the 
same process takes 
p! ace over and over 
until the end of a line, 

6. At the end of a hori- 
zontal trace, the scan 
line counter is Incre- 
mented by the hori- 
zontal sync and the 
same line of characters 
is presented to the char- 
acter generator to 
produce the second row 
of dots on the screen. 
This process repeats 
until the first row of 
characters has been 
completed. 

7. A few horizontal 
sweeps are allowed for 
spacing. Then the row 
counter is incremented 
and the above process 
repeats for the next 
row of characters (and 
so on, until all the char- 
acters have been com- 
pletely displayed). 

The operation of my dis- 



play follows this basic out- 
line, except where I have 
taken advantage of peculiari- 
ties within the circuit. I also 
have had to play tricks 
because of the interlacing of 
the two video frames, so that 
I would have enough scan 
lines available to produce 32 
lines of high quality char- 
acters. 

Conventions 

For simplicity (at least in 
the writing of the article, if 
not in the reading), I have 
adopted a few conventions in 
drawing the schematics for 
publication. First, all crossing 
lines are not connected. Con- 
nections are drawn to 
produce i( T M junctions. 

A logic gate with an "00 " 
in it is a 7400, one with an 
"04" in it is a 7404, and so 
on. 

tCs drawn as boxes have 
their part numbers inside the 
box. 

I have not numbered pin 
connections on common logic 
gates; I leave this to the 
builder, since it is unlikely 
that his layout will make it 



convenient to use the same 
pin numbers, {My display is 
wire- wrapped. E highly recom- 
mend going that way, as a 
printed circuit layout on this 
scale would be a great under- 
taking for the hobbyist,) I 
have not numbered or shown 
power connections for any 
but special ICs. Fig, 3 con- 
tains all pin number and 
power information for the 
ICs used. Where I have num- 
bered pins on counters, flip- 
flops, and special ICs, there is 
little choice (except for the 
flip-flops which have two 
gates per package). Numbers 
in small square boxes refer to 
Altair bus numbers and are 
the only off board connec- 
tions to be made except for 
the video connection itself. If 
you are not using an Altair- 
compatible bus, then you 
will need to make appropriate 
corrections to the memory 

control part of the schematic 
(note that the only connec- 
tions to the external world 
are those appearing on the 
memory schematic — except 
for power and the video con- 
nection). 

73 





Component side of Allair bus video driver board. 



The Memory 

I'll start my discussion of 
the actual display circuit by 
describing the memory sche- 
matic shown in Fig. 1 ( since it 
is relatively straightforward. 

I have used 2102s for 
memory, since they are cheap 
and readily available. There is 
nothing sacred about this 
choice, and any other 
memory could be substituted 
if it were fast enough, I 
recommend buying memory 
which is guaranteed to at 
least 500 nanosecond access 
time (to insure reliable opera- 
tion). 

The address lines of the 
memory chips are tied in 
parallel and connected to the 

outputs of the 74157 multi- 
plexers, whose function Til 
describe soon. Data inputs of 
the memory are simply con- 
nected to the data out bus of 
the processor. The data 
outputs of the memory are 
connected to the character 
generator (Fig* 5) and to 
some tri -state bus drivers 
(74125), The purpose of the 
tri-state bus drivers is to allow 
data to be read from the 
display memory by the 
processor. If you wish to use 
another tri-state gate (such as 
an 8T97), it will make no 



difference* 

The memory control 

circuit serves to distinguish 
between valid memory re- 
quests and random states of 
the Altai r bus which occa- 
sionally look like memory 
requests if enough care is not 
taken. The gates in the upper 
left of the memory schematic 
decode valid processor 
requests for the memory by 
monitoring three status lines 
and five address lines. If 
SOUT and WO are both low, 
then the processor is about to 
write to memory. If MEM R is 
high, the processor is about 
to read from memory, If, at 
the same time, address lines 
All through A15 are high, 
then the byte of memory 
being addressed is within the 
two kilobytes of display 
memory. One half of a 7474 
flip-flop is used to latch the 
request status during sync 
time of the processor, with 
the 0] clock being used to 
clock the flip-flop at a time 
when all address and status 
signals are stable. While my 
display memory is located in 
the high order two kilobytes 
of the Altair's memory ad- 
dressing range, it is by no 
means a sacred choice. You 
can put your display memory 
anywhere you wish by appro- 



priate decoding of All -At 5. 

When a valid processor 
request has been decoded and 
latched, the three 74157 
multiplexer chips shift 
control of the memory 
address lines from the 
display's own counters to the 
computer's address bus. The 
MWRITE Altair bus signal is 
gated by the output of the 
request latch to allow the 
processor to write data into 
memory* Similarly, the 
MEMR sigpnal is gated with 
the output of the request 
latch to enable the tri-state 
bus drivers for a read cycle* 

Address bit 2 10 (from the 
multiplexers) is used to 
enable either the high order 
kilobyte or low order kilo- 
byte of display memory* 

When the processor is 
finished with its request for 
use of the memory, the multi- 
plexers shift control of the 
memory back to the display 
control. 

The Character Generator 

Before I get into the actual 
description of the control 
schematic, I would like to 
take time to go over the 
character generator I chose 
and attempt to explain why I 
did some of the things I did 
with the control circuitry. 



The character generator 
stores a 7 x 9 matrix of dots 
for each of its 1 28 characters. 
Some of the characters (like j, 
y, g) should extend beneath 

the line for best results, so 

the character generator con- 
tains circuitry which shifts 
the matrix automatically on 
such characters. What this 
means is that for a normal 

character, the dots of the 
character will appear when 
lines through 8 of the char 
acter generator are addressed 
For a shifted character, lines 
through 2 will come out 
blank and the 9 lines of the 
matrix will appear when lines 
3 through \ 1 are addressed. 
In addition, if lines 1 1 
through 15 are addressed, 
blanks will result at the 
output. 

What this really means is 
that from the designer's view- 
point I don't have to know 
that the information is stored 
in a 7 x 9 matrix. I can make 
believe that it is in a 7 x 16 
matrix where the last four 
lines are always blank. 
Motorola, I love you for the 
MCM571A! 

t use l 5 scan lines per row 
of characters in my display 
(originally I used 16 but 
couid not achieve 32 lines of 
characters). Multiply 32 lines 
of characters by 1 5 scan lines 
per character line and you get 
480 scan lines (see how nicely 
the units cancel - high school 
physics, eat your heart out!). 

Now, remember from my 
earlier discussion that there 
are only 262/a scan lines per 
frame. Since I need 480 lines, 
I must use the fact that alter- 
nate frames are interlaced by 
causing my control circuitry 
to do every other scan line 
and alternate between frames. 
Since 1 am using I 5 scan lines 
per character line, 1 must in 
one frame write the eight 
even number lines of the first 
row of characters, then the 
seven odd numbered lines of 
the second row of characters, 
the even of the next, etc, etc. 

In the next frame, I must 
start with the seven odd num- 
bered lines of the first row, 
the eight even numbered lines 
of the second, and so on. I 



A 



1A 



POPULARITY EXPLOSION! 



. 




JUPITER II A 

6800 System 

$795 



JUPITER III A 

ZSO System 

$865 



If you thought the quality of a wire-wrapped 
system was beyond your price range — Take a 
look at what we have now! 

The Jupiter IIA and the Jupiter IMA Basic 
computer systems. You get the system module 
cage with fully assembled backplane, fully 
assembled plug- in ferro- resonant power supply, 
front panel kit and your choice of 6800 or Z80 
CPU module kit. All less than the price of the two 
best selling 8080 systems! 

Plus you can choose from the fastest growing 
selection of memories and peripherals available 
from any manufacturer, like our 2KB EPROM/ 
4KB RAM/serial RS-232 module which can 
transform your basic computer system into a real 
star. 

And remember, all Wave Mate products meet the 
highest quality industrial standards, with rugged 
construction unmatched by anyone! Join the 
popularity explosion and get yours now! 
Write or call for more info and your closest Wave 
Mate authorized distributor. 



You get your choice of microprocessors! 
And you get wire-wrapped modules too! 



Now you have a low cost way to get started 
into personal computing without sacrificing 

future growth capability! 



j Send information on: □ Jupiter IIA system 
I C Jupiter l!fA system 

I 
I 

I 
I 

I ADDRESS 

I 

I CITY 

i 



NAME 



STATE 



ZIP 



- i 




Wau±77taU 



WAVE MATE 1015 West 190th Street, Gardens, California 90248 

Dept 24 



Telephone (213) 329-8941 




also have to be sure that I am 
using the correct frames of 
the raster to avoid producing 
some weird characters. It 
turns out that only about 482 
lines of the raster are useful. 
The rest are contained within 
the field of the blanking 
pulses, and attempting to use 
them results in a rolling 
display or worse. Otherwise I 
would have stayed with 16 
scan lines per character. I 
might also mention that the 
choice of 14 scan lines per 
character was appealing to me 
until I tried it and found that 
the tines began to be uncom- 
fortably close together. 

Display Control 

Several signals within the 
control circuitry are impor- 
tant, and discussion of their 
functions will help to explain 
the operation of the display 
control (see Fig. 5}. These are 
PAGE ACTIVE, FIELD 
INDEX (FI), LINE AD- 
VANCE, END OF PAGE 
(EOP), END OF LINE 
(EOL), MASTER CLOCK 
(MC), VERTICAL DRIVE 
(VD), HORIZONTAL 
DRIVE (HD), and COM- 
POSITE BLANKING (CB). 
VERTICAL and HORI- 
ZONTAL DRIVE are really 
just vertical and horizontal 



Wire-wrap side of board 

sync, but the sync generator 
manufacturer labels them as 
drive. Any signal shown on 
the schematic with_ a bar 
above it (as CB or VD) is the 
complement of the signal 
indicated. The signals VD, 
HD, CB, and Fl originate 
from the sync generator (Fig. 
6). The other signals are 
generated within the display 
control. 

Sync Signals 

I have used a National 
Semiconductor MM5320N 
TV camera sync generator to 
generate timing signals 
needed to produce a raster. It 
produces the VERTICAL 
DRIVE signal, which (along 
with its complement) is used 
rnatnly to reset various coun- 
ters and flip-flops of the 
display control The HORI- 
ZONTAL DRIVE output of 
the sync generator serves the 
same purpose. The FIELD 
INDEX output of the sync 
generator identifies field 
number 1 of the raster. It is a 
pulse which occurs for two 
clock cycles at the leading 
edge of the vertical blanking 
For field one. I will discuss 
the sync generator in more 
detail when I get to the 
description of that schematic 
(Fig, 6), and mention it here 



only as a prelude to des- 
cribing the control circuitry. 

Page Active 

PAGE ACTIVE is a signal 
which goes high during the 
writing of a frame of informa- 
tion on the CRT, Thus, it will 
be low until the electron 
beam is In position to trace 
out the top scan line of the 
first row of characters and it 
will remain high until the last 
scan line of the last row of 
characters has been produced. 
When it is low, all video 
output is suppressed and the 
control circuit is mainly idle. 

Here is the sequence of 
events which results in the 
clocking of the PAGE 
ACTIVE flip-flop (which in 
turn enables the rest of the 
display): 

1 . VD occurs (resetting 
other things which I 
will mention later) and 
causes the scan line 
counter to be loaded 
with a five. I will try to 
explain why I had to do 
this in a few lines. 

2. The CB signal will 
begin clocking the scan 
line counter. When this 
counter reaches seven, 
the 7410 connected to 
the A, B, and C outputs 
of the scan line counter 



will go low, causing the 
PAGE ACTIVE 'flip 
flop to be clocked, 
setting it high. 

The reason that I load the 
scan tine counter with a 
binary five is to cause a fixed 
number of scan lines to be 
ignored before clocking the 
PAGE ACTIVE flip-flop. 
Remember that I said earlier 
that only about 482 scan 
lines were useful? This is 
because 21 of the 262'/2 lines 
per frame occur during the 
vertical blanking pulse, This 
leaves only 24116 useful lines 
per frame. By using the COM- 
POSITE BLANKING signal 
to clock the scan line coun- 
ter, I already ignore the first 
21 lines since no clocking of 
the counter will occur during 
the vertical blanking pulse. 
By presetting the scan line 
counter to five, it will take 
only a couple of lines to get it 
to seven where it causes the 
PAGE ACTIVE flip-flop to 
come on, thereby wasting as 
few as possible lines. It turns 
out thai the counter will 
count the vertical blanking 
pulse so that I am in fact only 
wasting about one half of a 
line at the top of the display. 
In any case, there are not 
many lines to waste and this 
method utilizes the maximum 
amount of useful raster. 

Once the PAGE ACTIVE 
flip-flop has been set, the row 
counters and the width 
counter arc enabled (follow 
i lie logic on the schematic to 
convince yourself of this). 
The PAGE ACTIVE flip-flop 
is ultimately cleared by the 
END OF PAGE signal. 

Odd/Even Flip-Flop 

The FIELD INDEX is used 
to keep track of which frame 
is being written at any given 
time, Remember that I men- 
tioned earlier the necessity to 
alternate even and odd scan 
lines of the characters being 
displayed. The alternation 
must occur between rows of 
characters and also between 
frames. The FIELD INDEX is 
used to control the starting 
point of the odd /even flip- 
flop within a given frame. 
This is accomplished by 




*e *A ** 3R M 3¥ 







r — " 4 _ _y 



;=Dh 



ji'jt.S'jt'rdmr 

1A In IV /A /H Vt limit 

SIM540G7SIM7400(J, N ) 




n/i pr 1>A ft* 4a i* 



t> J \> ] t> J 

6h i>i i[>) 

i- IV J A JV 1A IV Cl*D 

SN5404/SN7404(J, N} 



Vrr AA 6 V *A *V ±A 4 If 



y y y 

D*"] jC>] p^ 



ninirtirLiJ 



1A IV 2 A IV U IV GNP 



SN54G6/SN7406U, N, W) 



tf cc *Q 44 iV 3fl 3* iV 




lininimr 



■ A IB IV 34 36 Jr fitmt 



SN5408/SN7408(J, N,W) 



Vet ic tv ix. m in av 



J> 



L> 



ura 



On 

L 



urarara 



tA IB JA 2E3 7t: TV GND 



SN5410/SN7410U, WJ 



V£C NC H G NC HC Y 



kj 



ir i ii 




Tmiriinira-LiJ-hr 

A B C D € F CND 



SN5430/SN7430(J,I\U 



u 



10 lfl GfJp ?H ?Q JO 




cm 



! K Vcd ?CK 



CLP 



SN5473/SN7473U, M, W) 



IBJJ 




IaJIiTLi 



I «L> I CK I PH IO l5 OND 



tlR 



SN5474/SN7474(J,N) 



JHJ»L 



<i 4^1 "XO ft* % 



H 



w 



ir-im 



'J* LlD 



■M »?■?■ 



•j ? 

■» ii 



■ 



^niruniJ-LirtiJiir 



SN5490A, SN7490A 



r? A ft,; QM 4 ft.- 



. J^J^LRU^U^-fTUTL 



rji flu 



*-; 



lTT!r[inir!jji2jiir 



i*r»'jl ** i. *»J 



«M K K 



SN5493A, SN7493A 



VCC STflOBE 4A 



INPUTS 

OUTPUT 

4Y 



INPUTS 

jr A % OUTPUT 

3A 3B 3Y 



yet *c ** * v > a* ar 






rl>i rCh 



>C 1A IV 3C 2* 3V GNfJ 



SN54125/SN74125U, l\S ( W) 



P Afl ALL tL INPUTS 

CLOCK . *■ 



IB 1! 


i 14 


. 13 _ 


w . 


11 


10 

J* 


J 

Z 


1 




j 


* 












1 


c 


; 4A 40 4Y 3A 3B 




1 — s 


3Y 






%4 


Ji tB 1Y 2A 2B 2 V 


















\ 2 


" = ^r 


h 


lT 


i 


5 


6 


7 


1 


I 





V CC lhlh + <B,T *> 



SifilALOUTPLTT 

1NPJT tin 



16 



a 



15 



14 



IL 



Jl 



II 



CLOCK O 
IMHEBlt 

LOAD 

CK 
—6 



^■^IJW^iJTL 



e 



A SERIAL 

IN 



Q« 



G 



H 



% 



1 

■ 


2 


3 



LLfUJlUUJ 



* 



SHIFT/ CLOCK 
LOAD 



V 

PARALLEL INPUTS 



OUTPUT OHO 
Oh 



SELECT JA IB 1Y 

1 V ' OUTPUT 

INPUTS 



,2 A 

* ' V — 
INPUTS 



2B, 5Y GND 
OUTPUT 



SN541 65,51^7 41 65 



SW54157, SW74157 

F/^, 3. Pin configurations for the various ICs used in the display. 



setting the odd/even flip-flop 
with the END OF PAGE 
signal. The EOP flip-flop, 
however, is cleared by VT3, 
causing the EOP signal to go 
away at the beginning of the 
VD pulse. The F[ pulse hangs 
around for a couple of clock 
cycles after the beginning of 
the VD pulse, so that if it 
(Fl) is present it will clear the 
odd /even flip-flop. Thus the 
odd/even flip-flop will be set 
or reset at the beginning of a 
frame. 

The output of the odd/ 
even flip-flop serves as bit 



zero of the line input to the 
character generator, causing it 
to generate the appropriate 
dot information. The output 
of the odd/even flip-flop also 
serves to control the number 
of scan lines allowed for a 
row of characters by causing 
the scan line counter to 
divide by cither seven or 
eight. This is relatively 
straightforward and I leave it 
to the reader to verify that 
this is so by examining the 
schematic (I always hated it 
when textbook writers did 
that to me , , . now it's my 




SN54192.SN74192 

turn). Upon completion of 
two complete scans, there 
will have been 15 scan lines 
allotted for each row of char- 
acters. 

Line Advance 

The LIME ADVANCE 




MM5320N 



W-qa ^™ 


1 


u 


n 




QiuioihciHifnoi — 


I 




ii 




tlOCMNPIP 


I 




14 




"j Pf fir — 


4 




|| 




Wf»T Mill 


i 




11 




Piill tflN<Kl3L — 


A 




11 


— 


«L 


i 




It 


™ 


** 


l 




1 





CQWttkC IVTPliT 

Mr DRIVE 
L4H* lLA«<INQ 
COLOi IIHUT If HI 
COlD" ID*tT IATI 
VlnT DDIV4 

una \nam 



imvmm 



MCM6571A 






jirw 



K 

H 
1 1 

I 



^o*t» (Art 

I D*f * IW 



2102 

signal is the same as used to 
enable the PAGE ACTIVE 
flip-flop, except that once the 
PAGE ACTIVE flip-flop isset, 
the LINE ADVANCE will 
clock the row counters. I had 
trouble with a glitch on the 
LINE ADVANCE, so I had to 

77 lid 



put in an 820 (or so) 
capacitor to get rid of it. 



pF 



Row Counter 

The row counter consists 
of a 7490 decade counter and 
one half of a 7473 flip-flop. 
The row counter provides the 
high order five bits of the 
memory address to the multi- 
plexers. 

End Of Page 

The EOP flip-flop is 
clocked by the row counter 
after 32 rows of characters 
have been displayed in a given 
frame. It is used to clear the 
PAGE ACTIVE flip-flop 
(which inhibits the world) 
and also to set the odd/even 
flip-flop as described above, 
EOP is reset by VERTICAL 
DRIVE. 

The Character Generator 
Aga i n 

The character generator 
accepts a row input from the 
scan line counter to tell it 
which row of a matrix to 
present to its output* The 
character code is the rest of 
the input to the character 
generator and comes directly 



from the memory. The seven 
bit output of the character 
generator represents part of 
the dot pattern of a character 
and is presented to the 74165 
shift register* Clocking of the 
shift register to dump the 
dots out in serial fashion is by 
the MASTER CLOCK. Load- 
ing of the shift register is 
controlled by circuitry asso- 
ciated with the width 
counter. 

Width Counter 

The width counter is a 
7490 decade counter which is 
really dividing by nine 
because of external gating 
(shown in the schematic). 
The width counter is held at 
zero whenever the PAGE 
ACTIVE line is low* It is also 
cleared by the COMPOSITE 
BLANKING to insure that it 
begins every line from zero, 

The width counter is 
clocked by the MASTER 
CLOCK and is responsible for 
determining the number of 
clock pulses allowed for each 
character in a row. I have 
allowed nine clock pulses per 
character. Seven pulses are 
needed to display the seven 



SYNC 




J97) ah y 

rial &I2> 
[js] AI3> 

[H] ArS> 



DECODER 



TO MAIN 

CONTROL 

SCHEMATIC 

i 



CPU REQUEST 



ClO> 
C9> 
C8>- 

CH > 

Fsrl aio> 

I 3*1 A9 >~ 

[H] AS >- 



14 



II 



■a 



10 



ejj A7 y 



4A 


5EL 


XA 




2 A 


IT 


14 


74 157 




S* 


40 




•IB 


2T 


£9 


IY 


iB 


EN 



C6 y- 

C4>- 
C3> 

&6 y- 
A5 y- 



II 



B2 



10 



fail A3> 



3 



12 






- Vr 
— MB 



15 



— M7 



D, 



74 i 37 



cz > 
CI > 
CO > 
NC> 

Wl Al 



i i 



li 



10 



NC> 



■2 



15 



M6 
MS 

M4 
NI3 



HIGH K 



LOW K 



68 




oo 



M9 *- 

MB ■*■ 
M7 — 
M6 — 
M5 *■ 
M4 *■ 

ME *- 

Ml ■*- 
MO* 



dot width of a character plus 
one leading and one trailing 
pulse to allow for spacing 
between* I have arranged the 
loading and clocking of the 
shift register to achieve both 
leading and trailing blank 
dots, as opposed to simply 
allowing two blank dots 
between characters. This 
distinction is not too impor- 
tant when displaying normal 
video, but when the video is 
inverted on a given character, 
it assures that the character 
will be centered in the field 
of white. 

The D output of the width 
counter is used to provide a 
load signal to the shift 
register. The C output is used 
to clock the column counters, 
which count the number of 
characters per row. Note that 
the column counters are ad- 
vanced before the shift 
register is loaded. This is to 
allow sufficient time for the 
two memories (the main char- 
acter memory and the char* 
acter generator) to stabilize. 
The data loaded into the shift 
register will be the data from 
the last character, because of 
the memory access time. 



Column Counters 

The column counter, a 
7493 and part of a 7490, 
counts the number of char- 
acters within a row and pro- 
vides the low order six bits of 
address information to the 
memory control board. The 
column counter is reset by 
the HORIZONTAL DRIVE 
pulse to insure that it begins 
counting at zero for each 
row. The C output of the 
width counter is used to 
clock the column counter as 
discussed above. 

One half of the 7490 used 
in the column counter is a 
divide-by-four counter, while 
the other half is used as a 
flip-flop. To see this, note 
that the D output of the 
7493 is connected to the B 
clock of the 7490 (the B 
clock is the input to the 
divide- by -five stage of a 
7490). The C output of the 
7490 is used to clock the A 
input, which will cause the A 
output to go high after the 
fourth time the B input is 
clocked. The A output is con- 
nected in turn to the ] input 
of the END OF LINE flip- 
flop. The END OF LINE 



36 



55 



B8 



40 



14 



15 



16 



IS 



DOO 



II 



V. 



A9 

AG 
A7 

M 
as 2 

* o 

A3 Z 

AZ 

Al 

,-.e 



14 



is 



14 



M WRITE 



ii 



001 



Y. 



o 

2 



12 



12 



2 
I 


2 






~b 



MEMR 



00 \h 



002 



V. 



2 
I 


2 



74 1 57 



ADDRESS UNf 
MULTIPLEXER 



I2_ 

■3 



ff7 



M2 

Ml 
MO 

NC 



FROM 
2I02'S 



oo y 



> 



01 > 



02 > 



2 



DO 



003 



V 



2 



DO 4 



V, 



005 



Yi 



do e 



Yi 



D07 



DZ 



03 



04 



05 



06 



0? 



DIG 



95 



aj-Cs. 



[> 



* DII S* 



03 > 



D4> 



Da y 



or 2 






%? 







■* DI 3 *Z 



06 y- 



DI4 



P 



P 



<j 



015 



D7 V 



i? 



ȣ 



-*DI€ 



P 



« 



*D17 



41 



IC POWER 


IC 


+ 5V Pin 


GNO PIN 


210? 


40 


9 


74/4 


4 


II 


74157 


16 


a 


T4I25 


14 


7 


7400 


T4 


7 


7404 


14 


7 


74 OS 


14 


7 


7430 


(4 


7 



8U5 DRIVER L74l23'a) 



□ 



denotes altair bus number 



M 



Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of memory circuits. 



78 



flip-flop will be clocked on 
the falling edge of the D 
output from the width 
counter. The output of the 
EOL flip-flop then inhibits 
any further loading of the 
shift register, hence ending 
the current line. 

The reason for all this 
playing around with the 
column counter is to allow 
the last character to be 
loaded into the shift register. 
If you remember the discus- 
sion about the column 
counter being clocked to the 
next character before the 
data from the current char- 
acter is loaded into the shift 
register, you will see that the 
column counter will be at 64 
(representing the 65th char- 
acter since the counters start 
at zero) when the load pulse 
for character 63 (the 64th 
character) occurs. Since I 
have to allow the 64th load 
pulse to occur, I came up 
with the above scheme to 
delay the clocking of the 
EOL flip-flop. 

I might mention at this 
point that there is really no, 
good reason to bother using 
the C output of the 7490 to 
clock the A input. The 
internal D flip-flop of the 
7490 is already clocked by 
the C output, so the D output 
could serve as the J input to 
the flip-flop. In fact, by 
gating together the D output 
of the 7490 section of the 
column counter with the D 
output of the width counter 
(using a 7408 AND gate with 
the output of the AND gate 
clocking the A input of the 
7490), the EOL flip-flop 
could be eliminated! the A 
output of the 7490 replacing 
the EOL signal. But you 
would hav ejo use a NOT gate 
to derive EOL and then you 
would have one half of a 
flip-flop left over elsewhere. I 
mention this possibility 
partly for the benefit of any- 
one who might be making 
changes where it would be 
nice to have an extra flip- 
flop, and partly to illustrate 
thai there is nothing sacred 
about the way I have done 
thin^ As long as you under- 
stand the purpose of each 



this ii- a sample of thp character tot 
frfliKmr GHI JKLM NQFQRSTUl'UXYZf v} - obcdJfqK, <ki 



&tim ttt t cm jki Mhi'ruki.'ii.iuwxYi'fNr v- ^ ^ - 






['JMtiEHHD 



BfWCM > i. HIJKI limi|-O I.»;.M m»y iVr I «l t d»4 B htjktmnt> 9 *r 



i i-m 



frtffC fit I CHI .Ma nri< i tnj'wxv^ 



HHlH J i J ) 



i Kl Mf 



I J 



1 1- * inn c I. f j c| r • t u v u.< ' i i / ! i 



p 



li| H p ' « U t_ r 


- 


L! 1 


' 




1 




" t I 
f/*f\B< Ml I 


1 1 1 r t 


1 Mr i 


I j |*4 


1 


1 1 


i "♦ LJ I J M I 


mini 




, - j 


. f "P J i ~~* 




^T^^^^^^^^ 


1 " * J 


i— - 




« r t 1! * ? ' 

wt IF 






* 


J 




1 Mji 


m 










' 




c 


K *■ r 


1 1 - , 


1 


-.i - 


If 



I ■ I 



111 I 



Character set 



part of the circuit, you can 
modify it U> suit your 
particular requirements or 
supply of parts. 

Video Inversion 

The Invert Video flip-flop 
controls inversion of the 
video signal to produce a 

black character within a field 
of white, Note that by in- 
verting the video, I am refer* 
ring only to inverting the 
character part of the video, 
not the sync and blanking 
signals. 

The video may be inverted 
character by character, allow- 
ing the use of multiple cur- 
sors (I use an inverted blank 
for a cursor) or techniques 
such as inverting important 
messages (or flashing them 
between normal and inverted 
video). The display also 
makes a dandy checkerboard. 
The eighth bit of the display 
memory is used to control 
the state of each character. 

Since the memory has 
already been advanced to the 
next character during the 
l ime in which dots for a given 
character arc being drawn by 
the electron beam of the 
CRT, it is necessary to latch 
the eighth bit of memory in 
the Invert Video flip-flop. 
This bit is clocked into the 



flip-flop at the same time the 
load pulse for the shift 
register goes high* The 
outputs of the flip-flop 
control a multiplexer made 
from 7400 gates, thereby 
selecting either the Q or Q 
output from the shift register. 
The Invert Video flip-flop is 
forcibly cleared after the 
EOL signal comes on (EOL 
and the D output of the 
width counter are gated to 
produce a clear pulse), to 
assure that the brief part of a 
line traced by the electron 
beam after the last character 
is blank. 

Note that the output of 
the video inversion multi- 
plexer (the 7400 sates} is 
clocked by the MASTER 
CLOCK. The main reason for 
this is to eliminate the possi- 
bility of generating a wide 
video pulse {the top of a i4 J rr 
or an inverted blank would be 
examples) which would cause 
the trace produced by the 
electron beam to bloom or, at 
the very least, appear brighter 
than other parts of the dis- 
play. Clocking the video 
makes all video pulses I he 
same width (the top of a "T" 
would come out as seven con- 
secutive short pulses rather 
than as one long pulse) and 
results in a very uniform 



brightness over the entire dis- 
play. 

Video Inhibit 

The Video Inhibit flip-flop 
prevents generation of ran- 
dom video pulses which 
would otherwise result from 
decoding of wrong informa- 
tion by the character gener- 
ator during times when the 
processor is using the display 
memory. Whenever the pro- 
cessor makes a request for the 
memory (as indicated by the 
CPU REQUEST signal from 
the memory control sche- 
matic), the Video Inhibit 
flip-flop is cleared. The Video 
Inhibit flip-flop inhibits 
further loading of the shift 
i^giMor and lou.es (hi- Vkjeo 
Invert flip-flop to the of 1 
state the next time it is 
clocked. Once the processor 
request has been cleared, the 
Video Inhibit flip-flop will be 
clocked by the end of the 
next load pulse, setting it 
back to normal. Note that the 
load pulse which clocks the 
Video Inhibit flip-flop will be 
ignored by the shift register, 
since it does not clock the 
flip-flop until the trailing 
edge. The next load pulse will 
cause the shift register to be 
loaded. The result is that 
video is inhibited during pro- 



79 








oo 



ki 



+5V +12 V 






ODD/EVEN 
FLIP FLOP 



TO MULTIPLES AS 
ON MEMORY 

CONTROL 




rrrrriTH ug 



^rom 2jqz's 



S«iF* RECITER 



invert video 
flip flop 




■3WB 



LOAD 
BATf 



Pfl&E ACTIVE 




TO COLUMN 

MEM.ORY COUNTERS 
CONTROL 

4 





*!DTH 

COUNTED 




HD 



ro> 



CLP Q 



EOL 



9 1/2 
7d73 






g&X 



</2 
7*73 



: 



END OF LINE 
FLIP FLOP 



ENO Df PAS 

FF 



F/g. 5, Schematic diagram of display control circuits. 



cessor requests for memory 
and for at least one complete 
character cycle after control 
is restored to the display (to 
assure that the memory is 
back in step with the display 
control). 

The loss of a row of dots 
from random characters 
around the screen during pro- 
cessor requests is not a 
problem, since it is hard to 
notice the absence of a single 
row of dots within a single 
character for l/30th of a 
second. The only time lhat 
the display is noticeably 
degraded is when the proces- 
sor is making requests at a 
very rapid rate. But the rate is 
so great that it would not be 
possible for most people to 
read the display anyway. 

One instance where the 
degradation of the display 
caused by cycte stealing be- 
comes noticeable is during a 
line feed. The line feed (or 
scroll) is a software function 
and involves reading and 
rewriting almost all 2048 
characters of the display. The 
process is very fast (50 to 100 
milliseconds, depending on 
your software and memory 



cycle time) and results in a 

noticeable display degrada- 
tion because of the large 
number of requests within a 
short time. But the degrada- 
tion during a line feed is not a 
problem since the display 
would be non-readable during 
a line feed even if it was not 
degraded. Also, it happens so 
fast that one does not really 
perceive the display to have 
lost anything unless he is 
really looking for it 

One other thing to remem- 
ber (to prevent heart seizure 
the first time it happens) is 
that if you stop the processor 
and examine the contents of 
a location within the display 
memory, then you are in 
effect requesting 100 percent 
of the memory's time, re- 
sulting in a completely blank 
display. 

Sync Generator and Video 
Combiner 

The sync generator sche- 
matic includes the MASTER 
CLOCK and the video com- 
biner. The MASTER CLOCK 
is a simple oscillator made 
from 7404 gates, a few Rs 
and Cs, and a 12.6 MHz 



crystal. 

The National Semicon- 
ductor MM5320 sync gener- 
ator requires a 1.26 MHz 
clock, so I divided the 12.6 
frequency by ten. Note that 
the 7490 is used as a sym- 
metrical divide-by-ten 
counter by going through the 
divide-by~five stage and then 
into the divide-by-two stage. 

I have buffered all outputs 
of the 5320 except the 
FIELD INDEX output, which 
is only connected to one gate 
anyway. As I discussed 
earlier, the sync generator 
does all the timing necessary 
to generate the appropriate 
sync and blanking signals to 
produce a raster. 

Putting the COMPOSITE 
SYNC, COMPOSITE 
BLANKING, and VIDEO 
(from the display control 
schematic) to form a single 
video signal is the function of 
the video combiner. The 
video combiner is built from 
7406 open collector inverters 
and some diodes* The resis- 
tors shown at the function of 
each of the 7406 outputs and 
its respective diode determine 
the weight of the given signal. 



VIDEO 
INHIBIT 



ClK CLfl 



<] <S 



RE0UE5T 



The resistors I have shown are 
not too critical and may be 
changed for best results. The 
resistor for the blanking com- 
ponent is chusen to produce 
about a ,2 to 3 volt change in 
the output level when the 
blanking turns on and off. 
Similarly, the sync com- 
ponent should be around .7 
volts and the video com- 
ponent should be a couple of 
volts (or whatever produces 
good contrast). These values 
seem to work well with the 
monitor I use, as it has a 75 
Ohm input impedance. 

The video monitor shown 
in the photographs is a 
Motorola M2000-1SC. It is a 
good quality nine inch mon- 
itor having a bandwidth of 
about 12 MH*. If you plan to 
use an old black and white 
TV, you may experience 
problems with overscan 
(which is built into most TV 
sets to make the picture look 
bigger) or bandwidth. The 
Motorola monitor costs 
around $115, but is well 
worth it for this application. 

Power Supplies 

The logic components will 



l A 



80 



i-100 BUS -ALTAIR/IMSAI 




IJIuttrat&d above Js our 1QK 2708 Board *- C80-2708 

IDEO DISPLAY INTERFACES 



TERMINAL III, ASCII code to 16 line x 32 character 

d display interface module, similar to SWTP CT-1024 

/ be converted to 16x64) *,.-. , .............. 

>r ctmirol screen read, serial input hoard, and power supply kit available, 

f 2540, 25 line x 40 character video display interface 
ule, same as Jeff Rolloff 's Central Data 3320, described 
j[y 1976 "73", inci. power supply. Order as TVT2540-3Q0... 

dot serial input board for above. Order as TVT-2540-BSI 

Ml serial input board for above. Order as TVT-2540-ASI 



$ 149.95 



$149.95 
37.95 
34.95 



id-alone Baudot to ASCII and ASCII-toBaudot conversion boards available. 

j for further information 



)80, 6800, Z-80 



plete 8080 ( 6800, or ZSQ Systems — - Write for information on our systems 
h fit in the surplus RM Terminal shown below, Terminal comes with key- 
d, power supply and can house CPU board, 64K of memory, audio cassette 
face, scientific calculator interface, and video display board. 

) SYSTEM with IK RAM, 1K PROM monitor, serial and parallel 

face (no power supply) - Order as RM-Z80-350,. $ 264.95 



/e complete with RM Terminal shown below and 4K RAM board 
3 300ns memory, - Order as RM-Z80-550 



.*...*«•*«*•■ .< 



se with video display interface (no TV monitor inch) - 
Tas RM-Z80-650 



$ 529.95 
$ 629.95 



$445 for Teletype 33 RO used Primer (fits inside). 




YOUR CHOICE ., $49,95 

1. 2708 PROM BOARD (10K). Complete kit w/IC 
sockets. Any PROM addressable anywhere in memory 
map. (Order as C80 2708-2) 

NOT I:: Factory Prime 27Q8'& IK x 8 erasable FROMx, 
reg. $98 AG — NOW ONI. Y $59.95. 

2 2K 1702A PROM BOARD. Complete kit w/IC soc- 
kets. Any PROM addressable anywhere in memory map. 
Order as C80- 1702 21 

3. 2 PORT PARALLEL I/O BOARD. Latching inputs* 
outputs. (Order as C80-P 1/0) 

4, SERIAL I/O BOARD. Kit uses UART t software 
addressable baud rates. (Order as C80-S I/O) 

Any of a bo re hoards only $49,95 in kit form. Available 
assembled and tested at $40 additional per board. 

Also available: 4 styles of prototype boards, extender 
board ( 2 backplanes, connectors, power transformers 
scientific calculator board, audio cassette board, digital 
cassette interface board, adapter boards, and others. 



MEMORY BOARDS ALTAIR/IMSAI/SOL 

C80 4K -300S KIT with 4K of 2102s $ 79.95 

C80-4K-300LP KIT w/4K of 92L02A's, tow-power 

500ns, with fC sockets .. $ 99.95 

C80 4K-350LP KIT w/4K of 92L02C's low power 
300ns, with IC sockets,...,,..,.. , $129,95 

16K STATIC MEMORY BOARDS C80 16K 300 KIT 
uses EMM 4200 J s, 250ns, extreme LP, w/IC sockets 
(very similar to MITS board) , $479.95 



SURPLUS EQUIPMENT 

KSR 33 SPECIAL 




Half-million-dollar inventory of surplus computer equip* 
ment — new and used, 30 cps 132-column printers, 9- 
track digital tape drives, cassette tape drives, Cogar 
System IV table-top computers w/dual digital tape drives 
and CRT display, keyboards, power supplies. Send a 
self -addressed stamped envelope for our surplus catalog. 



KSR -33 Teletypes, used 
ASR-33 Teletypes, used 



FP***V>«« ■•,■•■ 



$ 495.00 
$ 749.00 



Large selection of 32 's, 33's, 35*s (ASR, KSR, RO's) - 
used, reconditioned, rebuilt. 

Add $U0 per board for shipping, handling <6 insurance. 
Shipping estimates on RM Terminal and printers avail- 
able. IC socket sets available - not included unless 
specified. 



MiniMicroMart 

16t8 James Street, Syracuse, N,Y. 13203, Phone: (315) 422-4467 



HIM f.flSI N6LT 



0157 599 



This it the portion of the screen which I u»e for duplayir.) 
(pit rwceiwed fro* other itotlom when 1 operate/ rorf tote t etyjpe 
the line m«odtately above thii area te the log lift* which i« 
gp»d to display information about a contact In th»e •v«*pt* 

the in(or»otion li that required for the BftRTG RTTY contest, 
myi tisjs and RST, the station worked, his tiii, RST, end itctivn 
1h» operating program that I use enters the log information Inte 
the lag I fne automatical ly 

1 am able to scroll this Cor any) portion of the screen 
independently of the rest of the screen 



• 3CO 



--^Th ft is the command I 1 ne 



Ihis portion of the merman f> und am a buffer /dtsptsy for 
off text to be transmitted. RnytKIng 1 type {except far special 
command*) Is entered into this araa by special idtttlng rautinee 
which allow for ease of correction. Special commands are 
retognved by the program and arm displayed in the commend 1 tf»e 
The command shown above caused three 1 1 nee of "CO* to •• 
generated. Other commands control generation of other standard 
tents, the tending of calls and exchange information end the 
operation of the station. The inverted character shown part way 
through the CO shows the current location of the transmitter in 
the buf far . 
CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO K WWm VUP 

co co co ma co co co CO co co co co co dc rn muw t en aju ^r 

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO DC I 

m ii w i n maouhp uneuNp doh ih coLun«u& t ohio * m « 



Radioiefetype contest program example (note multiple cursors). 



require a good five volt sup- 
ply. I used two 7805 regula- 
tors (the same as used by 
MITS and other Altair board 
manufacturers) to regulate 



power from the Altair bus. I 
use one for powering the 
memory and one for the 

logic* Be sure to install plenty 
of J uF capacitors at various 

$xt 



120 



«ww 



l£fff 12 6 WHr 

-)1 




'->.' 
-.-j^- 






-p4>> 



>» 



> w ' 






i2v »aiv 



L 



V0 <- 



<-oOJ 4^-0<Q. 



. J 



DO 



SCI* 



AO_k 



7490 



U 




U«i 



¥**520 






fl 



* 



>f -:_: is 



i*, 




^HD 



-"' 



cb4 



ttir 



tflflEO* 




*J2¥ 

1 



12 V 



1 



*SV* — #- 



m 



VIDEO TO MONITOR 



Fig. 6. Sync generutor t video combiner^ and clock circuits 
schematic diagram. 



points on the board, to pre- 
vent noise problems from 
messing up the display. If you 

are building the display for 
use outside an Altair type 
computer, I will assume that 
you can atso manage the 
power supply. 

Various other voltages 
required by the sync gener- 
ator and character generator 
are provided by the /cncr 
diode regulators shown on 
the schematics. The amounts 
of current needed at these 
voltages are very small. 

Use of the Display 

The various pictures of the 
display show several ways for 
utilizing the display, I will let 
you read the captions rather 
than repeat them here, and 
will try instead to present a 
few simple ideas to gpl you 

started. 

The first thing is to think 
of the display as a window to 
memory rather than as an 
output device. Any manipula- 
tion of data on the display 
(writing, erasing, updating 
scrolling} involves a software 
process to put the desired 
information into the right 
location within the memory. 
There is no line feed func- 



tion, nor are there any cursor 
positioning functions, Charac- 
ters are simply stored at the 
correct locations. Cursors, if 
used, are simulated by appro- 
priate software for the 
benefit of the person looking 
at the display. This allows the 
display to be configured any 
way you see fit Some of the 
photographs depict displays 
where my Altair was being 
used as a terminal to a DEC 
PDP-10. A simple program 
was written which made the 
display behave as though it 
were a Hazel line 2000 video 
terminal. But if you read 
the text in the picture of my 
radioteletype application, 
you will see that the display 
is being used in a way few, if 
any, other displays or ter- 
minals could duplicate. 

Some specific methods to 
accomplish normal functions 
are: 

1'. ERASING -Simply 

store blanks throughout 
the display memory. 
Note that selective 
erasing is just as easy. 
2. SCROLLING - 
Read a character from 
the second line and 
write it back in the 
same location on the 
first line (Lc, move it 
back 64 places). Con- 
tinue reading and 
writing characters until 
you have rewritten the 
last line into the second 
to last line. Then erase 
the last line. Note that 
it is a simple matter to 
scroll only a part of the 
display instead of all of 
it. 

Construction Ideas 

Before you begin building 
the display, you should make 
copies of the schematic and 

make any changes you think 
necessary to adapt the display 
to your system. Then assign 
numbers (or letters) to all of 
the ICs and number the pins. 
If the IC numbering scheme is 
devised to represent a socket 
coordinate, you will have less 
trouble when you begin to 
wire- wrap the board. Then 
make all power and ground 

connections. Then finish the 



Example of split screen 

capability, 

board by making all wraps 
associated with a node on the 
schematic at the same time, 
indicating (by small colored 
slashes or otherwise) that you 
have completed a node. 

Testing 

There is very little I can 
mention here, as there are so 
many things that can be 
wrong from a misplaced wire- 
wrap, I suggest checking the 
sync generator to be sure it is 
working and then proceeding 
to the various counters and 
flip-flops to see which are 
working. The memory may 
be tested for proper opera- 
tion by writing a memory 
diagnostic program. Ob- 
viously, for any real trouble- 
shooting or debugging you 
will need an oscilloscope — 
and you will need to be able 
to think through the opera- 
tion of the display. Beyond 
this, I think I would be 
writing in vain except for 
saying, "Good luck!"" 



*a©a 



£0*4 

?0«7 

2009 
208 B 

200C 
2010 
2013 

Z01 5 
2018 
281ft 



201 D 
281T 



DB FC 
E6 80 
Cft 80 28 

DB FD 

FE FF 

Cft 3D 28 

FE 8ft 

Cft SI 20 

FE Bft 

CA 5F 20 

FE 7F 

Cft 76 20 



Cft 7D 20 



2827 



Cft 
F€ 
Cfl 



202C 
202E 
2031 

2031 
2032 

2833 
2034 

2037 
2038 
283ft 



Cft 
77 
77 
23 
7E 
32 
FG 
77 

C3 



B4 
83 
0C 
03 
91 



20 

10 

20 
20 



SB 

80 



20 



00 20 



0010 


TST IN 252 


0020 


flNI 80H 


0038 


J2 TST 


0048 


IN 253 


0050 


CPI 0FFH 


0060 


JZ ERASE 


0070 


CPI 0RH 


0080 


JZ LP 


0090 


CPI BAH 


0100 


JZ UPLF 


0110 


CPI 7FH 


0120 


JZ DEL 


0130 


CPI 0BH 


0140 


JZ BKSP 


0150 


CPI 09H 


0160 


JZ TAB 


8178 


CPI 83H 


0180 


JZ 100CH 


0190 


CPI 83 


0200 


JZ CC 


0200 


JZ CC 


0210 


MOU H, A 


0220 


INX H 


0230 


CURSOR HOU 


0240 


STA LAST 


0250 


ORI 80H 


0260 


HOU li, A 


0270 


JMP TST§ 



a,h 



Hi! We're 

A lot of you already know us. We're the ones who keep getting better! 





^? 



Most of our kits are musicly related; 
but that doesn't mean that you have to be 
a pro- music Ian - or a musician at all to 
enjoy them* For instance: 

Surf Synthesizer 

Imagine the roar of the surf elect ronicly 
synthesized and played through your hi-fi. 

#3711K $12, 95 + $1. 00 shipping chg, 

U5l:k. a." 




g^& m®m% 




The EGG* plugs into any stereo amp 
to create soothing, flowing environmental 
sound textures - and through headphones 
it's incredible. The chords and notes 
EXIST in your mind, They pan and swell 
and phase their way through your psyche 
in unpredictable patterns never repeating. 

The combination of LSI organ tech- 
nology with synthesizer-type processing 
and digital randomizing/control elements 
make the EGG an altogether intriguing 
package from either technological or 
metaphysical viewpoints, 

#3790 $24, 95 + $1* 00 shipping 

*EGG - Encephalo-Gratification Generator 





THE GNOME MICRO-SYNTHESIZER 
The Gnome can make outer space sounds 
for rock musicians, demonstrate principles 
of music and accoustics for educators, 
provide rhythmic pulses and tones for 
modern dance groups, create sound effects 
for theatre companies and is one of the 
neatest toys in the world for an audiophile, 

#3740 - $48, 95 ■ - + shipping for 4 lbs. 



OZ -MINI-ORGAN' 



OZ is polytonie with over 6-1/2 octaves 
total range from it's 1-1/2 octave keyboard. 
Large scale integration & CMOS technology 
allow battery powered portability. Output 
jack and switch selectable step or multiple 
pulse trigger provides simple synthesizer 
interface. OZ has a unique pressure- 
sensitive pitch bender that chromatically 
transposes single notes or whole chords, 
and a built in speaker and amplifier. 

#3760 - $64, 95 - + shipping for IB lbs, 




Now, If it happens that you are a Pro 
musician, you really owe it to yourself to 
check out our electronic music synthesizer 
packages. Like our 4700/S for example. 
It costs about 50% of what M mini' r packages 
from other manufacturers do - and you can 
judge for yourself whether it f s a mini or not. 



4700/S 




And don't forget* * . these two were 
designed to operate together in one of the 
most synergistic relationships imaginable. 
Just think, a completely portable polytonie 

synthesizer-like instrument for less than 
youid expect to pay for a guitar. Terrific I 



ynthesizer 



When you combine all of Che modules that 
are part of this package including keyboard, 
12 -event sequencer and a four input stereo 
mixer, it T s almost like having 2 synthesisers 
in a single package. Wrap them all in sturdy 
road cases and you have an instrument that 
goes anywhere and does any job* 

#4700/S Kit - $499. 00 

shipped air freight coL 



^ Send TODAY for your 



FREE catalog 
with details on these and dozens of other 
fascinating PAIA kits. 

ELECTRONICS DEPT, H 
1020 WEST WILSHIRE BLVD 
OKLAHOMA CITY, OK 73116 





New Products 



from page 27 

repeater operation will stretch below 
146 MHz. The FCC's intent to deregu 
late is deaf with Docket 21033, and if 
it does become law, operating require- 
ments for 2m FM will radically 
change. 

It wilt be necessary for 2m FM rigs 
to cower the entire band, not just the 
current repeater segments, Squelch 
systems employing continuous tone, 
tone burst, and the variations that go 
with them will become essential Tor 
accessing repeaters and repeater links. 
It may not be long before repeaters 
will have multiple links: 2 to 20m, 2 
to 40m, and so on. The dream of 
driving across town working Euro pa 
or Australia via a 2m to 20m link 
might not be a dream much longer. 
(Wayne Green did it years ago here in 
Peterborough before the FCC out- 
lawed it.) 

One 2m FM rig capable of handling 
the new repeater revolution now is the 
Kenwood TR 7400 A, It covers ibe 
entire 2m band and offers one of the 
most flexible squeich systems gQimj — 
continuous Tone coded squelch 
(encode and decode or encode only 
with common frequency active fil- 
ters), tone burst, and normal carrier 
squelch. The TR-7400A is delivered 
set up for normal carrier operation, 
with a series of optional modules 
available for the other squelch modes. 
A front panel selector switch allows 
for all three variations with an LED 
indicator to remind you when the 
TR 7400A is in the continuous 
{encode and decode } tone-coded 
mode. Kenwood has tried to eliminate 
the characteristic time lag in tone 
squelch circuits through the use of an 
active filter. Other squelch modes 
selected from the same control in 
dude tone burst and subaudible 
(encode only) tone. In all, Kenwood 
offers 25 different modules covering 
the tone squelch and tone hurst 
modes, Only one frequency of each 
type can he used at a time, but the use 
of computer type connectors would 
allow easy modification for outboard 
selection of several different fre- 
quencies. 



Back to that price war I mentioned 
earlier. Kenwood had ortginaily 
announced theTR-740QA in the S450 
to $550 price class. Considering its 
features (PLL synthesized, 25 Watts, 
full 2m coverage, digital readout), that 
sounds about fight - - - right? Wrong! 
When the units began to trickle into 
dealers just after Christmas, the price 
lag was down to S399 and the war 
was on. 

It's not hard to understand why 
Kenwood is finding it hard to keep up 
with demand. The TR-7400A offers 
you a lot for your money. Aside from 
the unique squelch design and full 
coverage synthesizer, Kenwood 
decided to go beyond the normal 10 
Watt output of most transceivers. 
Despite published specifications of 25 
Watts out, the TR 7400A delivered 
more than 30 Watts into a 5/8 wave 
antenna, and the low power position 
yielded 5 Watts out, 1 was easily able 
to adjust tow power up to ten Watts 
and drive my 10 by 70 Watt amplifier 
(a necessity in the low lands up here). 
In most cases, I found the 25 Watt 
position more than adequate to access 
repeaters I couldn't use with 10 Watt 
rigs, but it was real nice to have three 
levels of power to choose from. Ken- 
wood uses the Motorola MRF 208 as a 
driver, and the 2N6083 for the final, 
which may explain the massive 
Motorola-like heat sink. The finals are 
protected by reducing output when 
faced with impedance mismatches, 
instead of shutting down the radio 
completely- The front panel metef 
reads output, so just operating the 
Kenwood will tell you something 
about your antenna system, Accord 
ing to the manual, a reading of 8 in 
the high power mode on a scale of 10 
indicates an swr of less than 1.6:1. 
Low power, factory adjusted for 5 
Watts, reads a 3 on the meter scale. 
Tests With antennas purposely put out 
of tune reduced high power output to 
as low as 5 on the meter without 
excessive heat or transmitter shut- 
down 

Audio reports were good, with 
many stations responding that the 
Kenwood's talk power exceeded 
everything else on frequency- A devia 





Kenwood's new TH-74O0A 2m transceiver 



TR-74Q0A, top view. The shielded 
compartment houses the final amp. 

tion meter showed plenty of audio to 
spare; the 5 kHz spec proved to be 
quite conservative for my voice char- 
acteristics, and the mike gain had to 
be adjusted. Quality wise, the Ken- 
wood's audio drew compnments, 
although several other TR-7400A 
users objected to the factory supplied 
dynamic microphone, claiming it was 
too small for comfortable operation. 
It took a bit of getting used to, but 
the palm-size mike actually became 
preferable after a period of time. 
(Other large microphones were tried, 
but reports did not indicate any 
change in the audio level or quality.) 
Hooking up a touchtone pad couldn't 
be easier, since Kenwood included 
side panel jacks Imini type] for pad 
input and external speaker output, 
thus eliminating the need for hard to 
connect octal type sockets. (Ever tried 
to put your radio in the car at night 
and line up those darn pins without 
bending them?) 

The TR 7400 A synthesizer is the 
phase locked loop (PLL) type, with 
LEDs for digital readout The PLL 
divides the 4 MHz bandwidth into 400 
channels every 10 kHz, with a push- 
button 5 kHz offset. Two frequency 
selector switches allow 100 kHz and 
10 kHz switching respectively, with a 
four position switch for choosing 
band segments. A three position 
switch sets transmitter offset at 600 
kHz up or down, plus simplex. A dual 
concentric volume-squelch control 
completes the package. 

One way to measure a mobile 
radio's quality is what happens when 
the tights go out . . . can you use it in 
the dark? Or do you have to pack a 
flashlight to find out what frequency 
you're on? Not with the Kenwood 
finery switch able function, from the 
synthesiser to the various squelch 
modes, has its own LED indicator. Six 
bright red 1" high LEDs tell you what 
frequency you're on, another LED 
indicates when you're transmitting, 
while still another warns that thfi 
synthesizer PLL has unlocked and the 
radio has automatically shut down. 
The TR-7400A even indicates what 
transmitter offset you're using, with 
an LED showing red for 600 kHz, 
green for +600 kHz, and no indication 
when in the simplex mode. What all 
this means is that the Kenwood makes 







The TR~7400A, bottom cover re- 
moved. Squelch modules go mto com- 
puter connector near the ceramic 
filter. 

after dark mobiling a snap — no 
fumbling, no confusion to take your 
attention off the highway. After a few 
hours of operating the radio, it only 
lakes a quick glance to see what 
frequency you're on t what offset 
you're using, and which squelch mode 
is engaged. During daylight opera 
lions, you won't have to squint to 
read the LEDs; all controls are well 
calibrated independent of the LEDs 
and are easy to find by touch. Count- 
ing from one repeater pair to another 
is made simpler by Kenwood's use of 
stops on the frequency selector con 
trols, allowing you to only go once 
around before being forced to reverse 
direction. 

As previously mentioned in these 
pages, my car suffers from a bad case 
Of ignition noise. I've tried a number 
of "cures'' with mixed results, and 
have come to accept that weak signals 
will have to be passed by until warmer 
weather allows a new assault on the 
MGfcT Kenwood included a well- 
bypassed power input and it seems to 
work; my ignition noise is clearly 
lower with the TR 740OA than pre- 
vious 2m rigs I've had in the MGB. 

You may be wondering by now . . . 
what about the receiver? A glance at 
Kenwood's specifications on the 
TR-74Q0A shows impressive figures; 
more than 0.4 uV sensitivity for 20 
dB quieting, image rejection of more 
than 70 dB, and spurious interference 
down more than 60 dB. The radio's 
performance certainly backs those 
claims, with trips into Boston. Hart- 
ford, and New York reveal ing no 
problems with desenss and inter mod. 
The sensitivity, compared to other 
current rigs, is Highly competitive. 
Kenwood uses a double conversion 
superheterodyne with a 10,7 MHz 1st 
if, and a 455 kHz 2nd if, Large 
helical resonators, a 10.7 MHz mono- 
lithic crystal filter, and a MOSFET 
front end are also used. 

In the mobile, the sensitivity and 
noise filtering add up to a surprising 
combination: strong, clear signals 
whether the strength is SI or against 
the pin. There's plenty of audio on 
receive, more than enough to drive a 
good size remote speaker ... or the 
one Kenwood built in. And unlike 
many squelch circuits I've used lately, 



84 



dynamic range was outstanding, allow- 
ing me to squelch out unwanted 
repeaters that other radios received 
with (he squelch fully engaged. 

The TR-74O0A comes complete 
wth mounting bracket, microphone, 
and power cable. "Rie mount is unique, 
with guide slots on both sides of the 
radio, and damp snaps to secure it. 
Hasplike protrusions extend from the 
sides of the radio, allowing you to 
padlock the rig into the car if desired. 
Most users will probably choose to 
take the TR 7400A with them, and 
the bracket makes for easy removal. 

The device includes an angle adjusts 
ment f allowing for tilting the radio in 
accordance with your dashboard. By 
some standards the Kenwood is large, 
measuring just over 7 inches wide by 3 
inches high and just over a foot deep 
It weighs about 6 pounds, but I had 
no trouble mounting it In my small 
sports car fas the photograph indi- 
cates) and did not find its size or 
weight objectionable. To the contrary, 
the TR-7400A is a high quality radio 
in the best Kenwood tradition (a 
tradition established by the TS-520 
and reinforced by the TS-820]. At a 
price under $400 it would be Less than 
honest to deny Kenwood's new 2m 
radio is one heck of a deal ... in fact, 
it's a steaM! Trio- Kenwood Communi- 
cations, Inc., 7 16 East Aiondra Blvd., 
Gardem CA 90248. 

Warren Elly WA1GUD 
Associate Editor 

HEATHKIT HD 1982 MICODER™ 

The process of using repeater auto- 
patch facilities while mobile has 
always been a frustrating experience. 
Between holding in the mike button, 
grappling for the tone pad. and at 
tempting to continue to drive the car, 
it often seems like at least three hands 
are needed. 

The Heath Company has vastly 
simplified the situation through the 
introduction of their HD 1982 
Micoder At first glance, the unit 
looks like a standard microphone, but 
the surprise comes in turning it over. 
Built into the back is a miniature tone 
pad. Suddenly, making a call from the 
ol' buggy is a much easier process. 

The Micoder is an easy one evening 
kit. Although assembly is not too 
difficult, it does require a steady hand 
and a light touch since the parts are 
crowded together on a rather small 
circuit board. The circuit consists of 
four ICs. a few resistors and capaci- 
tors, and an LED. By the time you 
add the microphone element B volt 
battery, and tone pad, you end up 
with a packed case, giving you a 
handful that's just a hair larger than 

most mikes. 

The circuit is si m pie and straight- 
forward. The tones are generated by 
two NE555 timers, one for high tones, 
one for low. The pad itself is a 
miniature tactile type that makes it 
easy to be sure that you actually hit 
the button. Another little extra is an 
LED above the pad that tells you that 
a tone has been generated. Warning 
... be very carefut when bending the 
LED to fit it into the circuit board. I 
broke two of them. 

The microphone itself has not been 
skimped on. In fact, this high imped- 




HeathktYs HD- 1 982 Micoder. 



a nee capacitor type with built-in 
audio amplifier is better than standard 
mikes supplied with many rigs. When 
the pad is being used, the mike is 
a u to ma ti callly disconnected from the 
output circuit. 

After construction, one of two 
methods can be used for alignment 
By far the easiest is the use of a 
frequency counter. Two miniature 
pots are used to set the high and the 
low tones, a process that only takes a 
couple of mi nutes. 

For those without access to a 
counter, method two is a little more 
complicated. It requires access to a 
repeater site receiver with tone decod 
<ng circuits, In that way, tones are set 
by trial and error. 

The Micoder worked famously the 
first time it was hooked up. I ran into 
no problems accessing and using the 
a u top ate h of the Keene NH repeater. 
Reports of crisp audio were received. 
Best of all, I was able to drive saf- I 
while punching up the number. 

The Micoder can be mated to just 
about any transceiver on the market 
with a low impedance input. It 
worked well with several rigs owned 
tay 73 staffers. 

In our age of increased miniaturiza- 
tion and utility, the Micoder con- 
tinues with the trend of smaller, 
lighter, and easier to use mobile equip- 
ment. The price of £49*95 is quickly 
repaid in both safety and convenience. 
Heath Company , Benton Harbor Ml 
49022. 

Stan Miastkowski WA1UMV 
Associate Editor 

HAM RADIO CENTER'S 
HAM KEYS 

With the granting of Novice priv^ 
i leges to Technician class licensees, the 
Novice bands have become consider 
ably busier. Manufacturers are doing a 
booming business in high band Trans 
ceivers and related accessories, in- 
cluding keys. 

The Ham Radio Center in St. Louis 
MO manufactures a line of keys that 
are called, interestingly enough, the 
Ham Keys, There are two basic 
models, the HK^l and the HK-3. The 
HK-1 is a dual lever squeeze paddle 
designed for use with any electronic 
keyer. The paddles are easily adjust- 



able for personal preference of 
contact spacing and can be reversed 
for wide or close finger spacing. The 
HK 3 is the old standard straight key. 
This deluxe model is a smooth 
performer and worked extremely well 
at the close contact spacing that I like 
to use. 

Both the HK1 and the HK-3 are 
mounted on heavy cast iron bases 
with rubber feet that keep them 
solidly planted without the need for 
attaching them to a table or an ugly 
piece of board. 

Variations on the same theme are 
provided by the model HK-2 r which is 
simply the squeeze key without a 
base, and the HK-4, which has both 
the straight key and squeeze model 
mounted together on a large heavy 
base* 

The Ham Radio Center also 
markets the Ham Keyer, the model 
HK-5 electronic keyer. This little unit 
features an iambic circuit for squeeze 
keying, self-completing dots and 
dashes, and dot memory, It can be 
operated by the built in battery or 
external power, has built-in sidetone, 
and can be used for grid- block or 
direct keying. 

Unlike many other manufacturers, 
the Ham Radio Center doesn't have a 
bewildering array of similar mode I s. 
The Ham Keys and Ham Keyer are 



simple and solidly built, an investment 
that should last for years. Ham Radio 
Center, inc.. 834M2 Olive Blvd.. Sl 
Louis MQ63t 32. 

Stan Miastkowski WA1UMV 
Associate Editor 

NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR 

TO MARKET DIGITAL 
CLOCK MODULE FOR AUTO- 
MOTIVE, AVIATION, AND 
MARINE USES 

A new 12 volt dc digital clock 
module intended primarily for auto- 
motive applications has been added to 
National Semiconductor's line of digi- 
tal timekeeping modules. 

According to module products 
marketing manager Jerry Zis, the 
clock module, which is fully protected 
against automotive transients and 
battery reversal conditions, is ideal for 
use in manufacturer-supplied car dash- 
board clocks, after market clocks for 
autos and recreational vehicles, in 
aircraft and marine clocks, and in 12 
volt dc and portable and battery- 
powered instruments. 

Known as the model MAT 003, the 
module Is a complete digital clock for 
all 12V dc uses. It employs National's 
model MM5377 monolithic MOSLSI 
clock circuit, along with a 4 digit 0.3 
inch green fluorescent display, a 2.097 
MHz crystal, and supporting compo- 
nents* 

'The new module joins National's 
existing tine of digital clock modules 
for clock radios, alarm clocks, and 
instrument panels/' Mr. Zis said. 
"With the MAI 003, an you need are a 
few switches and a lens to have a 
complete ready-to-use automotive 
clock." 

The device features low standby 
power consumption, an internal 
crystal timebase, and an automatic 
display brightness control logic that 
blanks the display when ignition is off 

and reduces brightness to one- third 
when park or headlamps are in use, 
also following the dash lamp dimming 
control setting. 

Timing accuracy is excel lent, typi- 
cally within one-half second per day. 
Or only a quarter of a minute per 
month. The display features leading 
zero blanking and has a blinking colon 
activity indicator. Display color is 
filterable to blue, blue-green, green, or 




Ham Radio Center's HK-4. Note the heavy cast iron base. 



36 




The National Semiconductor digital clock module. 



yellow shades, In order to prevent 
tampering, the ho Mrs- advance and 
minutes advance switches are disabled 
when the display is blanked. With 
ignition or tights off, the display turns 
off hut can be activated by closing a 
switch. This feature minimizes power 
consumption in portable applications. 
A built-in 6 pin edge connector allows 
easy interconnection to ihe module, 
The MAI 003 12 V tfc automotive 
clock module, priced at S25 in lots of 
100, is available from stock through 
National Semiconductor Corporation 
and its franchised distributors. A/a* 
timet Semiconductor Corporation, 
2900 Semiconductor Drive, Santa 
Clara CA 95051. 

GREENE INSULATOR AIR 
WOUND T RAWS FORMER 

Greene Insulator has introduced a 
new air wound transformer that 
doubles as the center feedpoint for 
wire antennas, This device is destined 
to replace the old egg insula tor /taped 
coax mess that usually adorns trie 
feedpoint of amateur dlpoles and 
inverted "V" antennas. The trans- 
former, which is air wound with #14 
wire, not only provides a 1:1 imped 
ance match between antenna and 52 
Ohm coaxial cable, but also serves as 
the "start point 1 ' for any wire anten 
na. The Greene transformer is con- 
structed of high impact polystyrene, 
and is virtually indestructible, The 
face of the 4" x 3" "egg" is clear, 
altowing the user to see the coil inside. 
An eyelet is moulded into the top for 
easy antenna support (handy for 
inverted "V"s), and the coil is ter- 
minated with a standard PL 259 
connector, complete with waterproof 
gasket. It is impossible for this device 
to leak. The ends of the coil extend 
about two inches from each end of 




The Greene J. 7 to 30 MHz impedance 
transformer, 



the transformer, and consist of hard 
drawn -12 copper wire with hooks at 
the end, ready to be soldered to the 
antenna sections. 

In actual use, the transformer 
worked well. The device was tested 
with a long wire inverted "V" beam 
on twenty met ere, and no tune- up or 
operating problems were observed. 
One operator indicated that the 
receiver noise level was lower when 
using the antenna with the Greene 
transformer, as compared to one with 
an unbalanced coax feed arrangement, 
Possibly this was due to decreased 
outer shield pickup in the antenna 
system using the Greene transformer, 
which allows the dipole to be cor- 
rectly driven as a balanced device. By 
any standards, the Greene air wound 
transformer performed exactly as 
advertised, and no problems were 
encountered, Greene Insulator, 
WhCPt, 3 Pilgrim Drive, Bedford NH 
03102. 

John MolnarWB2ZCF 
73 Magazine Staff 

THE SYSTEM 4000 

A computer system designed 
specifically for the ham operator has 
finaHy been developed, Curtis Electro 
Devices, Inc., has Introduced their 
SYSTEM 4000, a turnkey minicom- 
puter consisting of CPU, keyboard, 
IK of RAM f input and output ports, 
and TTY serial interface* The system 
also has provision for up to 8K of ham 
applications programs, which are con* 
tained on PROM. The self-contained 
system also has provision for accept- 
ing four additional PC cards, com- 
patible with the popular Altair bus. 

The system presently supports the 
following programs: an automatic 
Morse code reader (6-300 wpm], a 
software paddle keyer, a keyboard 
keyer with 200 character buffer, and a 
full or half duplex ASCII terminal. 
The monitor device, a TVT or Tele- 
type, is not included with the basic 
computer. General programs such as 
an 8K BASIC are also available. 

A general ham applications module 
it also available for those already 
owning a computer eapaWe of sup- 
porting the Altai r bus system. This 
module supports the features of the 
SYSTEM 4000, aid is called the 
HAM-S100. 

The devices are available from 




OK Toot's new Wire-Wrapping Kit 

Curtis Electro Devices, Inc., Box 

4090, Mountain View CA 9*0*0, 
(4151964 31 36. 



OK TOOL WIR ENWRAPPING KIT 

OK Tool's new Wire-Wrapping Kit 
features selected items of particular 
value to the prototype engineer and 
hobbyist alike. It includes a unique 
new wire- wrapping tool, a roll of 
wire- wrapping wire, and pre-st ripped 
wire in 4 popular Lengths. 

The tool, Model WSU 30, is a 
combination tool that wraps and 
unwraps 30 AWG {0, 25mm J wire on 
,025 {0. 63mm \ square pins, plus strips 
30 AWG wire using handy built-in 
stripper. The wire is top quality 
Kynar© (Pennwalt) insulated silver- 
plated copper. Supplied in the kit are 
a SO ft. (15ml roll plus pre cut and 
stripped wire in insulated lengths from 
1-4 inches (26-1 00mm) stripped 1 
inch t25mml on each end- Available 
with blue wire as Model WK-2B, white 
wire as WK-2W, yellow wire as 
WK-2Y P and red wire as WK 2R, Con- 
veniently packaged and available for 
immediate delivery from OK Machine 
and Tool Corporation, 3455 Conner 
Street, Bronx NY 10475* 



BpBr CIRCUIT DUPLEXERS 

Wacom Products, Inc., of WacoTX 
has announced a new line of duplexes 
which include the use of a new exclu- 
sive circuit developed by the com- 
pany. When used with a high Q filter, 
the "BpBr Circuit" provides superior 




Wacom's Model WP-64 1. 

suppression of spurious and sideband 
noise between and adjacent to the 
duplex frequencies, particularly when 
the duplex frequencies are close 

spaced, A patent is pending on the 
new circuit 

Model WP*G4t consists of four B" 
OD cavities with the BpBr Circuit and 
is designed for use with duplex sta- 
tions in the 144-174 MHz band when 
the Tx to Rx frequency separation is 
500 kHz ctr more. It provides band- 
pass characteristics near ihe pass Ire 
quencies and band-reject cavity char- 
acteristics at the frequencies to be 
attenuated. Superior Tx to Rx isola- 
tion is a feature of the new model, 

For additional information contact 
Wacom Products, inc., P.O. Box 7307, 
Waco TX 767 10. 



YAESU SERVICE MANUAL 

AVAILABLE FOR 

FT-101 SERIES 

A 200 page technical service 
manual, written in layman terms, 
covering the various models of the 
FT-101 series transceivers, is available 
from Yaesu Electronics Corporation 
of Paramount, Cal if,, and their dealers 
throughout the United States, 

Available in February, 1977, it is 
priced at $25,00 U,5. dollars. F.O.B, 
Paramount. Send orders to (or you 
may contact their U.S. dealer organi- 
zation): Yaesu Electronics Corpora- 
tion, P.O. Box 498, 15B54 Downey 
Avenue, Paramount CA 90723. 




The Curtis SYSTEM 4000, a computer designed specifically for the ham. 



86 




■r 







MULTI - CONDUCTOR WIRE 



20 
26 
28 
34 



conductor 

conductor 
conductor 
con due 



(#28 stranded wire) 20 £t/$5.95 
(#28 stranded wire) 20 ft/$7,50 
(#24 stranded wire) 20 ft/$9, 95 



We have a limited quantity of 
high quality, multi conductor 
flat cable. Unfortunately we 
couldn't get as much as we 
wanted, so if you're inter- 
ested, get your order in soon, 



BILL GODBOUT ELECTRONICS 
BOX 2355, OAKLAND AIRPORT, CA 94614 

TERMS; Add 50c orders under $10; over $10 add 5%. 
No COD. Cal refi add tax. Ma&tefcharge* and Bank- 
I America ret" orders: tall %l5-562-063&\ 2k hrs, 

I bfc sfc* ** A * ifci* » ft a fcafc *]fr *ifnlETto ** **** *** ** * at*** 

11 J4 LS TTL 



tor (#28 stranded wire) 20 ft/$9.95 Subject^tojjrio * ^^j 1/5 the POWER OF TTL BUT «0 SPEED PESALTY 





1(7*1.95 ASSORTED VALUES. We picked up a 
batch of brand new, American made, trimmer 
caps in assorted styles and values. House 
numbered, so we're not sure of the exact 

values and until we get them all tested 

out* we're selling assortments at a super 
bargain. Lowest value caps go from 2-8 pF> 
highest value caps from 50-60 pF. Ltd qty. ' 



00 
01 

02 
Q*t 
08 
10 
I 1 
20 
21 



$0.36 
0.36 
0.36 
0,1*2 
0.38 
0-36 
0.33 
0.36 

0.3S 



2 2 

tl 
30 
32 
37 
38 
42 
7* 
75 



5033 
0.36 
0.36 
0.38 
0.53 
0^53 
1.25 
0,56 
0,85 



T24 $2,50 
132 K50 



138 

139 
!55 
157 
160 
162 
163 



1.38 
1.3& 
1*38 

1,25 
T + 85 
1.85 

1,85 



163 
169 
175 

221 
258 
273 
367 
368 

377 



3. 



250 FT,... $2. 95.... LTD OH 

TEFLON INSULATION DOESN'T 
HELT UNDER NORFUL SOLDERING 
HEAT. BESIDES. THIS IS HI- 
FLEXtBtLITY 1 TOP dUALITV 

STRANDED HOOKUP WIRE---THF- 
COnBIMATION IS UNBEATABLE* 
SORRY, NO CHOICE OF COLOR- 



.8" (!) digit 

Clock Display 

$«i.%5 EACH; 3/$ 12. 50 DON'T CONFUSE THIS 
WTTH THE .5"' TYPES OFFERED BY OTHERS. THESE 
DIGITS ARE BIG! AM/PM INDICATOR, COLON, AND 
14 DIGITS WRAPPED IN A CLEAR RED PLASTIC 
E NCLOS URE ._ COM^10N_ CAT HO DE^ kJ-SlLI IEJEI.- 



^ *«— — - --** — *-* "IT" IT —1 10 0.36 38 0^53 157 1.2S 273 2 
P out, we're selling assortments at a ,uper ^ % l6Q f ej 36? , 

3 U MJS^'v.^re^f^S'iif'^i^nS'" 20 <>■* ^ 0,56 162 1.BS 368 1 

Z. _J^!i!lL™^L M EJ-llL!2-iS----!2rji 21 0.3a 75 c,a$ 163 1,85 377 1 

J*hffH& *tfr*% II JUST INI 74LS14 $1,38 

t^gfe LINEARS 



$1 . &7 

1.35 
i-38 
1.38 
2.25 
1.00 
1 .DO 
1.88 





RF POWER Terminal Strips 30/$2 



TRANSISTORS 




For ope rat Eon at lower frequencies gain and 
efficiency are higher, giving higher output 

power. 



$4.95 


A 


3,sw 


LOW 


310raW 


30* 


sin RCA 2N5470 


$5.35 


B 


8.7W 


2.5W 


:;■'":. ri-^v 


33% 


sim RCA TAB 4 07 


$6.95 


B 


2IW 


s.sw 


1,2SW 


33$ 


sira RCA 2N6269 


$7.95 


& 


29W 


7.5W 


l.SW 


33% 


factory select 


e 


w 


< 


1— 1 w 




U u 


part— 2N6269 


^ 


M 


X ifl 


A "^1 


^ 


m O 




04 


Li- 


cj 


u 






Cm 




P 


C3- 




*-i 








Q_ 3B 




^-1 










G_ ci 




ILL r"^J 


APMlAIAIAIA'A': 



Jua-t be. H 'oA£. idiA ad wznt to 73_, uf£ managed to qtt a 
g.i.£fU de.a£ oh -t&tmiiuif Afalpi. Th&&e 4*£ bo-tfi 6 ah^ 
7 tug ttjp£&, U&tk th& cztttest terminal conn&tit&d X.Q 
Xkt Qfotutid £ag. At tkU p.tUze th&ie. , & no choice oi 
tt/pe, btit tite dtd^t thjink tf&a r d mind* . .rtotv'i a t*-nc 
.t<j*re to picfc tip aw aAAonAnfini oft th&&& o^t-tiAE-d 

do/Li3ttfjttS die. rtuflrbeA o^ 7 lug &&u.pA £& $>izat%A th$*i 
tht vtwnh&t. oi 6 lug &£Jtip&] . 



*6 DC Volt ranges 
*3 DC current 
*S AC KM ranges 
*2 ohms ranges 

*^20 to +22 dB 
* Includes 34" test 
leads 

*20Kft/V DC 
*10Kfl/V AC 
*50 uA meter 
*0hms adjust 
•S^ 1 x 3^s M x 1 5/S" 

Requires 1 "AA M cell 
[not included) . 
Please add $1 for 
shipping and 

handling. 





914.99 



New 12 V 8 A supply 
$ 39.95 



—PLUS POSTAGE — 



*12 AMPS WITH 50TL DUTY CYCLE 

Easier to build all parts except xfrmr, bridge, and 

filter caps mount on the PC board. Overvoltage pro- 
tection, RF bypassing, chunky transformer, backed by 
years of experience in the design of powerful supplies'. 
Our latest is our greatest .. .we* re sure you* 11 like it. 



8 

1 TK=T0-66 



301H.H 

30 4 H 
30SH 
307H 

3oaM 

309H 
309K 

31 1M 
31 1H 
316H 

31SH 

3^0/l£T 

339D 

3*0/5K 

340/5T 

340/6T 

340/SK 

340/eT 

340/12T 

340/ 1 SK 

340/ 1ST 

340/1SK 

340/24K 

340/24T 

373D 

377D 

3Q0M 

380D 

381D 

3820 

53 1M 

540H 

55SM 

565D 

566M 

S6 7M 

72 3D 

723H 

72 5H 

733H 

7*1M 

741H 

74 7D 

74SH.M 

145S 

149*D 

1E5B 
1596 

3026H 
306SD 
30B6D 
*131H,H 
4 1360 
4 194D 
4 194TK 
4195TK 
4 Z SON 
4 7 39D 
474 1H 
SSS6M 
5556M 
a03flD 



PO*ER 

POWER 



PACKAGE 
PACKAGE 



VOLTAGE REGULATOR 
VOLTAGE REGULATOR 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
Z 
1 
1 



K = TO-3 POWER PACKAGE* 
H=MERMETIC TO-99 

M=MINIOIP D=DIP 
DP AMP 

Negative 
positive 
Op amp 
Op AMP 

+s vqlt Regulator 

+5 volt* ift Regulator 

Voltage comparator 
voltage comparator 

Hi INPUT Z OP AMP 

Fast op amp 

-12 volt, half amp reg. 

Quad comparator 

+5V 1A REGULATOR 

+5V 1A REGULATOR 

+6V IA REGULATOR 

■H8V IA REGULATOR 

+SV IA REGULATOR 

+12V IA REGULATOR 

+15V IA REGULATOR 

+15V IA REGULATOR 

+1BV IA REGULATOR 

+24V IA REGULATOR 

+ 24V I A REGULATOR 

AM/FM/SSB IF DETECTOR 

DUAL 2 WATT AUDIO AMPLIFIER 

Mini dip 3 so 

2W Audio Amp 

dual lo norse preamp 

Stereo lo moise preamp 

Hl-SLEW OP AMP 
AUDTO POWER DRIVER 
TTMER 

Phase locked loop 
vc0/tri angle square out 
Tone decoder/Pll 
Precision regulator 150 ma 
Precision regulator iso ma 
Instrumentation op amp 
video amp 
Dp amp 

DP AMP 



30 
75 
75 
35 
00 
00 
25 
DO 
00 
50 
00 

25 
1 *50 
1,25 
1*75 

1 ■ f ^ 

1 . 75 
1 . 75 
1 . 75 
1.85 
1,75 
1.75 

i-75 
1 . 75 
1 .95 
2,50 

,95 
1.45 
1.65 
1 ,65 
1 .25 
1 . 95 

. 60 

1 .25 

2 . 10 
2.50 

.50 
,60 
2,00 
1,50 
.30 
.35 



DUAL 741 OP AMP 
Op AMP 

See 5 55SM 

Balanced modulator/demod 

Premium op amp 

SEE 5558M 

See i49$d 

Transistor array 

tv sound system 

Transistor array 

High gain op amp 

Quad lo noise op 

so ma ± tracking 

200 ma ± tracking regulator 

20 ma ±15 volt regulator 

Programmable op amp 

dual lo noise op amp 

dual 741 op amp 

SEE 1556M 

Dual 74 i op amp 

vcd sine/sq/tri func gen 



AMP 
REGULATOR 



.50 
,35 

1 .25 
1.00 



1.25 
.75 

1 t 25 
,50 

1 .SO 
1.50 
2.50 

2 . 25 
1 .00 
1.00 

.50 

.55 

4 . 50 



***** **************************** 



"Clever buyers request our free flyer 9 * 



SPECIALS FROM 




electroqic$ 



Fairchdd VHF Prescaler Chips 

11C01FC High Speed Dual 5-4 Input no/ nor 15.40 

11C05OC 1 GHz Counter Divide by 4 74 35 

11C05DM 1 GHz Counter DM* by 4 11050 

11C068C UHF Prescaler 750 MHz D Type ffip/flop 12.30 

UC24DC Dual TTL VCM umf ^ MC4024P 2.60 

11C440C Prtase Freq. Detect cr uw u MC4044P 2.60 

11C580C ECL VCM 4 53 

1ICT0DC 600 MHi flip/flop with reset 1? 30 

11C83DC 1 GHz 248/256 Prefer 29 20 

11C90DC 650 MHz Prescaler Divide by 10/11 1600 

11C9QDM same as above except Mil. version 24.00 

limiDC 605 MHz prettier Divide bv 5/6 16.00 

11C91DM same as above except Mil. version 24.00 

95H90DC 3S0 MHz Prescater Divide by 10/11 9.50 

95H9QDM same as above except Mil. version 16.50 

95H91DC 350 MHz Prescaler Divide by 5/6 9.50 

95H91DM same as above tttofOt Mil. version 16,50 

T.l. TMS4060/C2107, 4K HAM 19.01 

Batteries 

NI-CAD's AA cells 1.25 volts at 500 mahr. SO 49 

Gel*Cell 12 volts at L5 Amp Br, #GC-1215 S19.95 

JUST ARRIVED] These radios, have Just been 
pulled nut of service. Set up for approx, 150 MHr. 
Clean. AM tubes included. Mo accessories. Prices 
FOB Phoenix. 

Motorola U43 GGT 549.95 

GE TPL 599.95 

GE MT-33 $39.95 

Collins j!6U $150.00 

CBS Labi Model lilt. AUDI MAX S775.00 

CBS Libs 450 5375.1)0 

Gai« CB77 Ineeiii arnil S75.00 



NEW 

Motorola, Motorcycle Radio — Model T33BAT 



539 95 FOB Ph«nii 



Motorola MC14410CF CMOS tone Generator 
produce standard dual frequency telephone dialing signal, 
our 12 key Chomeric pads. Kit includes the following. 

1 MC14410CP 
1 Touch Tone Pad 
1 1 MH* Crystal 

Printed Circuit Board (From Ham Radio Sept. 1975) 
And all other pans for assembly. 



uses 1 MHz Crystal to 
Directly compatible vrith 



$19 95 



Crystals 
1.000000 MHz 




4.95 


5.000000 MHz 


4.95 


IO.OQOQOOMMe 


4.95 


3579,545 KC 


295 



Fairchild 95H90DC Prescalar divide by 10 to 350 MHz. Will take any 35 
MHt Counter to 350 MHi. Kit includes the following. 
1 95H90DC 

1 2N5179 

2 UG-BB/u BNC's 

1 Printed Circuit Board 

And all other parts for assembly. 

$29.95 

Fairchild 11C90DC Prescaler divide by 10 to 650 MHz. Will Lake arty 65 
MHz Counter to 650 MHz or with a 825*30 it will divide by 10/100 lo 650 MHi. 
This will take a 6.5 MHz counter to 650 MHz. Kit includes the following. 

1 11C90DC 

1 2M5179 

2 UG-Bfl/U 

1 MC7805CP 1 Printed Circuit Board and all other parts for assembly. 

1 Bndoe 82S90 add 55.70 to total. 

559.95 



107 MHz C*rtmic Filar 
MuRjii SFYVIQ.TMA . . 



$395 



Johanson and Johnson 
Trimmer Capacitors 



1 to 14 pf 
1 to 20 pf. 



SI. 95 
51.95 



Ferrite Beads 
12 for .99 or 

120 for 9.99 



2N3070 
2N3436 

2N3458 
2 N 3821 
2N3822 
2N4351 
2N4416 
2W4875 



1.50 
2.25 
1.30 
1.60 
1.50 
2 85 
1.05 
1.75 



2M5460 

2hr5465 

2N5565 

3N126 

MFE2000 

WIFE2001 

WIFE2Q08 

MFE2009 



.90 
1 35 
545 
300 

.90 
1.00 
420 
480 



MFE30G2 
MPF102 

MPF121 

MPF4391 

U1282 

MMF5 

40673 

40674 



335 

45 

1.50 
80 
2 50 
5 00 
1.39 
1,49 



TRANSFORMERS 



F-21A 
F-1BX 
F-93X 
F-92A 
F-91X 
N-51X 
Model D*2 

C-912-034 

BE-12433-001 

C*404-024 

BCH-9 

F-107I 



6.3vct at 10 amps 

6.3vct at 6 amps 

6-5* to 40* at 750 ma. 

6.5v to 40v at 1 amp 

6 5v to 40v at 300 ma. 

isolation 115vac at 35va 

6 5v at 3 3 amps 

6.5v at 3.3 amps 

2 2 vet at 200 ma 

llv at 250 ma. 

30v at 15 ma, 

16 «t at 400 ma, 

6.3vct at 10 amps 

115 vac at lOOva Isolation 

12V @ 4A or 24 V @ 2A 



5.77 
356 

3.53 
4 5-9 
2J2 
2BO 
4.95 



1.49 

49 

149 

695 
7,80 



2E26 5,00 

3B2B 4,00 

4X150A 15.00 

4X1 50G 18 00 

4CX250B 24.00 

4CX350A/8321 35.00 

DX415 25,00 

572B/T160L 25 DO 



TUBES 

811 6.95 

B11A 9.95 

931A 11 95 

5B49 3200 

6146A 5-25 

6146B/B293A 625 

6360 7.95 

6907 35 00 

7377 40 00 



7984 

8072 

8156 

8908 

8950 

4^400A 

4-250A 

4-125A 

4-65A 



495 

32.00 

3 95 

9.95 

550 

29,95 

24 95 

2095 

15.95 



Erie High Voltage 
Power Supply 

TSK-209-0QO 

Input 24vdc 
output #1 100 vdc - 12,95 

#2 400 vdc + 

#3 15000 vdc 

Size: 3V 2 " x 2" x 2*4" 
This power supply was used In a 

CRT Terminal! 



DIODES 

1N270 Germanium Diodes 57.95/c 

HEP170, 2.5A, 1000 PIV $4.95/20 

Semttch SFMS 20K, 20KV, 10 ma, 
fast recovery SI. 26 ea. 



FANS 

Parooioi Fans. Model 4500C 1 17 VAC. 60 Hi, 19 w. . . . 



5795 



RF TRANSISTORS 



2N1561 15.00 

2N1562 15.00 

2N1692 15,00 

2N1693 15.00 

2N2631 4.20 

2N2B57 ISO 

2N2B76 12.35 

2N2880 25.00 

2N2927 7.00 

2N2947 17.2$ 

2N294B 15.50 

2N2949 3.90 

2N2950 5.O0 

2N32B7 430 

2N3300 105 

2N3302 105 

2N3307 1050 

2N3309 390 
2N3375/MM3375 7.00 

2IY3553 180 

2N3571 4.10 

2N3818 6.00 

2M3B24 3.20 

2N3866 1.09 

ZIM3H66 JAN 4.14 



2N3866 jAti TX. 4 B5 

2N39Z5 6 00 

2M3927 1150 

2W3948 2.00 

2N3950 26 25 

2«3%1 6.60 

2N4072 1.70 

2^4073 200 

2M4135 2 00 

2N4427 1 24 

2N44'D 20 00 

2N4440 860 

2N4957 b 30 

2N5070 1380 

2N5090 6 90 

2N5108 390 

2N5109 155 
2N5177/MRF5177 20 00 

2^5179 .68 

2N51B0 J3 
2N5184 

2N5216 47,50 

2N55&3 5,60 

2N5589 4,60 



2^=590 630 

2N5591 10 35 

2N5635 495 

2N5636 11.95 

2N5637 20.70 

2«5643 20 70 

2.V5641 4.90 

2NS643 20 70 

2N5764 27.00 

2M5841 1100 
2N5842/MM1607 19 50 
2N5849/MM1622 19.50 

2N5862 50 00 

2 N 5942 49 50 

2N5922 10.00 

2Ttf60BO 545 

2N60B1 860 

2N6062 11.25 

2N6083 1295 

2M6084 14 95 

2N6094 5.75 

2N6095 10,35 

2N6096 19.35 

2N6097 28.00 

2W6166 85.00 



RF TRANSISTORS 



MRF207 200 

MRF208 * 10.20 

MRF209 1235 

MRF237 1.85 

MRF238 855 

MRF450 16 55 

MRF453 19 55 

WRF504 6.75 

MRF509 550 

MRF511 860 

MRF6P0 2700 

MRFS004 1 90 

HEPS3013/75 2.95 

HEPS3014/76 4.95 

HEPS3002 11.03 

HEPS3003 29.8B 

HEP53005 955 

HEPS3006 19.90 

HEPS3007 24.95 

HEP53O0B 2.18 

HEPS3010 11.34 

RCA TA7994 50.00 

RCA 402S0 2.48 

Keriron K2126 5.50 

Kerlron KB6008 5,50 



Ampere* BLY90 22.50 

Ampere* 4209 8. 60 

M5C 2001 20,00 

MSC 3000 20 00 

M5C 3001 2000 

MSC 3005 20.00 

MSC 80205 20.00 

MSC B0206 20 00 

MSC 80255 20 00 

Fairthild SE7056 3.00 

MM1051 2.00 

M Ml 500 32.20 

MM 1550 10.00 

WM1601 5.50 

MM1602 7.50 

MM 1607/2 N 5842 8.65 

MM 1614 2.75 

MM 1620 17.50 

MM1622/2N5B49 19.50 

MM1661 15.00 

MM 1669 17.50 

MM1943 3.00 

FiflM2605 3.00 

MM2608 5.00 



MM3002 
MM 3009 
MM3375 
MM3904 
MM3906 
MM4000 
MM4001 
MM4003 
MM4036 
MM 4044 

MM4545 

MM3006 

MM 1552 
MH1553 

HEP55026 
MSC 80256 
CTC 01*26 
CTC D10-2B 
CTC El*28 



1.65 

180 

7.00 

1.50 

1-43 

1.24 

1.39 

1^5 

1.60 

3 00 

300 

215 

50.00 

56.50 

2,48 

20 00 

20.00 

20 00 

20,00 



clectroqic^ 



2543 N. 32nd STREET 
PHOENIX, ARIZONA 85008 
PH. 6029570786 





NO C.O.D. 



DIGITAL DATA RECORDERS 




USING 3WI DATA 
CARTRIDGES 



is 



MODEL 3M3- $199.95 

(Price increases to $220 effective 1 April 7977} 




2SI0(R) CONTROLLER - $190.00 



MODEL 3M3 

Featuring the radically new "Uniboard" method of construction 
for data cartridge drives. The major computer makers are 
changing to cartridges at a rapid pace because of the freedom 
from binding and greater data reliability. Operates in the phase 
encoded self-clocking mode which provides greatly enhanced 
freedom from speed variation problems and allows 100% tape 
inter changeability between units- 
Uses the 3M Data Cartridge, model DC 300. This cartridge 
contains 300 feet of ,250 tape in a sealed plastic container. Using 
four tracks you can record nearly 2 megabytes of data on a 
cartridge, 

SPECIFICATIONS: 

Full software control of record, play, fast forward and rewind 
LED indicates inter-record gaps, EOT and BOT are sensed and 
automatically shut down recorder. Feedback signals send reset 
and inter-record gap signals back to the computer so that 
software searching for inter-record gaps at high speed can be 
accomplished, Can also be operated manually by means of the 
switches on top which parallel the software control signal. 
SI 99.95 until April 1, 1977. $220.00 after April 1, 1977, 
Includes Phase Encoder Board (ACI). 

FOR 8080, 8085, AND Z80 USERS 

Comes complete with software listing for the programs in the 
2SIO (R) ROMs. Can be controlled by any of the commonly 
used I/O boards. Send for complete documentation and inter- 
facing instructions on 3M3 and 2SIO (R) ($3,00). These 
programs provide full software control. 



2SIO (R) CONTROLLER (BOOTSTRAP ELIMINATOR) 

This is a complete 8080. 8085, or Z80 system controller. It 
provides the terminal I/O (RS232, 20 mA, or TTL) and the data 
cartridge I/O, plus the motor controlling parallel I/O latches. 
One kilobyte of on board ROM provides turn on and go control 
of your Altair or Imsai. No more bootstrapping, Loads and 
Dumps memory in hex on the terminal, formats tape cartridge 
files, has word processing and paper tape routines- Best of all, it 
has the search routines to locate files and records by means of 
six, five, and four letter strings. Just type in the file name and 
the recorder and software do the rest. Can be used in the BiSync 
(IBM), BiPhase (Phase Encoded) or NRZ modes with suitable 
recorders and interfaces. SI 90, wired and tested; $160, kit form. 

AUDIO CASSETTE INTERFACE (ACI) 

This is the phase encoding board used in the 3M3. Additional 
components on the board enable you to use audio recorders in 
the KC standard or the new PE 2400 (2400 baud) systems. Can 
also be used for Tarbell if you have an 525 1 Intel I/O chip. 
Required if you use an audio cassette with the 2S10 (R) above. 
$50, wired and tested; $35, kit form. 

For 6 &00 Users: Software programs and I/O board for SWTP are 
under development. Limited software available now. Ask for 
6800 data with $3.00 Documentation package. These programs 
will provide full software control. 

CARTRIDGE AVAILABILITY 

Cartridges are made by 3M, ITC, Wabash and others. They are 
available at all computer supply houses and most major 
computer service centers. We can supply them at normal current 
list prices. 



"COMPUTER AID" and "UNIBOARD" are trademarks of the NATIONAL MULTIPLEX CORPORATION. The 3M 
Data Cartridges are covered by 3M Patents and Marks. "UNIBOARD" Patents Pending, 



OVERSEAS- EXPORT VERSION - 220 V - 50 Hz. Write factory or - Megatrort, 8011 Putzbrunn, Munchen, Germany; Nippon 

Automation 5-16^7 Shiba, Minato-Ku, Tokyo; Hobby Data, PACK 20012, Malmo, Sweden; G. Ashbee, 172 Ifield 
Road, London SW 10-9AG. 

For U.P.S. delivery, add $3.00 . Overseas and air shipments charges collect. N J. Residents add 5% Sales Tax. WRITE or CALL 
for further information. Phone Orders on Master Charge and BankAmericard accepted. 



nuriW charge 




NATIONAL MULTIPLEX CORPORATION 

3474 Rand Avenue, South Plainfield NJ 07080, Box 288, Phone (201) 561-3600 TWX 710-997-95 30. 



39 



M 



Mickey and Foxy Ferguson 
PO Box IUQ4 
Chattanooga TN 37401 



Save Time 
with a Micro OS 



- - isn't that what 
computers are for? 



So what's an operating 
system (OS) and why do 
I need one? I don't actually 
know the "dictionary" defini- 
tion of an OS, but my under- 
standing is that an OS is 
rather similar lo the family of 
programs we commonly call 
monitors, except an OS is 



much more powerful and has 
more bells and whistles. The 
Mikbug* monitor in the 
SWTPC M68Q0 is an example 
of a nice little monitor; it 
removes much of the work of 



* Mikbug is a registered trademark 
of Motorola, Inc. 



using a computer {no boot- 
strapping, just turn on the 
power), but leaves much to 
be desired. Mikbug will load a 
program from tape, but if 
you have several programs on 
the same tape, it loads the 
first one it encounters. You 
still have to find the desired 



program before telling 
Mikbug to load it The 
WA4KDC OS will search a 
tape for the desired program, 
loading only the one you've 
chosen. This is but one 
feature of the OS. The reason 
I felt the need for an OS is 
twofold: First, I happen to 
believe that a computer 
should do as much as possible 
because second, Tm lazy. The 
WA4KDC OS is not meant to 
replace Mikbug but to be 
used along with it. 

No listing has been pro- 
vided with this article. 
Instead, a dump has been 
provided. This was done in 
the hope that Wayne would 
find room to print it, as a 
dump takes up less page space 
than a listing of the same 
information. Should you 
desire a listing, the OS itself 
can provide you with one! 

As the OS was written for 
my system, several assump- 
tions are made: 

1. The Mikbug monitor 
ROM and its associated 
128 byte RAM are in 
place in the system. 

2. An SWTTPCCT-1024 
is used as the control 
terminal. 

3. Tape read and write 
facilities are available at 




90 



0000 


42 


4C 


4F 


43 


4B 


20 


4D 


4F 


56 


45 


04 


43 


41 


4C 


4C 


20 


0010 


42 


41 


53 


49 


43 


04 


44 


55 


4D 


50 


04 


4C 


49 


53 


54 


04 


0020 


4D 


49 


4B 


42 


55 


47 


04 


52 


45 


41 


44 


04 


57 


52 


49 


54 


0030 


45 


04 


20 


54 


41 


50 


45 


04 


5A 


45 


52 


4F 


20 


4D 


45 


4D 


0040 


4F 


52 


59 


20 


3F 


20 


04 


54 


4F 


04 


53 


54 


41 


52 


54 


04 


0050 


53 


54 


4F 


50 


04 


53 


39 


04 


10 


16 


04 


OD 


OD 


OA 


04 


CE 


0060 


00 


58 


7E 


EO 


7E 


8D 


FB 


CE 


00 


5C 


20 


F6 


8D 


F4 


CE 


00 


0070 


43 


20 


EF 


8E 


AO 


42 


8D 


E7 


CE 


00 


00 


3D 


E8 


CE 


00 


OB 


0080 


8D 


E3 


CE 


00 


16 


8D 


DE 


CE 


00 


1B 


8D 


D9 


CE 


00 


20 


8D 


0090 


D4 


CE 


00 


27 


8D 


CC 


CE 


00 


32 


8D 


CA 


CE 


00 


2C 


BD 


C2 


00A0 


CE 


00 


32 


SD 


CO 


CE 


00 


38 


8D 


B8 


80 


El 


AC 


81 


42 


26 


00B0 


04 


8D 


3B 


20 


BE 


81 


43 


26 


03 


7E 


01 


40 


81 


44 


26 


05 


OOCO 


8D 


01 


58 


20 


EE 


81 


4C 


26 


05 


BD 


02 


11 


20 


E5 


81 


4D 


00D0 


26 


05 


BD 


EO 


E3 


20 


DC 


81 


52 


26 


03 


BD 


02 


A6 


81 


57 


00 EO 


26 


03 


7E 


02 


DD 


81 


6A 


2ff 


CA 


BD 


03 


BA 


20 


C5 


BD 


00 


00 FO 


5F 


CE 


00 


00 


BD 


EO 


7E 


CE 


00 


47 


BD 


00 


6C 


BD 


EO 


47 


0100 


FF 


AO 


00 


BD 


00 


67 


CE 


00 


4A 


BD 


00 


6C 


BO 


EO 


47 


FF 


0110 


AO 


02 


BD 


00 


67 


CE 


00 


50 


BD 


00 


6C 


BD 


EO 


47 


FF 


AO 


0120 


04 


FE 


AO 


02 


A6 


00 


BC 


AO 


04 


26 


06 


FE 


AO 


00 


A7 


00 


0130 


39 


08 


FF 


AO 


02 


FE 


AO 


00 


A7 


00 


08 


FF 


AO 


00 


20 


El 


0140 


CE 


01 


00 


FF 


AO 


00 


CE 


CO 


00 


FF 


AO 


02 


CE 


Dl 


50 


FF 


0150 


AO 


04 


8D 


CD 


BD 


00 


5F 


7E 


01 


00 


01 


BD 


00 


5F 


CE 


00 


0160 


4A 


8D 


EO 


7E 


CE 


00 


16 


BD 


00 


6C 


5F 


37 


20 


24 


5F 


37 


0170 


BD 


El 


AC 


81 


53 


26 


07 


CE 


00 


5C 


8D 


59 


33 


39 


81 


46 


0180 


27 


19 


CE 


AO 


OC 


4F 


AB 


01 


A7 


01 


86 


FF 


A9 


00 


A7 


00 


0190 


20 


09 


BD 


EO 


55 


B7 


AO 


OC 


7F 


AO 


OD 


CE 


00 


5B 


8D 


35 


01A0 


CE 


AO 


OC 


8D 


1C 


5F 


FE 


AO 


OC 


8D 


18 


5C 


CI 


08 


26 


F9 


01B0 


FF 


AO 


OC 


33 


5C 


Ct 


10 


27 


B5 


37 


CE 


00 


5C 


80 


16 


20 


01 CO 


DF 


3D 


06 


8D 


04 


86 


20 


20 


21 


A6 


00 


8D 


OF 


A6 


00 


08 


0100 


20 


OE 


8D 


16 


03 


A6 


00 


81 


04 


26 


F7 


39 


44 


44 


44 


44 


01 EO 


84 


OF 


8B 


30 


81 


39 


23 


02 


8B 


07 


FF 


AO 


14 


37 


CE 


80 


01 FO 


OC 


C6 


FF 


E7 


00 


C6 


3F 


E7 


01 


BD 


05 


33 


FE 


AO 


14 


39 



the control terminal, 
and are under software 
control 

4. An SWTPC PR-40 
printer is used for hard 
copy, and is located at 
I/O slot #3 (if your 
PR^40 is at another I/O 
slot, memory locations 
01ER)1F0 will have to 
be changed to the 
address of the slot you 
are using). 

As it appears in this 
article, the WA4KDC OS is 
assembled to run at 
OOOO-OSEB, but it is not 
really intended to be used 
there* It was designed to be 
placed into PROM (along 
with your favorite version of 
BASIC) and moved some- 
where at the high end of 
memory, OS 8C00 and 
BASIC C0O0DFFF in my 
system* All functions except 
CALL BASIC may be used as 
it appears here, but the OS 
will have to be moved higher 
in memory if the CALL 
BASIC feature is to be used 
as will be explained later. The 
reason the OS is shown here 
assembled for the low end of 
memory is because the author 
has no way of knowing where 
in memory you will wish to 
use it, and most people seem 



to find it easier to relocate a 
program from the low end of 
memory. 1 

The WA4KDC OS contains 
several subroutines for the 
purpose of outputting data to 
the PR-40. They are equiva- 
lent to subroutines contained 
in Mikbug and may be called 
by user programs. They are 
listed below by address along 
with the name of the Mikbug 
subroutines to which they are 
equivalent* 



oici 

01 C3 
01C5 
01D5 
01 E A 



OUT4HS 
OUT2HS 
OUTS 
PDATA1 

OUTEEE 



Once you have loaded the 
OS into memory, set the 
program counter (AQ48* 
A049) to 0073 while in 
Mikbug; then type "G" to go 
to the operating system and 
begin execution. The OS 
should respond by issuing a 
"home-up** and "erase to end 
of frame" on the control 



* Relocating the WA4KDC OS is 
made easy by using the BLOCK 
MOVE and the LIST functions of 
the OS to identify those addresses 
that have to be altered, even 
though relative addressing has 
been used extensively. 



terminal p then print the fol- 
lowing: 

BLOCK MOVE 
CALL BASIC 

DUMP 
LIST 
MIKBUG 
READ TAPE 

WRITE TAPE 
ZERO MEMORY ? 

The OS will now respond 
to the following commands: 
"B H f "C\ "D", "L", "M" f 
"FT, "W", or "Z M (the first 
letter of each function); 
typing anything else on the 
control terminal will cause 
the OS to repeat the above 
cycle. Let's examine each 
function of the OS in a bit of 



BLOCK MOVE: Suppose 

we have a routine located 
A04A through A060 that we 
wish to relocate to another 
area of memory beginning 
with a starting address of 
0200, From the OS main 
loop, we type B for the 
BLOCK MOVE function. The 
OS will then prompt: 

MOVE TO 7 (we type* 0200 
START MOVE 7 (we type) A04A 
STOP 7 (we type* AQ60 



The OS will then move the 
data j leaving the data in 



A04A through A060 (in our 
example) intact, and return 
to the OS main loop to wait 
for further commands. The 
BLOCK MOVE function will 
move as little as one byte or 
as much as x h of the available 
memory. This function is 
accomplished very rapidly 
and irrespective of the 
amount of data moved; it 
appears to the operator to 
instaneously return to the OS 
main loop! 

£ALL BASIC: Typing C 
while in the OS main loop 
causes BASIC to be automati- 
cally block moved from some 
high location in memory to 
the low end of memory 
where it is to be used, (This is 
the reason the OS cannot be 
located at the low end of 
memory if the CALL BASIC 
function is to be used - it 
would try to move BASIC on 
top of itself!) The following 
addresses should contain the 
information shown below: 

0141-0142 - Address BASIC is to 
be moved to (as in the "MOVE 
TO?" of the BLOCK MOVE func- 
tion) 

0147-0148 — Lowest address of 

BASIC ROM 

014D-G14E - Highest address of 

BASIC ROM 

0158-0159 — Starting address of 

BASIC 



0200 


A7 


00 


C6 


37 


E7 


01 


C6 


3F 


E7 


01 


6D 


01 


2A 


FC 


E6 


00 




0210 


39 


BD 


00 


5F 


CE 


00 


4A 


BO 


EO 


7E 


CE 


00 


1B 


BD 


00 


6C 




0220 


BD 


EO 


47 


FF 


AO 


02 


BD 


00 


67 


CE 


00 


50 


BD 


00 


6C 


BD 




0230 


EO 


47 


FF 


AO 


04 


FE 


AO 


02 


FF 


AO 


OC 


CE 


00 


5C 


BD 


01 




0240 


05 


CE 


AO 


OC 


BD 


01 


C1 


FE 


AO 


OC 


A6 


00 


B7 


AO 


OB 


BD 




0250 


01 


C3 


FF 


AO 


OC 


BD 


01 


C5 


5F 


B6 


AO 


OB 


81 


8C 


27 


18 




0260 


81 


8E 


27 


14 


81 


CE 


27 


10 


84 


FO 


81 


20 


27 


OB 


81 


60 




0270 


26 


08 


84 


30 


81 


30 


26 


01 


5C 


5C 


F7 


AO 


OA 


27 


10 


7A 




0280 


AO 


OA 


27 


05 


BD 


01 


CI 


20 


03 


BD 


01 


C3 


FF 


AO 


OC 


B6 




0290 


AO 


OC 


B1 


AO 


04 


27 


02 


20 


A2 


86 


AO 


OD 


B1 


AO 


05 


23 




02A0 


F6 


86 


00 


7E 


01 


EA 


60 


00 


5F 


CE 


00 


27 


BO 


00 


6C 


BD 




02BO 


IE 


86 


3C 


B7 


80 


07 


86 


11 


BD 


El 


D1 


CE 


AO 


4A 


BD 


El 




02C0 


AC 


A1 


00 


26 


F6 


08 


A6 


00 


81 


04 


26 


F2 


BD 


EO 


13 


CE 




02D0 


AO 


4A 


BO 


E1 


AC 


A7 


00 


08 


81 


04 


26 


F6 


39 


8E 


AO 


7F 




02E0 


BD 


00 


5F 


CE 


00 


32 


BD 


00 


6C 


8D 


E4 


BD 


00 


67 


CE 


00 




02F0 


4A 


BD 


EO 


7E 


CE 


00 


32 


BD 


00 


6C 


BD 


EO 


47 


FF 


AO 


02 




03O0 


BD 


00 


67 


CE 


00 


50 


BD 


EO 


7E 


CE 


00 


32 


BD 


00 


6C 


BD 




0310 


EO 


47 


FF 


AO 


04 


BD 


00 


67 


CE 


00 


4A 


BD 


00 


6C 


BD 


EO 




0320 


47 


FF 


AO 


48 


86 


12 


BD 


E1 


D1 


8D 


2A 


CE 


AO 


4A 


BD 


EO 




0330 


7£ 


SO 


2E 


CE 


AO 


48 


FF 


AO 


02 


08 


FF 


AO 


04 


8D 


22 


8D 




0340 


OE 


3D 


OC 


8D 


OA 


8D 


OE 


86 


14 


BD 


E1 


D1 


7E 


00 


73 


CE 




0350 


00 


55 


7E 


EO 


7E 


5F 


86 


00 


BD 


E1 


01 


5C 


CI 


FF 


26 


F6 




0360 


39 


FE 


AO 


02 


FF 


AO 


OF 


B6 


AO 


05 


BO 


AO 


10 


F6 


AO 


04 




0370 


F2 


AO 


OF 


26 


04 


81 


10 


25 


02 


86 


OF 


SB 


04 


B7 


AO 


11 




0380 


80 


03 


87 


AO 


OE 


CE 


E1 


34 


BD 


EO 


7E 


5F 


CE 


AO 


11 


8D 




0390 


24 


CE 


AO 


OF 


80 


IF 


BD 


ID 


FE 


AO 


OF 


8D 


18 


7A 


AO 


OE 




03A0 


26 


F9 


FF 


AO 


OF 


53 


37 


30 


8D 


OB 


33 


FE 


AO 


OF 


09 


BC 




0380 


AO 


04 


26 


B3 


39 


EB 


00 


7E 


EO 


BF 


BD 


00 


5F 


CE 


00 


4A 




03C0 


BD 


EO 


7E 


CE 


00 


38 


BD 


EO 


7E 


BD 


EO 


47 


FF 


AO 


02 


BD 




03D0 


00 


67 


CE 


00 


50 


BD 


00 


6C 


BD 


EO 


47 


FF 


AO 


04 


FE 


AO 




03E0 


02 


6F 


00 


03 


BC 


AO 


04 


26 


F8 


6F 


00 


39 


00 


00 


00 


00 




03F0 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


91 



Upon completion of the 
CALL BASIC function, 
system control is given to the 
BASIC interpreter instead of 
returning to the OS main 
loop. This function is also 
accomplished very quickly 
with the BASIC prompt 
seeming to appear as soon as 
the *'C" command is typed - 
no more waiting for fifteen or 
twenty minutes for BASIC to 
load! (Tom Pittman's TINY 
BASIC and the WA4KDC 
Operating System will fit into 
3K of PROM with room to 
spare!) 

DUMP; Suppose we desire 
a "Core Dump 1 ' beginning 
with address 1000, Typing D 
while in the OS main loop 
will cause the OS to prompt 
with: 

START DUMP ? {we type) 10 

The OS will then print (using 
the PR-40) 128 bytes in stan- 
dard core dump formal begin- 
ning at address 1000. After 
dumping 128 bytes to the 
PR-40, the OS looks for one 
of three commands: 

B — Dump the next frame back 
(lower address! 

F — Dump the next frame for- 
ward (higher address) 
S - Stop dump and return con- 
trol to OS main loop 

LIST: The LIST function 
of the OS, white similar to 
the DUMP function, uses the 
following format: address, OP 
code, operand. Suppose we 
wish a listing of 01 BA 
through 01 8F. Typing L 
while in the OS main loop 
will cause the OS to prompt 
with: 



STARTLIST ? (we type) 01 BA 
STOP ? (we type) 01 BF 

Assuming that we have the 
OS in memory locations 0000 
through 03EB f the OS should 

then print (using the PR40): 

01BACE005B 
01BD8D 16 
01BF20OF 

Upon completion of the LIST 
function, control is returned 
to the OS main loop. It 
should be noted that ASCII 
encoded strings tend to con- 
fuse the poor OS. Once 
beyond the strings, it will 
usually recover rather rapidly. 
READ TAPE: As men- 
tioned earlier, the OS will 
search for a particular pro- 
gram on tape and load only 
the desired program 
(assuming the tape is for- 
matted with a header record 
for identification — see 
WRITE TAPE}, While in the 
OS main loop, if an R com- 
mand is typed, the OS will 
prompt with: 

read ? 

At this point, the OS is 
requesting the name of the 
program you desire it to load 
into memory. After entering 
the name of the program, 
type a "Control D" to indi- 
cate to the OS that the entry 
is complete. The OS will then 
turn on the tape reader and 
begin searching for the 
desired program. When it is 
found, it will be read into 
memory; everything encoun- 
tered on the tape before the 
desired program will be 
ignored, After the program 



has been read into memory, 
system control is given to 
Mikbug, so typing H G" will 
run the program. 

WRITE TAPE: The 

WRITE TAPE function of the 
OS outputs programs to tape 
in the following format: 
header, header record, pro- 
gram, program counter 
starting location, three S9s, 
trailer The header, a series of 
nulls, gives a cassette recorder 
time to reach normal tape 
speed before any data is 
output to tape. The header 
record (name of program) 
identifies the program to the 
READ TAPE function when, 
at some later time, it is 
desired to load the program 
from tape. The three S9s 
indicate the end of program 
to the OS when the tape is 
later read into memory. The 
trailer, a series of nulls, is 
added to provide some 
physical spacing between pro- 
grams on tape. Let's assume 
we have Star Trek in memory 
from 0000 to 1 FFF, with an 
entry point of 0100, and we 
desire a tape of it. While in 
the OS main loop, we type 
the WRITE TAPE command, 
M W r \ and the OS prompts 
with: 

WRITE ? (we type} STARTREK 
"Control D" ("Control D' f indi- 
cates end of entry to the OS) 
START TAPE ? (we type) 0000 
(lowest address of program} 
STOP 7 {we type) 1FFF (highest 
address of program) 
START ? (we type) 0100 (pro- 
gram entry point! 

The OS will then turn the 
recorder on, generate the tape 

(formatted as described 



above), turn the recorder off, 
return control to the OS main 
loop. 

ZERO MEMORY: This 
function will clear any 
amount of memory from one 
byte up to the entire RAM 
memory in the system; it 
appears to the operator to 
perform its task even faster 
than the BLOCK MOVE 
function! The first time you 
use the ZERO MEMORY 
function, you may wish to go 
to the Mikbug memory 
examine function and do 
some random checking to 
prove to yourself that the OS 
actually did clear the 
memory! To clear i he 
memory used in the Star Trek 
example above, type a Z 
(while in the OS main loop, 
of course). This will cause the 
OS to prompt with: 

START ZERO MEMORY ? {we 

type) 0000 

STOP ? (we type) 1FFF 

Upon completion of the 
ZERO MEMORY function, 
system control is returned to 
the OS main loop. 

MIKBUG: This function 
turns system control to the 
Mikbug control loop. You 
may, while in Mikbug, return 
to the WA4KDC OS by 
typing G. 

Although considerable 
effort has been expended to 
assure that the WA4KDC 
Operating System is "bug 
free/* and it has been running 
on our system for some time 
with no known bugs, we 
would be most interested in 
hearing about any bugs you 
may find, ■ 




Manufactured & Guaranteed by 

MOR-GAIN 

2200T South 4th Street 

Leavenworth, Kansas 66048 

10131 682 3142 



75 THRU 10 METER DIPOLES 



2. 
3. 



jA 



NOTES 

1. Model l pi effaced ' ** will be available 1/77, 

All modal* above are furnilhad with crimp/froidcr lugs, 
All modolt can be furnished with a SO-23D femnlB 
coaxial connector at additional cost. The SO 239 males 
with the Hundard PL'259 male coaxial cable connector. 
To order thti factory installed opttcn. add the letter "A" 
after the model number. Example 40-20 HD/A. 

4. 75 meter model* we factory tuned to resonate at 3&5Q 
kHz 'SPl modeta are factory tuned to lesonatt at 3800 
kHf 80 mere* models are factory tuned to resonate at 
3660 it Hi. Sec VSWn curve* for other resonance data. 



92 



IT AIL. 



MODEL 

40-30 HO 
"40-10 HD 
8O40 HD 
75-40 HD 
7&40HD J5PI 
75-20 HD 
75-20 HD (SPf 
75-10 HD 
75-tOHQfSFi 
"9CM0HD 

Write or phono tor 



1 5 10 I * mm i 
- twtiitt fti idimmtm— Kan 

Itw- ONE D6S1GM DOC* 



BANDS 

(Mtienl 
40/20 

40/20/16/10 
80/40 + 16 
75/40 

7S/40 

75 40.-20 

75, 40 ma 

?£4Q/2om 10 
75/40/20^15/10 

B0 40.20. 1= 1(2 

full information 



PHIC6 WEIGHT 

£40 GO 367.73 

59 50 36/1.01 

67.50 i 1/1.1 5 

56 00 40/1 12 

5760 40/1,12 

6660 44^1.23 

6650 44 123 

74 50 4fi 134 

74 50 448 134 

76 50 50140 

or contact your 



LENGTH 
tFifMinl 
36/10 ft 
36/10,0 
G0/21 
66/70.1 
66 20 1 
66-70 1 
66720 I 
66 20 1 
W7Q.1 
69710 
favorite ctaaier. 



BankAmer icard and Mis recharge ava liable 

E* D. Magnus & Associates 

5715 North Lincoln Ave. 

Chicago. Illinois 60659 



NO TRAPS— NO COILS— 
NO STUBS- HO CAPACITORS 

MOR-GAIN HD D I POLES , . . • On*? halt the length of 
conventional holt -Wave drpolos ■ Multi'Uand, Multi- 
frequency. • Maximum efficiency - no traps, loading col If, 
or stubs • Fully assembled and pre tuned - no measuring. 
no cutting. • All weather rated - I KW AM, 2.5 KW CW or 
PEP SSB. * Proven performance - more than 15,000 have 
been delivered • Permit use of the full capabilities of 
today's 5 -band xevrs. * One feedlme for operation on at! 
bands. * Lowest cost/benefit antenna on the market today 
• Fast QSV - no feed! in* switching. * Highest performance 
for the No* ic* as well as the E*ua-Cl*« Op. 



COMPUTER HOBBYISTS! 

Nationwide Classified Ad Newsletter 

Buy & Sell Hardware & Software 

new/used /unique/low- cost 

S3. 75 for 18 issues. 

Free sample issue on request. 

QN_LINE NEWSLETTER 

24695 Santa Cruz Hwy., Los Gatos 
CA 95030 



J- Send for your copy today 



x 



o. 

CO 



o 

Q 
< 

m 

c 
o 

m 
o 



/977 AMA7EURRAPI0 
EQUIPMENT DIRECTORY 



TEIM-TEC 

WESU 



MFJ 






4HCTP0H1CS 



tf/jV/ I ROBOT 



=, ATLAS 



ICOM 



t \±C f I O Hi* t 



fKENWDOD 



00 



o 

< 



8 

3 

CD 



0) 

o 



CD 

3 
O 

CD 

a. 

< 

m 

o> 

3 
w 



$2.95 Postpaid (U.S.) 
(add 75$ for First Class Mall) 

KENGORE CORP — Dept. C 
9 Jamet Ave. Kendall Park, NJ 06824 

CLUB DISCOUNT 15% (MIN. 10 COPIES) 



Vanguard now has o HOT 

2m converter - at a price 

you can afford 



AjMMfcW^M i 



itvnaailMtaBi- 



iiMi' i ' 




OFF 

Q 




ON 




ANT. 



RCV 



iM 



MODEL CM44-A ONLY $33-95 

READ THE SPECIFICATIONS & SEE 
WHY IT^S THE BEST CONVERTER 

VALUE AVAILABLE ANYWHERE!! 

• Dual-gate MOSFET r.r\ stage with 
diode protected input. 

• Dual-gate MOSFET mixer for mini- 
mum cross modulation , Every con- 
verter tested for noise figure (2.5 — 
3.0 dB max.) with Hewlett Packard 
noise measuring equipment. 

• 6 tuned circuits. 

• More than 20 dB gain t ,1 microvolt 
sensitivity guarantee when used with 
receivers having 1 microvolt or better 
sensitivity, 

• Complete with one ,005% plug-in 
crystal to cover 144-146 or 146-148 
MHz {be sure to specify which, or get 
both for only $5.00 more). Standard 
output is for 28-30 MHz. 

• 16 gauge aluminum case with BNC 
receptacles and antenna /power 



switch. Measures 3W" * 2W f x IV* 



■ ■ 



IN STOCK NOW FOR IMMEDIATE 
C.O.D. SHIPMENT. Caff Monday through 
Friday 9 AM to 4 PM (212) 468-2720. 

VA7VGUARD I.ABS 

196-23 Jamaica Ave., Hoi lis, New York 11423 




INTR 



• ft 



UCES THE 



VERSATILE 
NEW 






More Channels... at the flip of a switch 

Unlock the unique mode switch and 12 channels 
become 144 

More Sensitivity, Less Interference 

.25 mV Sensitivity plus 75 db adjacent channel 
selectivity and 70 db image rejection 



II More Power Out 



35 watts nominal with a minimum of 30 watts 
across the band 







© 1976 



V 



. . . for a lot less 



$ 269 



00 




Amateur Net 

ELECTRONICS, INC, 7707 Records Street 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46226 




THE FM LEADER 




2 METER 2£M 220 MH Z 
6 METER HD 440 MHz 





93 



V 



Richard B, Joerqer WB4EHG 
1530 W, 54 $1 CU2 
Hialeah FL 33012 



PROM Message Generator for RTTY 



- - keyboards are obsolete! 



This article describes 
what started out to be a 
simple CW identifier mainly 
for repeater use. The circuit, 
however, can easily be 
changed to send almost any 
length or type of message. 
Some possible uses are a CW 
identifier, Morse code mes- 
sage generator, RTTY test 
message generator (RYs, the 
quick brown fox . . J, RTTY 
message generator, and an 
automatic telephone dialer* 
Three of the basic CW 
identifier circuits have been 
built The first one has been 
operating in the WR4AKK 
repeater since Christmas of 
1974. The second one was 
built for WB4CCB, who uses 
it to identify himself on 
VHR And, finally, seven 
months after the circuit was 
designed, I built one for 
myself. I should mention that 
the first two identifiers were 
a combination of TTL and 
CMOS logic, But, because 
most hams are not yet famil- 
iar with the peculiarities of 



CMOS, I redesigned the cir* 
cuit using all TTL 

The Memory Unit 

For the memory unit, I 
chose to use a field program- 
mable read only memory or 
PROM. PROMs are now 
appearing on the surplus 
market at prices that the aver- 
age ham can afford. PROMs 
are smaller and easier to work 
with than a diode matrix, are 
easy to design with, and — 
believe it or not — most are 
easy to program. 

A PROM can be thought 
of as a black box that has X 
number of inputs and Y 
number of outputs. What 
goes on inside during opera- 
tion really doesn't need to 
concern us at this point, 
PROMs are sold with all the 
output stages in the same 
logic state, either I or 0. 
Whether the output stages are 
initially all Is or 0s depends 
on the manufacturer. During 
the programming process, 
you, the user, decide for a 



Addr 



Address 



Output state Represents: 






1 


dit 


1 





space 


2 


1 




3 


1 


dab 


4 


1 




& 





space 


6 


1 




7 


1 


dah 


8 


1 





iress 


Output state 


Represents: 





1 




1 


1 


dah 


2 


1 




3 





space 


4 


1 


dit 


5 





space 


6 


1 




7 


t 


dah 


8 


1 




9 





space 


10 


1 


dit 


11 







12 





tetter space 


13 







14 


1 




15 


1 


dah 


16 


1 




17 





space 


18 


1 




19 


1 


dah 


20 


1 




21 





space 


22 


1 


dit 


23 





space 


24 


1 




25 


1 


dah 


26 


1 




27 







28 





word space 


29 







30 







31 







32 







33 


1 




34 


1 


dah 


35 


1 




36 





space 


37 


1 


dit 


38 





space 


39 


1 


dit 


40 







41 





letter space 


42 







43 


1 


dit 


44 





space 



Addresses through 10 send a C 
Addresses 14 through 26 send a Q 
Addresses 33 through 39 send a D 
Address 43 sends a E 



Table h Address locations and memory content to send Morse Table 2, Address locations and memory content to send CQ 
code W. DE. 



94 



■ 



1 a.K I 



dress 


A3 


A2 


Af 


*0 




8 


4 


2 


1 = binary weights 











1 


Q 


1 











1 


2 








1 \ 





3 








1 


1 


4 





1 


I 





5 





1 





1 


6 





1 


1 1 





7 





1 


1 


1 


8 


1 





\ 


3 


9 


1 








1 


10 


1 





1 I 


Q 


11 


1 





1 


1 


12 


1 


1 


1 


3 


13 


T 


1 





1 


14 


1 


1 


1 \ 


D 


15 


1 

43 1 


1 


1 


1 












A ! 

12 


1» 
141 


■« 1 


-mjTPu? 




• 3 


tig 







-♦ 



5{W TO*TE 4DJU5T 




MP»FS.Ct 
TOhE 



TQHC *DJU5T 



topi* if or 

ICI 

^ . r 

D43M£D LI«C$ *»f ** ALTEffflMTf C'"CWt 
• "'C>* ALLOWH MAW TOME TO H $f *T Of-L¥ 
WHEN ThE tpCHtli"IC!> *3 «UW"I*6 



OMAR* 

Towr 



*LL *£3l5t£ik% 4*1 i««TT 



F/#. 7. >4 simple four input, 
showing address decoding. 

specific address what the out- 
put states will be and pro- 
gram accordingly. For exam- 
ple, if you want output one 
to be a 9 for address 3, and 
the PROM has all outputs 
initially at , you do not have 
to program anything into 
address 3, If, however, you 
want output one to be a 1, 
you must apply a program* 
ming voltage to the PROM to 
cause this output to change. 
(For programming informa- 
tion see the specific manufac- 
turer's spec sheet.) Once an 
output has been programmed, 
it cannot be changed. (Some 
of the newer MOS PRO Ms 
can be erased and ^pro- 
grammed, but the entire 
PROM must be erased — not 
just one word or one bit at a 
time.) 

The input lines to a PROM 
are called address lines* Each 
address selects one word. For 
example, a on all address 
lines selects word zero. An 
address is the sum of the 
binary weights of the address 
lines. Address line A0 has a 
binary weight of 1, address 
line A1 has a binary weight of 
2, address line A2 has a bi- 
nary weight of 4, and so on. 
Fig. 1 shows a four input 
PROM and Us address table. 
This PROM has a maximum 
capability of sixteen words, 
with addresses zero through 
fifteen. For every input 
address there is at least one 



Fig. 3. A modification to the tone generator of Fig. 2 to allow 

one output (16 x I) PROM two-tone operation for RTTY use. 



output stage which is unique 
to that address. The output 
stages are tied to each other 
in groups. That is, if there are 
four outputs for each address, 
all of the output one stages 
(for every address) are tied 
togetherj all of the output 
two stages are tied together, 
and so on. Even though the 
output stages for every 
address are common to each 
other, only the output stages 
corresponding to the selected 
address are active. For exam- 
ple, for a four output PROM 



every address activates four 
outputs. These outputs can 
be any combination of Ts and 
0s and are program med separ- 
ately. 

PROMs are available with 
three types of output stages: 
Totem-pole, open collector, 
and Tri-statc (Tri-state is a 
trademark of National Semi- 
conductor Corp. for their 
three-state output devices). 
The Totem-pole output 
PROM is a new product just 
released by Harris Semicon- 
ductor, It features a standard 
TTL output stage. 



Three -state PROMs have 
an enable input which, when 
it is taken high, will force all 
of the outputs to a very high 
impedance. This allows sever- 
al outputs to be bused togeth- 
er. Three-state PROMs also 
have internal pull up resistors 
on the output lines. These 
resistors insure that when an 
output is high, the output 
will be close to +Vcc. 

Open collector PROMs 
also have an enable input. 
When this input is high, ail of 
the outputs are forced off. 
Open collector PROMs do 



*v 




-0PTT LlUC 



control 



• v 

ii 

-1 > 



4" D 



»»tcLrLij i * 



I 



►V 

o 



* V 



L 



i ^ 



Mil ■ 

D 



"TPT 
ffr 



A5 



-1 



hi 



I- 



:*. 






T 



.•> 



-V 

L 



*' 



0* 



□ 



A* PROM 
45 

if 

AT 






T* 



*v 

V 

pIQK 






;:*toh 




IfcZITZQJt 

we 5 £3*4 



■I 



in 



I4hi 



JL 



J>L 



< t-vu* — I v ft W w 1 h— 1 



55* 

IC 6 



fh 



m 



luQlO 
OUTPUT 

K3V 






TO IIE3CT 4DD4E « 



T~Ti— I 



^\ MOO 



Fig. 2, The basic CW identifier. This circuit features adjustable speed, adjustable tone t and up to 
256 bits of memory. The PROM pinout is for a Harris 1256, 256 x J PROM. 



95 



not have interna) pull up resis- 
tors. To insure that the out- 
put does go to a logic 1 when 
we want it to, an external 
pull up resistor must be con- 
nected from the output to 
the +Vcc supply. 

A PROM with four inputs 
and one output is called a 16 
word by 1 bit {16 x 1} 
PROM. If a PROM has eight 
inputs and four outputs (a 
eommon configuration), it is 
a 256 word by 4 bit (256x4) 
PROM, 

Circuit Description 

IC1 is a 7400, two gates of 
which form the ID start flip* 
nop (Fig, 2). If pin 9 of IC1 
is momentarily taken low, pin 
8 of IC1 goes and stays high. 
This high level turns on IC2, a 
555 astable multivibrator, 
which provides the clock sig- 
nal for driving the counters. 
At the same time that pin 8 
goes high, pin 11 goes low, 
allowing the two 7493 four 
bit binary counters to begin 
counting, IC3, a 7493, counts 
on the negative transition of 
the clock, IC3 addresses the 
PROM from (A0-A7 low), 
to address 15 (A0-A3 high, 
A4-A7 low). When the next 
negative transition of the 
clock occurs, IC3 changes 
back to and IC4, another 
7493, advances to count 1, 
This corresponds to address 
16 (A4 high, A0-A3 and 
A5-A7 low). In this manner 
the PROM is sequentially 
addressed starting at address 

and ending at the maximum 
address of the PROM. In the 
case of this 256 x 1 PROM, 

when the counters reach 255, 
the maximum address has 
been reached. At clock count 
256 the PROM will be back 
at address 0, The counters 
will continue counting and 
the PROM will be addressed 
through its entire contents 
again and again. To stop the 
counters and reset them at 
the end of your message, one, 
two, or three address lines are 
decoded with a NAND gate 
to detect the reset address. 
When all of the inputs to the 
NAND gate are high, indicat- 
ing the reset address has been 
reached, the gate's output 







4fQfl 






/77 



*TOfl 2 H 



£ 



lone 

}» couth o i 



8,4 



JU^p? 



ice 

3«3 



-Ofcupto 

OUTPUT 



m 

ALL RE5JSTORS *HE l/*#ATr 



TO Kl*A f ADDPESi 



Fig, 4. An expanded identifier. This circuit features adjustable speed, adjustable tone, and up to 
1024 bits of memory. The PROM pinout is for a Harris 1024, 256 x 4 PROM. 



goes low, applying a reset 
pulse to pin 13 of IC1 - When 
pin 13 is taken low, pin 8 of 
IC1 goes low, stopping the 
555 clock, and pin 9 goes 
high, resetting the 7493 
counters* For example, to 
send my call, WB4EHG, re- 
quires 60 address locations. 
Sixty is represented by ad- 
dress lines A2, A3, A4, and 
A5 being high at the same 
time. To reset at address 60 
would require a four input 
NAND gate. But, if I were to 
reset at address 64 (A6 high 
only) instead, I can use one 
of the unused gates in IC1. 
For addresses 61, 62, 63 and 
64, the PROM output must 
be 0. If the output were 1 for 
these addresses, a tone would 
be sent by the tone generator. 
It's a good idea to program a 
few addresses low after your 
message, to insure that the 
message is complete and the 
tone generator is off before 
and during reset. 

Resistor R3 provides the 
pull up current to the output 
stage of the PROM, The use 
of this resistor was discussed 
earlier in this article, When 
the output of the PROM is 
high, as it is when you wish a 
tone output, transistor Ql is 
turned on, which turns on 
IC6 by raising its Vcc line 
from +2.5 V to +5.0 V. IC6 is 



a 555 astable multivibrator 
which serves as a tone oscil- 
lator* By using Ql as a keying 
switch and keying the Vcc 
line, the oscillator turns on 
without producing a key 
click. R2, the 50k Ohm pot, 
is a tone control. The tone 
frequency can be varied 
between 100 Hz and 2,5 kHz, 

An external tone oscillator 
may be used as long as you 
properly interface it to the 
PROM output, Most PROMs 
will drive ten standard TTL 
loads (16 mA output); but, if 
you are in doubt, check the 
manufacturer's specifications. 

If you are building a 
RTTY message generator, the 
tone generator circuit of Fig, 
3 can be used. This circuit has 
two 555s, one to generate the 
mark tone and the other to 
generate the space tone. An 
inverter is needed between 
the PROM output and the 
mark tone generator. The 
fourth gate of I CI can be 
used or you can add another 
IC 

Code Programming 

Now that we know how 
the addressing is going to take 
place, let's take a look at 
what each address is going to 
do. Morse code is made up of 
dits and dahs. Each dah is 
equal in length to three dits. 



Each address, therefore, wi 
be equal to one dit length. If 
one lone address has a one 
programmed in its output, it 
will turn on the lone oscil- 
lator for one clock period, 
producing a dit. If three 
addresses in a row are turned 
on, the tone oscillator will be 
turned on for three clock 
periods, producing a dah. The 
space between dits and dahs 
of the same tetter is equal to 
the length of one dit. The 
space between letters of the 
same word is three dits (one 
dah), and the space between 
words is six dits (two dahs). 
For example, to store a W in 
memory takes nine addresses 
(Table 1), Since address zero 
is on and address one is off, 
the tone oscillator will be on 
for one clock period and off 
for one clock pulse, thus 
forming a dit. Addresses two, 
three, and four are on and 
address five is off, so the tone 
oscillator will be on for three 
clock periods and off for one, 
thus forming a dah. Table 2 
shows the address locations 
to send CQ DE. 

I would suggest that you 
program the first five or so 
addresses as zeros. This will 
give a slight delay from the 
time the generator is started 
until the code starts rolling 
out. In a repeater, this delay 



9\> 



*v 



- V 



:4too 



fTjnn 




4 



*TQH 



SPEED 

CONTBOUiM€G 



th 



if. 



a_ji 



L 









O 



ii 






IC3 B 



:■ 




jo 



-* 



lis 



7*M 



1£_ 



IP* 



JE 



A? 
A3 
ft* 

A} 

it 
AT 



01 



/77 



PMHI 




ALL ■C3ISTOK3 **£ 



>w 



h»*»f 



II 



I 



1± 



-ft 



■: 



i! 



Jls_ 



40 
Al 

A3 

M 



IC 0. 

HI034 



11m 

ft 7 



PpflM c 



7 




EI^> 



««t AOO 




^93 



^ 



a 



4T0U 



J 



9 



Utoo 



ll^t 



££* ,W cqwtaqi 

*TD SK ti\|IQV 

b^t ic * is, 

1 MS F ©ALJD1E 

I OUTPUT 



m 



• * 



: .^ 



HEX T ADO. 






1 



r 

icl 



F 



F/tf, 5, ^ combination of Fig. 2 and Fig. 4. This circuit features adjustable speed, adjustable 
tone, and selection of two PROMs. Switch SI selects PROM 7 or PROM 2. Each PROM lias a 
separate reset address, The PROM pinout for PROM 1 is a Harris 1256. PROM 2 is a Harris 
1024. I use PROM 1 to send my caff and PROM 2 to send my name and address. 



will give i he transmitter time 
to come up, eliminating the 
possibility of chopping off 
the first part of the first letter 
sent. This is a matter of per- 
sonal choice, ff you do not 
want a delay or have a very 
long message to send, start 
your first letter at address 
one, Address zero must have 
a zero programmed in it. 
This address is selected when 
the identifier is in the reset 
condition and a one here will 
cause the tone oscillator to be 
on constantly. If you use this 
circuit as a RTTY generator, 
this will cause a mark tone to 
be sent while the generator is 
in the reset mode. If you do 
not want the mark tone sent 
during reset, use the alternate 
circuit of Fig. 3. 

Selecting a PROM 

Of all the PROMs on the 
surplus market, the 32 x 8 is 
probably the most common. 
This PROM is good for use as 
an automatic telephone dial* 
er, but as a simple CW ID 
generator it requires too 
much extra circuitry 
(although an adaptation of 
Fig. 4 could be used). A 256 
x 1 PROM is more than 
enough for sending your call 
and QTH. If you have a long 



message or several different 
messages to send, a 256 x 4 
or 512 x 4 can be used." A 
256 x 4 has a total of 1024 
bits of memory and a 51 2 x 4 
has 2048 bits. A 256 x 4 is 
large enough to send my 
name, full address, and even 
the name of the company I 
work for. 

If you obtain a PROM 
with more memory than you 
need, you don't have to pro- 
gram all the memory at one 
sitting. You might, at a later 
date, want to send something 
different and, by changing 
your counter circuit, or by 
using a different output of a 
multiple output PROM, you 
can program the unused ad- 
dresses, 

Expanding the Basic PROM 
Generator 

Fig, 4 shows a modified 
Fig, 2. The circuit has been 
modified to use a larger 
PROM (more outputs). The 
start, clock, and tone genera- 
tor circuits are identical to 
the basic generator circuit- 
Now, however, instead of 
using a single output PROM, I 
am using a four output 
PROM. The 7493 binary 
counters count and address 
the PROM as before, but a 



new counter has been added 
so that when dock count 256 
occurs, the PROM address is 
back at zero and pin 12 of 
IC7 goes high, causing the 
second output of the PROM 
to be connected to the tone 
generator through IC8, IC8, a 
741 53, can be thought of as a 
four position electronic rota- 
ry switch; the position of the 
switch is selected by IC7. On 
clock count 512, the PROM 



address is back at zero again 
and output three is tied to 

the tone generator. Likewise 
at address 768; output four is 
tied to the tone generator and 
the PROM is at address zero 
again. This scheme allows 
sending 1024 bits of data in 
an unbroken stream. Reset- 
ting is done as before by 
decoding the reset address 
line with a NAND gate and 
taking the reset line of the 
start flip-flop low. 

RTTY Message Generator 

To build a RTTY message 
generator you can use either 
the circuit of Fig. 2 or that of 
Fig. 4. Every RTTY character 
consists of seven parts: a 22 
ms start pulse, five 22 ms 
data pulses, and a 31 ms stop 
pulse. The total time for a 60 
wpm RTTY character is the 
sum of these pulses, which is 
163 ms. By adjusting the 
period of IC2 to 1 1 ms and 
letting two addresses repre- 
sent the stop pulse, a RTTY 
character can be sent in 165 
ms. Because with this timing 
the stop pulse is 2 ms longer 
than normal, the generator 
will be sending at about 1% 
slower than 60 wpm. I doubt 
that you will be able lo see 
any difference. The longer 
stop pulse does not affect the 
TTY timing because if no 
character is sent, the machine 



dress 


Output state 


Represents: 







1 


space tone 


(start) 


1 


1 


space tone 


1 start J 


2 


1 


space tone 


(data) 


3 


1 


Space tone 


(data) 


4 





mark tone 


(data) 


5 





mark tone 


(data) 


6 


1 


space tone 


(data) 


7 


1 


space tone 


(data) 


S 





mark tone 


(dam) 


9 





mark tone 


(data) 


10 


1 


space tone 


{data) 


11 


1 


space tone 


(date) 


12 





mark tone 


(stop) 


13 





mark tone 


(stop) 


14 





mark tone 


(stop) 



«"M"» 



( 



! 



SPfcCt 

STlflf 



t 



11*1 



■AUK 
DAT* 
11«* 



! 



! 



SHCf 
&AT1 

11*1 



DATA 



io ii a £i 



space 

DATA 
«*5 



UAAft 

STOP 



Table 3* Address locations and memory content to send the 
RTTY character /?, Note that each RTTY character requires 
fifteen addresses. 



97 



Configuration 


Bits 


Maximum 


no. of RTTY 


32 x 8 


256 




17 


256 x 1 


256 




17 


64 x 3 


512 




34 


256 x 4 


1024 




68 


512 x 4 


2048 




136 


512 x 8 


4096 




273 



Fig. 4. An expanded identifier. This circuit features adjustable 
speed, adjustable tone, and up to 1024 bits of memory. The 
PROMpinout is for a Harris J 024, 256 x 4 PROM. 



sees a constant stop signal. 
Either the two-tone generator 
of Fig. 3 can be used or you 
can use your own AFSK 
oscillator. Table 3 gives a 
programming truth table for 
sending a RTTY R, As you 
will notice, because every 
RTTY character is of the 
same fixed length, it will take 
fifteen addresses to send a 
RTTY character. There is m> 
need for spacing between 
characters due to the existing 
start and stop pulses. Table 4 
shows the maximum number 
of characters you can store in 
some of the available PROMs. 

Construction 

The layout and wiring for 



these circuits is not critical. 
All voltage lines should be 
bypassed where the lines 
enter the board and at several 
points on the board, directly 
at the Vcc pins of the ICs. If 
you plan on using this circuit 
as a repeater identifier, shield- 
ing the whole circuit board 
may be necessary to keep rf 
from triggering the circuit or 
causing the counters to count 
extra counts, 

I have built one of the 
identifiers using wire wrap 
and two using circuit stick. I 
would suggest that unless you 
like the messy job of making 
printed circuit boards, you 
use circuit stick. Circuit stick 
is adhesive-backed copper 



Fig. 6. This is the layout of the circuit in Fig, 2 when using 
circuit stick. 

patterns that are used with 
predrilled boards. Patterns are 
available for all kinds of cir- 
cuit elements* I also suggest 
that you use sockets for the 
fCs. The extra cost of the tC 
socket will be forgiven the 
first time you have to un- 
solder a soldered-in IC, Fig. 5 
shows the layout I used for 
the two circuit stick boards. 
Wire wrap is great if you can 
afford the cost of the wrap 
gun and wire wrap board. For 
the ham interested in only an 
occasional circuit board, I 
don't suggest you invest in a 
wire wrap outfit. 

















T40O 












IC2 
355 












T€13 












M»3 












noa 












ICC 

s» 
•wo 

2MZZ2Z 











Conclusion 

The most obvious use for 
this circuit is as a repeater 
identifier. But because of the 
versatility of the PROM, this 
circuit can have hundreds of 
uses. Some examples are: 

For the repeater — auto- 
matically dialing police and 
fire phone numbers in follow- 
ing with the 911 plan; auto- 



matically bringing up the 
repeater and sending an alert 
message in the case of some- 
one breaking into the repeal- 
er site. 

For the ham shack — an 
automatic station identifier; 
automatic CO caller; auto- 
matically send QSL informa- 
tion; touchtone frequently 
dialed telephone numbers. 

For the RTTY station - 
all of the above plus as an 

RY generator, the quick 
brown fox generator, and to 
store RTTY pictures. ■ 



hAMs' hEAVEN JN '77 llAMs' llEAVEN JN '77 



rs 
rs 



SAME LOW PRICES!! 





APRIL 29-30 MAY 1,1977 




FABULOUS PROGRAMS 
GIANT FLEA MARKET 
EXHIBITS 



NEW PRODUCTS 
TECHNICAL SESSIONS 
ARRL AND FCC FORUMS 
SPECIAL GROUP MEETINGS 



LADIES' PROGRAMS 
AWARDS 
TRANSMITTER HUNTS 




GRAND BANQUET SATURDAY EVENING 

If you have registered within the last 3 years you will receive a 
program and information brochure to be mailed March 7, 1977. 

FOR SPECIAL HOTEL/MOTEL RATES AND RESERVATIONS INFORMATION WRITE: 

DAYTON HAMVENTION. P.O. BOX 44 
DAYTON, OHIO 4S401 

SEE YOU AT THE WORLD'S LARGEST HAM CONVENTION! 




vj 

vj 



hAMs' hEAVEN IN '77 llAIVIs' hEAVEN IN '77 



98 









(!) 

IB 




Tk& qo awfwkvw, d& awtiftkiiuf 






sv* 



,taJ2 



2M FM T/iaHActwtJi System / 



'V«r?"J' ti*?.?'*! *L+* 






AC-7 

8A Supply 

(12A Max J 



'*'" £'£"" 



AC 1 AC Supply Module 
$49.95 



SM-10 
REMOTE 
"S" Meter 
$29.95 





'^-^ 



SNC WHIP 



BP-1 Portable Pkg. 

(net: H.D. Nicad 

Btry. Module, 

Char gar 

Shoulder Strap, & 

19" Whip 

$89.95 



Now there's no need to buy a mobile rig, a base rig, and a HT/Portable unit. The 
SPEC COMM 512A/560A does rt all - with the help of its unique plug-in "Snap-Pack" 
Modules! This extremely versatile system permits quick, convenient, and easy expansion 
of Che basic transceiver's capabilities, 

in the car, (w/ the BA-1), it's a 25 Wt. Mobile unit. Small and light enough, (about 3 
lbs.), 10 take with you to avoid theft. Later, snap-off the BA-1 Module, and snap-on the 
BP-1 NICAD Battery Pack for all-day operation as a High Power 5 Wt. Portable! (NOT 
the usual 1 or 2 wts.) It's actual fy lighter than most 7-2 Wt. portables, even though our 
battery has 3X the capacity of any competitor. In the fixed station - snap-on the AC~1 
supply module - or, use the BA-1 Amp, with the AC-7 Supply. Also, the SM-10 
(illuminated} S Meter unit is now available — to peak your beam antenna, or, mount on 
your car's console, dash, or steering column! 

For the ultimate in versatility - add our PLL SC1S00 Synthesizer. Over 1800 
channel combination si 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



• Super-Hot, Super-Sharp Receiver! 0.3 uV/20 dB 
Qt. -90 dB @ ±30 kHz. (Fine for "Splinter 
Channel" operation.) Sharper fltr. available. 

•Outstanding Rcvr, Dynamic Range for excellent 
Inter mod St Overload rejection, 

• Famous SPEC COMM audio quality — on both trans- 
mit St receive. Excellent fidelity & "punch." 

• Finest Quality throughout. Made in USA, 

• Si2e: xcvt\ — 2y*X6X8". Modules - Apx, 
2X2^X6", 

• SC512A - 12 Chan. - S249.95 

• SC560A - 6 Chan. - $224.95 

Available Through your dealer. (Or direct if no dlr, in 
your area.) Send for Data Sheet. 



SCR 1000 REPEATER - THE DREAM MACHINE 

$&tftmo£itz,A^ S&W Destined toBiJtBmw 

cut IndtiAtJrtf Sttancfajtd! 



FEATURES 

G Full Metering of critical levels. 

□ Front Panel Control for timers & AF 
levels. 

□ Lighted push-buttons for control/test 
functions & status indicators 

□ State of the Art CMOS control logic & 
timers — No Relays! 

□ Built-in IDer - field programmable. 
Fully adjustable* 

a Exclusive Spec Comm MOSFET/Hot 
Carrier Diode revr* front end — greatly 
reduces 'desense* & IM problems' 

E Built-in AC Supply w/instam btry. 
switchover 

□ Supplied with .0005% Sentry xtaJs and 
a Turner local mic* 

Jacks Provided for Remote Control, 
Auto-Patch, DC our., AF in/out, COR 
Switch, etc. 

□ True FM —For ftpt. Audio so good. It 
'sounds like direct"! 




. 30 Watts 



**. 



For the 

repeater group 

that demands the best! 

The SCR f 000 is designed to be 

the finest repeater on the amateur 

market. It is engineered for long-term reliability, 

ease ot operation Si maintenance. Only the best quality, 

conservatively rated components are used. Send for 

further info. Soid Factory Direct only. $899.95 



Specifications 

RF Output . . 

infinite VSWH proof 

Sensitivity 0.3u V/20dB Qt. 

Selectivity *6dB @ ±5.5 kHz, 

-58dB@ ±15 kHz; 

-90dB @ 130 kHz. 
Desense /Over load ... VY/1uV de- 
sired signal, desense just begins @ 
approx. 50,0O0uV @ ±600kHz. 
Spurious Response . . . -70dB rnin. 



Also Available: REPEATER 
BOARDS - SCR 100 Rcvr.; SCT100 
Xmtr.; CTC100 Control, Timer & 
COR; ID100 IDer; BA10 25 Wt. 
Amp. All state of the art. Send for 
more info. 





SPECTRUM COMMUNICATIONS 



BOX 140, WORCESTER PA 19490 (215) 631-1710 



David L. Dabbs K8NQN 
6612 Pleasant Street 
Cincinnati OH 45227 



FCC -Approved 



Microprocessor 



- - use it for the code test 



Would you believe that 
y«iu can buiid your 
own portable semi-solid state 
minicomputer, take it to an 
FCC examination, and use it 
with the inspector's blessing? 
You may think there is some 
catch to this, but your curios- 
ity is aroused, Or perhaps you 
think, "Code's a cinch, so 
who needs it?" Well, let's just 
listen up here around 50.4 
MHz for a minute. 

"Yeah, Al, I went down 
to the candy company 
a couple ul Limes to try 
for the General, but I 
finally decided that this 
class of license is 
nothing to be ashamed 
of. We got it pretty 
good here on six 
me tc rs. It's not 
crowded. In fact, the 



band really needs the 
activity. We're perform- 
ing a public service, the 
way I look at it. Any- 
way, cee-dubble-yew 
isn't really like talking 
to somebody. The low 
bands are way too 
crowded now with all 
those sidewinders 
squawking away on top 
of each other down 
there. Yes sir, six is the 
only band where you 
can still have a good 
old-fashioned QSO any 
more,' 1 

Now let's read the mail on 
the repeaters. Sounds like the 
gang on 16/76 is heatedly 
discussing mobile rig rip-offs. 
Gee, what happened? Bill just 
asked Stan if he had worked 
any of that hot DX on 



twenty meters last night and 
nearly everyone destinated or 
got a land line all of a sudden. 
Aw, come on, why would 
they be embarrassed? 

OK, I admit it, I was one 
of those dudes until about a 
year ago when I rediscovered 
73 Magazine. Wow, there was 
a bright new world out there! 
Wayne Green had built a 
bridge which made interna- 
tional Morse code at 13 wpm 
attainable. I could stop pre- 
tending I was as real a ham as 
those others. That inspired 
the experiments which led to 
Cudebuster. You can build a 
similar system, and there's no 
reason why it can't lake you 
on to 20 wpm and the Biggie 
if that's what you really 
want, I wasn't kidding about 
Codcbuster. This is actually a 
construction article, so let's 



gel started. 

A black box of any con- 
venient size will be appro- 
priate for housing the unit. 
just think of it — that black 
box with its sophisticated 
microcircuitry smoothly con* 
verting audio input into video 
and graphic output. When 
properly programmed, the 
bpeed of translation is limited 
only by the physical response 
time of the graphics drive. 
Now that wasn't hard, was it? 

Nikola Tesla, it is told, 
designed his ac motors and 
generators by carefully assem- 
bling scale models in his 
mind. When they were later 
built, the real prototypes 

were found to perform in 
every respect as Testa had 
imagined they would. Even 
the patterns of wear on the 
moving parts had been pre- 
dicted. 

It is apparent that each of 
us has a built-in bioelectronic 
microprocessor of fabulous 
capability, Each second it 
performs routinely feats of 
information processing and 
retrieval unequalled by the 
largest solid state machines. 
Some of its input channels 
haven't even been identified 
yet. What we've done is to 
dedicate one tiny partition of 
it to serve temporarily as our 
black box. Building Cude- 
buster is a snap. Now all we 
have to do is program it 
properly. 

Operating as designed in 
its normal state, our master 
computer should be as capa- 
ble as any physical device of 
executing flawlessly and 
instantaneous! ' any desired 
function. We simply feed in a 
lookup table of sound equiv- 
alents for the various char- 
acters and we're in business, 
Dit dah is A, dah dit dit is B, 
and so forth. Did I hear you 
say that it isn't that simple? 

All right, why not? There 
are two reasons, basically. 
One is scattered attention. 
The input data gets mixed 
with so many thousands of 
bits of other data each second 
thai our computer gets con- 
fused. The other reason is the 
existence of many levels of 
previous programming, much 



too 



of it contradictory. This is 
called conditioning, and 
unfortunately most of the 
documentation for it is not 
readily available. That makes 
debugging something of a 
challenge at times. But 
despite all this, it's not diffi- 
cult to prove that the inher- 
ent functional capability is 
there. 

Experi mentally, normal 
subjects like you and I have 
been asked to watch a pas- 
senger train as it roars 
through a suburban station in 
a featureless blur of motion. 
Later when their minds were 
properly relaxed, they could 
recall in complete detail what 
was seen in each window of 
the passing train. Features of 
the passengers, their hair and 
clothing, could all be ac- 
curately described. Verifica- 
tion was provided by com- 
parison with slow motion 
movies or independent ac- 
counts of other observers. 
Explain this however you 
will, our minds can be shown 
to possess fantastic capability 
when allowed to perform as 
designed. Obviously there's 
no problem with the com- 
puter itself. It is the program- 
ming and output that will 
make our Codebuster func- 
tion properly. 

Although we began a small 
debugging operation earlier in 
the article, it will be neces- 
sary to go much farther. Let's 
have a look at that old pro- 
gram. Who told you that code 
was hard? When did you 
decide that you'd never be 
able to copy 13 (or 20) words 
per minute? How many times 
can you remember saying, 'I 
hate code' 7 Are these atti- 
tudes of any help to you 
now? Perhaps the time has 
come to put that old program 
out to pasture and replace it 
with a new one. 

Code is very much alive. 
Most resistance to it appears 
to stem simply from unfamil- 
iarity with it. You could 
begin to think about its 
advantages and usefulness. 
Thumb through a copy of the 
Callbook some time. It is fat 
with the names of thousands 
of hams throughout the 



world who have used and 
enjoyed CW. Listen to CW on 
the ham bands or commercial 
transmissions on a general 
coverage receiver. Nobody 
makes any of those people 
use that mode of communica- 
tion. So whether you intend 
to use code or not, deliber- 
ately reprogram your attitude 
toward iL And know, deeply 
and firmly, that what hun- 
dreds of thousands of others 
have done, you can do — and 
will! 

Any successful endeavor 
requires first of all a clearly 
defined goal, We need to 
visualize exactly what we 
want to accomplish. And 
secondly, we must generate 
and maintain a strong desire 
to reach thai goal. We can't 
just pretend that we want to 
learn code- If hangups or 
attitudes of self-depreciation 
stand in the way, we want to 
recognize and change them. 
There are new methods, new 
tools, new FCC examinations, 
and we need a positive and 
confident attitude to go with 
them. You want to be able to 
send and receive 13 or 20 
words per minute so bad that 
you can taste it. Good, that's 
the operating system for the 
Codebuster. Keep it that way. 

If you have ever had any 
kind of amateur license > you 
were able to send and receive 
at least 5 words per minute. 
That may be an asset. But 
you could have learned code 
at that speed by sight. Those 
little tables of letters fol- 
lowed by dots and dashes are 
murder. If you never studied 
one, thank your lucky stars. 
We want to establish an auto- 
matic motor response to an 
audio signal — not translate 
the sound for each character 
through some visual delay cir- 
cuit. A is simply the sound 
dit dah, nothing more. Hear 
it, write it. This way we place 
no artificial limitation on the 
speed of comprehension and 
your Codebuster will func* 
tion as it should from the 
beginning. 

Many years ago, an old- 
time railroad telegrapher 
confided to me the secret of 
his expertise. "It's easy/' he 



said. "1 just read a stream of 
beautiful purple characters 
which passes across my 
mind's eye like a tape." He 
had created a Codebuster in 
his mind and it did all the 
work for him. He pro- 
grammed his computer cre- 
atively in a way that was 
efficient and esthetically 
pleasing to him. Now purple 
letters may not appeal to 
you. You may prefer direct 
graphic output via the old 
pencil. But you may find that 
some form of visualization 
helps you to concentrate, at 
least in the beginning. So 
experiment with it if you 
like. 

Since you're going to be 
copying code at 13 wpm, it 
makes sense to use instruc- 
tional material in which 
components of the characters 
are spaced at that speed. This 
avoids having to relearn the 
code at each successively 
higher speed. It is a good idea 
to review from the beginning 
anyway, since most people 
have neglected numbers and 
punctuation. For this reason, 
an investment in the 13 code 
tapes, including the 5 wpm 
learning tape, is very worth- 
while. If you think that this 
new system is only Wayne 
Green's advertising gimmick, 
perish the thought. It's the 
biggest advance in learning 
code since Morse invented it. 
It even worked for me! 

Have you considered the 
optimum form of output for 
your Codebuster? Please, 
seriously consider writing the 
characters. Printing is quite 
difficult for most people at 
13 wpm and next to impos- 
sible at 20. On the other 
hand, ordinary handwriting is 
smooth and easy even at 25 
wpm. You will never regret 
learning to write code and the 
FCC could care less. They 
won't even read your copy 
under the new system. So 
why place an unnecessary 
limitation on the graphic 
response time of your ma- 
chine? 

The first sessions will be 
fun. In a relaxed way, build 
your mental table of sound 
equivalents and write the 



characters as you listen to 
them. Soon you'll move on to 
the 6 wpm tape and be copy- 
ing code groups, at least some 
of them, pretty well. But 
code groups don't seem to be 
much fun. Thirteen wpm still 
sounds like white noise to 
you — all you can make out is 
a period now and then. And 
you just heard Joe calling 
QRZ on the repeater. Hold 
on there — the voltage on 
your ICs is dropping. We'd 
better check the power sup- 
ply. 

You know that it takes 
voltage and current flowing in 
a circuit to produce power. If 
our resistance is too high, 
nothing can be accomplished. 
So whenever we detect resis- 
tance rising, we must increase 
the voltage and reduce the 
resistance. We need, in other 
words, both a clearly defined 
goal and a powerful incentive 
to reach it. Remembering 
these principles can save us a 
lot of sweat and tears. The 
primary challenge for most 
people studying code, aside 
from arranging regular study 
periods, seems to lie in this 
area. You can grit your teeth, 
get out the old horsewhip and 
do it the hard way, or you 
can do it the easy way and 
enjoy it 

Code study will become a 
habit in a surprisingly short 
time if you make a regular 
time for it each day. Many 
people find it convenient 
right after the evening code 
practice transmission of 
W1 AW. Practice less often 
than every other day may 
make the road a long one for 
you. Once you begin to copy 
smoothly at any speed, you 
should find the period pleas- 
ant in that it mobilizes 
enough attention to relax 
your mind. But to get back to 
that power supply, let's con- 
sider some ways that you can 
crank up your voltage and 
decrease your resistance. 

Why not arrange some 
activities that you enjoy to 
serve as rewards? Listen to 
some SSB on the low bands, 
for instance, and frankly 
admit to yourself how much 
you would like to talk to 



101 



those hams. Thumb through 
the ads in 73 and drool over 
some new gear. Picture your 
dream shack in your mind. 
YouYe sitting there working a 
beautiful YL (or a handsome 
OM, if you are a YL) in some 
exotic QTH halfway around 
the world - or maybe in the 
next town. n U HAVE A 
NICE FIST BUT PSE QRS," 
you copy. Don't laugh. 
You've got to psych yourself 
up a little. After all, if you 
don't, who will? So invent 
some incentives. 

One ham who finally made 
General after a real struggle at 
an age when most people 
wouldn't have tried is fond of 
telling newcomers, "If you 
want that ticket bad enough, 
you'll get it!" Well put, Mac, 
Wanting it badly enough is 
indeed the secret. So want it. 
Want it so bad you can taste 
it* And keep on wanting it 
whiie you prepare to get it. 
Isn't that easier than a nega- 
tive, half-hearted approach 
which may get lost in the 
QRM halfway through the 
schedule? Start saving for 
that low band rig. Plan the 
antennas you'll put up. 
Dream a little — or a lot — 
but engineer it to stimulate 
rather than distract from 
your code practice, 

OK, we've gotten over the 
first barrier and have pro- 
gressed right along. Straight 
text at a challenging speed 
has been alternated with code 
groups and reversed text. You 
can copy most of what you 
hear in the Novice bands, and 
isn't it swell that the Techs 
can finally get in there and 
increase their code speed with 
on -the -air practice? Or can 
they? 

Let's be honest with our* 
selves now, Increasing profi- 
ciency requires challenge. Do 
you deliberately work some- 
one who is too fast for you, 
or are you embarrassed to ask 
for repeats? " SORRY, BAD 
QRMOM, 73," And consider 
the format of a typical 
Novice QSO. Everything but 
the handle and address identi- 
cal each time, and those are 
sent three times at about four 
words per minute, You could 



work stations that are com- 
fortable for you to copy for 
years without increasing your 
speed at all. So it will take 
regular schedules with 
practice material being sent at 
higher speeds and regular ses- 
sions with your tapes to do 
the job. It's great that you 
enjoy CW QSGs, but use 
them as a reward after a solid 
study session instead of a 
delusion. 

Now youYe copying 10 
solid, and 80% or so at 13 
wpm. But in the last two 
weeks it doesn't seem that 
you've made much progress. 
In fact, some nights you are 
actually worse, and you're 
getting discouraged, Is it that 
dreaded plateau you've heard 
about? Don't worry. That 
used to happen with the old 
methods of studying code 
when it had to be r el earned at 
each higher speed, But char- 
acters built with 13 wpm 
spacing circumvent this diffi- 
culty. Let's keep up the 
incentives whiie we trouble- 
shoot the problem. 

Is your practice challeng- 
ing but not exhausting? Do 
you always follow it with 
some pleasant activity as a 
reward? It might precede 
your nightly QSO with John 
on six meters, or a TV pro- 
gram you are fond of watch- 
ing. Or maybe it's that cold 
807 and a bedtime snack that 
you look forward to. This 
kind of human engineering 
will help you over the rough 
spots. Don't force practice to 
the point where you build up 
more resistance than you can 
handle. Analyze the problem. 
You're only going to have to 
copy five minutes of code for 
the test. The length of time 
you can copy without strain 
will increase along with your 
proficiency. Stop and relax 
whenever you feel yourself 
tensing up. Take some deep 
breaths. Try to keep it pleas- 
ant, 

Your progress may not be 
even. With most people it's 
not. There are some pro- 
cedures you can try if it 
seems slow. Listen to very 
fast code as though it were 
music, code at a speed much 



faster than you can begin to 
copy. Pretty soon you will 
start to recognize a character 
here and there. Some people 
begin each session with a few 
minutes of fast code even 
though they can copy only 
20 or 30% of it. Then when 
actual practice is started, it 
sounds very slow and lei- 
surely by contrast. 

Think code whenever you 
can, at least several times a 
day. Read license plates or 
street signs into code while 
driving to the salt mine in the 
morning, What would the 
menu sound like in code at 
lunch? Relate code to things 
you do each day so that it 
becomes part of your life 
rather than some minor ex- 
traneous activity. And visual- 
ize yourself, particularly just 
before you go to sleep, easily 
and enjoyably copying code 
at your desired speed. This 
need take only a few seconds, 
but it does a great job of 
programming Codebuster at a 
subconscious level. 

Now we are ready to make 
the final push, to surmount 
the last barrier. To do this, 
we will employ fast code as a 
diagnostic tool, A warning 
here — this will cause you to 
memorize and render worth- 
less as practice material what- 
ever you use. Therefore work 
with only a short portion of 
your code group tape at 14 
wpm, or better yet some 
other similar material. Do the 
best you can to copy It. Then 
listen to this section over 
again as many times as neces- 
sary to correct your errors of 
omission and commission, 
noting each one. You'll prob- 
ably find, as I did, that only a 
few characters are giving you 
all the trouble. When you hit 
one of these and aren't cer- 
tain of it, you hesitate to 
think about it and then skip 
several succeeding characters. 
Once these troublemakers are 
identified, you can work on 
them specifically, in a short 
time, you'll be copying code 
consistently at a much higher 
speed. 

Each person has some 
individual hangups on certain 
characters, I had difficulty 



telling B from D and H from 
S. Many people find 7 and 8 
confusing, or 2 and 3. Charac- 
ters such as Z or Y are Jess 
often used in straight text, so 
they are practiced less. 
Code groups which use each 
character with the same fre- 
quency overcome this liabil- 
ity, Once you have identified 
your particular stumbling 
blocks, spend about half of 
your practice time working 
exclusively on them. 

Now don't tell me you 
can't stand to listen to your 
own sending. After all, other 
people will have to listen to 
it, including the examiner. 
You know that speech is 
improved by feedback in sales 
training and speech therapy. 
The same method will im- 
prove your code sending. You 
will need a chance to listen 
carefully to these particular 
characters and analyze them 
so that you can tell them 
apart. The only way to do 
this is to break out your key 
and record them on tape. 
Begin at a speed which you 
can ordinarily copy. Since 
these characters are probably 
the same ones you were 
having trouble sending, you'll 
bag two birds with the same 
stone, 

If it is H and S which you 
find confusing, send HHHH 
S S S S. Repeat each char- 
acter you find difficult sev- 
eral times to afford ample 
opportunity to study it, and 
group confusing characters 
together. Copy this tape for 
several days, until you are 
thoroughly bored with it. 
Then mix all these characters 
up on a new tape at a slightly 
higher speed. Work on this 
one until you have them all 
down pat. Increase the speed 
again, adding other characters 
that might be similar to them. 
Construct code groups in 
which at least half of the 
characters consist of those 
still giving you trouble. You 
can repeat the diagnostic 
process to identify these as 
necessary . 

As you send and listen to 
them, note the relationship 
between the characters in the 
following groups: 



102 



A R L AS AR 

NDX/ 
SV3SK 

AUV4 
MGQ, 

TM08 
H4 

A WP 

TNDB6- 

E I S H5 

N KY 

GZ7, 

AWJ 1 

PX YQ 

IUF/2 

7 

NKC. 
RLU F 

Using this approach, ana- 
lyzing your hangups and 

making specific study tapes 
to overcome them, your 
improvement will be fast and 
continuous. If you are work- 
ing wilh a buddy, so much 
the better. You can send each 
other this type of material. 

By now you copy all char- 
acters equally well and your 
code speed is really up there, 
but the problem is con- 
sistency. You can copy ha!f a 
minute or so perfectly but 
then something happens and 
you miss several words. Or 
you can find yourself writing 
modulator when the word 
being sent turns out to be 
modulation. The name of this 
game is anticipation, and it 
can be a problem indeed* The 
mind tries to avoid effort by 
guessing from the context 
what is coming next. When 
that turns out to be wrong, 
confusion results and charac- 
ters are missed until the copy 
can be picked up again. Try- 
ing to correct the missed 
copy only makes things 
worse. You arc reading the 
message instead of copying 
the code. Your job is to 
disconnect the analytical 
process temporarily and let 
your Codebuster produce 
copy automatically. 

During World War Jl, 
Algerians were trained to 
copy code in English al- 
though they did not under- 
stand the language. This is the 
process which must occur in 
your mind initially. Compre- 
hension while receiving wilt 
develop later on as the pro- 



cess becomes an automatic 
response. It is like being able 
to talk to someone while driv- 
ing a car. At this point, 
comprehension is not the 
objective. You can always 
read your copy later. Since 
anticipation is a serious liabil- 
ity with straight text, work 
with code groups or reversed 
text to overcome it. 

If you are able to receive 
Wl AW, their daily code trans- 
mission can furnish you with 
good practice if a few lids 
stay off the frequency. All 
too occasionally they send 
text in which the order of the 
words is reversed. This is far 
superior to straight text for 
practice and easier to take 
than code groups. Tapes of 
such material can be used 
several times, in contrast to 
straight text. So If you can, 
get someone to send you 
reversed text. Make your own 
tapes if you have to. But stay 
away from copying straight 
text until you have whipped 
anticipating. 

Since anticipation is a 
process of thought, we can 
devise methods to prevent it. 
Some people find it helpful 
to keep their attention 
focused on a blank screen In 
their mind. When a letter is 
completed, it appears there 
and they copy it. Or you 
might try to become aware of 
the stimulus-response process 
as it occurs. Instead of focus- 
ing your eyes on your copy, 
direct your attention internal- 
ly to Codebuster wherever 
you feel it is located. With 
your eyes unfocused you can 
still write a straight tine on 
the paper, but can't read it. 
Like the operators in Algeria, 
you are not concerned with 
its meaning at that time. You 
hear it and you write it. 

Learn to maintain an 
intense state of detached 
curiosity about the next 
character you are going to 
hear. Be willing for it to be 
whatever it will be. Simply let 
it be written effortlessly and 
instantaneously as soon as it 
is complete. No thoughts dis- 
tract your attention. If you 
miss a character, just let it 
pass and wait placidly for the 



next one. You are, for the 
moment, The Codebuster, 
efficiently transforming audio 
signals into graphic output. 
Once you get the hang of 
this, believe it or not you will 
actually enjoy copying code. 
Then as your proficiency 
increases and the process 
becomes fully automatic, you 
will find yourself understand- 
ing what you are receiving 
without anticipating it. 

At this point you've 
almost got it made. Straight 
copy at 15 wpm Is a breeze 
and you're ready for the code 
test. Or are you? Let's not 
kid ourselves at this stage of 
the game. In the first place, 
the FCC will not send you 
cream-puff straight text like 
you get from WIAW. And 
you won't be in your quiet 
familiar room. You'll be in a 
large, strange room listening 
to a tone higher or lower than 
you prefer from a speaker at 
some distance from you, 
probably a little nervous and 
surrounded by other people. 
Have you given yourself any 
practice under such condi- 
tions? Your actual code speed 
is not what you can copy 
with easy material occasional- 
ly under ideal conditions. It is 
what you can copy with diffi- 
cult material consistently 
under somewhat adverse 
conditions. So take your 
recorder with you on trips 
and practice in a motel. Copy 
code at work during your 
lunch break. Vary the BFQ 
note frequently. Turn on the 
TV or radio in the back- 
ground. Check your speed 
when you're tired or upset, 
and with other people 
around. You will know 
whether you're ready or not. 
Many people have fallen 
into the trap of having mem- 
orized their practice material. 
You may have recorded a 
large collection of tapes and 
used them only infrequently, 
but your computer never 
forgets. At a subconscious 
level you are familiar with 
material you have only heard 
once. Don't fool yourself into 
thinking that you arc better 
than you are. You are just as 
good as you can copy new. 



unfamiliar material. Even 
reversed text becomes famil- 
iar after several hearings, so 
don't neglect the code 
groups. They are your insur- 
ance and the ultimate test of 
your ability. 

Make sure you can copy 
material sent at several 
speeds. A number of people 
who could copy 15 or even 
18 wpm solidly were unpleas- 
antly surprised to find that 
they were very inconsistent at 
13 wpm. The less challenging 
slower speed gave their minds 
time to anticipate. So while 
the fastest progress seems to 
be made practicing with 
material at a speed high 
enough to be quite challeng- 
ing but not discouraging, it is 
a good idea to spend part of 
your time working at the 
speed at which you will be 
examined. 

So it's back to the code 
groups for the last push. 
When you can copy that 14 
wpm tape consistently under 
less lhan ideal conditions, 
then you are really ready, and 
not before. Of course, the 
experience of taking the code 
test can be valuable if your 
location is convenient. You're 
not even out $4 now if you 
don't make it. On the other 
hand, it can be discouraging 
to fail in public. You know 
your own reactions and will 
have to weigh the pros and 
cons for yourself. 

Speaking of examinations, 
how do you feel about that? 
If just thinking about it 
makes you apprehensive, you 
need some practice. The next 
time you prepare to copy 5 
minutes at 13 wpm, imagine 
yourself taking the FCC 
exam, Feel how important it 
is that you pass. Although 
you have been programming 
yourself to copy code in a 
relaxed manner, an occasional 

session which is deliberately 
mocked up in this way will 
prevent nervousness on the 

big day. Others around you 
will be nervous and that can 
be catching. So practk . 
"taking the code test." Get 
someone else to time you. 
And when you no longer feel 
tense in this situation, you 



103 



will be cool, caim and col- 
lected during the real exami- 
nation. 

With comprehension test- 
ing for code receiving profi- 
ciency scheduled to be 
adopted by the FCC in 
1977, your goal should be 
somewhat closer. Although 
designed to permit rapid grad* 
ing of code tests by machine 
or template, the new exam- 
ination will be easier on 
applicants who miss an occa- 
sional letter. No more will 65 
successive error-free charac- 
ters be the criterion for pass- 
ing, but 16 out of 20 correct 
answers to TRUE/FALSE 
questions based upon the 
material sent in five minutes. 
Numbers, of course, will 
continue to be crucial. 

What can you expect when 
you take the new code lest? 
In the past, a disaster or 
accident of some type has 
often been the subject, liber- 
ally sprinkled with figures 
such as latitude and longi- 
tude, dates and times. Des- 
criptions of equipment and 
distances might appear. The 



story may be interrupted 
with Q signals or an abrupt 
change in subject, as though a 
transmission were suddenly 
subject to QSB or QRM. You 
can assume that you will en- 
counter the question mark 
and slant bar as well as the 
usual periods and commas. 

You will be allowed to 
copy five minutes of code at 
the speed being tested and 
can then refer to your paper 
to answer the true or false 
questions which will sub- 
sequently be distributed. The 
usual practice of sending one 
minute of code for tone and 
volume adjustment ^an be 
used for warmup. You may 
be able to deduce a word 
even though some characters 
are missed, but copying 
numbers wrong will be more 
serious. Expect the questions 
to be paraphrased from the 
texL An example? Supposing 
you copy, "The transmitter is 
located 29 feet from the 
antenna/' A question might 
be, "The antenna is located 
28 feet from the transmit- 
ter/ 1 You would mark the 



answer FALSE. 

Knowing what to expect 
will foster a calm and con- 
fident attitude conducive to 
good performance. But 
there's one last bit of pro- 
gramming that remains to be 
done. The Examiner! How do 
you visualize this individual? 
Is your mental image that of 
a terrible ogre, all-powerful, 
breathing fire while laser 
beams shoot from his eyes, 
gleefully chortling as he fails 
one hapless applicant after 
another? 

Let's do something about 
this right now. Of course you 
can expect the examiner to 
be efficient and unbiased, but 
altogether human. He'll prob- 
ably be courteous and hope- 
ful that everyone is prepared 
to pass. Consider that he is 
there to help you, to make it 
possible for you to achieve 
that goal of a higher class of 
license. And it is your taxes 
that pay for it all. The image 
of the steely-eyed govern- 
ment inspector may sell 
Wayne's 14 wpm tape, but it 
won't do much for your 



sweaty palms. So expect to 
see a human being just doing 
his job, and that's what you 
will find. And when it's all 
over, he may even seem like a 
pretty nice guy. Mine was. 
After he said, "Congratula- 
tions, you've passed/ 1 I told 
him that he didn't look very 
steely-eyed. He smiled and 
said, "We're trying to change 
our image." 

By communicating those 
techniques which have proven 
most helpful to some people, 
it is hoped that the path may 
be made a bit smoother for 
others. Certainly no special 
expertise is pretended. Each 
individual must find through 
experiment what works best 
for him or her in building 
their Codebuster. 

To those fellow hams who 
shared, knowingly and un- 
knowingly, their travails and 
triumphs, I express sincere 
thanks. And to those readers 
who are inspired to challenge 
the paper tiger whose name is 
Thirteen, good luck and 
Godcodespeed, See you on 
the low bands. ■ 




au 3:00215 dot 

J V d m m-m 

./' 1 

1 

L* t.- i 1 ^.<1 :- r-> :. j. 
from page 61 

"THANK YOU" 

I have seen many betters in 73 
which mentioned the number and 
quality of construction projects. The 
writers, however, fail to mention how 
much of the material for those pro 
fects is available from 73 advertisers. 
In the Holiday issue, I counted 17 
suppliers of components for "home 
brew" projects. This does not include 
kits and parts of systems (Robot, 
Seals, Paia for instance), t believe this 
is more than the other 3 magazines 
combined II get all 4 ham magazines, 
but have not counted). 

Another big plus is the arrangement 
Of the advertising. It is something of 
interest to the average reader, and so 
you distribute it among the articles. In 
turning from one article to another, it 
is easy to stop and see just what this 
ad is about When advertisers are 
pushed to the back (the usual place), 
very few people will bother to look 
them up. 

One policy you have which merits a 



big "thank you" is that of putting all 
of each article together. This probably 
helps more with construction articles 
than it would (for instance) with 
fiction, as the reader will find more 
need for referring to "the first para- 
graph" or "Fig. 1." 

At times I do not agree with your 
editorial opinion, but at least you do 
express ft. I doubt whether you would 
agree with me. 

One more little thing I would like 
to mention. CB operators have been 
cussed and discussed a lot. I wonder 
how many hams ever stop to trunk — 
the CBers do the same thing we do. 
They gel on the air and follow the 
example of others. 

Thanks for letting me unburden 
myself. 

Lester W. Ulch WB4HPB 
Birmingham AL 



however, I heard thai it cost S4.QQ to 
get into the flea market! The buyers 
paid the $4.00 (I have no idea what 
the sellers paid; f hate to think of it). 
Personally, I don't think any hamfest 
is worth paying $4,00 to get into. 
Maybe that's one reason so many 
people are going CB instead of ham. 
Who wants to pay that much for a 
get-together when they get into CB 
fests free? (I understand hamfesis 
used to be that way — what hap- 
pened?) 

Bob BiHson WA2TXY 
Westf ield NJ 

P,S. ( sent a similar letter to QST r I'm 
curious to see if they'll print it - hii 

Hey, Bob, it's a nonprofit organiza- 
tion, right? — Ed. 



MILWAUKEE WINTER 



] 



WHAT HAPPENED? 



One comment, if you pfease. Early 
in November was the ARRL Hudson 
Division Convention. I didn't go II 
can't afford that kind of hamfest}; 



In your Holiday. 1976 issue is an 
article by Scott Smith, entitled, "$22 
for a Regulator? Never/' Probably by 
now his car has failed to start in the 
Milwaukee winter. 

First, he mentions that the alterna- 
tor should put out 13,6 to 13,8 volts. 
This would hardly allow enough 
charge for summer, let alone winter. 
Typical voltages, these for a 240Z, 
range from 14.25 at 104 degrees to 
15.00 at 14 degrees Fahrenheit, This 
brings up a second consideration — 
temperature corrections. As zeners 
have positive temperature coefficients, 
Scott's regulator will reduce voltage 



with lowering temperatures. 

So far as the circuit goes, neither 
transistor is operating as a switch as 
the author says (fry that with an 
emitter follower sometime). Also, the 
field can never get full voltage as 
needed for tow speed charging. An 
average field is about 4 Ohms, an 
average 2N3055 has a gain of about 
40. yielding a field voltage of about 8 
volts maximum] Commercial solid 
state regulators use PNP pass transis- 
tor^ which can be put into a saturat- 
ing configuration. 

David S, Powell WA4BBI 
Lexington KY 



MA BELL- AGAIN 

I had one heck of a noise burst 
forth on the low end of 160. It 
sounded like LOFTAN, but didn't 
synchronize with any of the local 
LORAN transmitters on either 2 MHz 
or 100 kHz. It was a 60 cycle buzz, 
changing now and then to 120 cycles, 

I tried to find it, without success, 
on the power lines; finally had it 
reappear when l approached the tele- 
phone lines. Using a hand- he Id broad- 
cast radio, it showed a fairly large 
standing wave on the phone lines. 
Investigation with a wideband receiver 
showed its fundamental frequency to 
be about 900 kHz. No trace on 450 
kHz. 

1 went to the nearest telephone 

Continued on page tft 



104 



TECHNICALLY SPEAKING, 
HAS THE BEST 2-METER AROUND 





$269 95 

With Standard 
Microphone 



Shown with optional 
MICODER 1 * Installed 



Take our HW-2036 Frequency-Synthesized 2-Meter Transceiver for example 



Our circuit designs prove it 

The HW-2036 offers true digital frequency syn- 
thesis for real operating versatility. No extra 
crystals are needed and there are no channel 
limitations. Advanced digital circuitry uses a 
voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) that is phase- 
locked to a highly stable 10 MHz crystal-con- 
trolled reference. Double-tuned stages following 
the VCO in the receiver and transmitter provide 
clean injection signals. The result is a signal that 
has spurious output more than 70 dB below the 
carrier (see spectrum analyzer photos below). 
Additionally, the "add 5 kHz" function is ac- 
complished digitally in the HW-2036 so that no 
frequency error is introduced. 

True FM 

Careful attention to the transmitter audio cir- 
cuitry and the use of true FM gives exceptional 
audio quality. A Schmitt-trigger squelch circuit 
with a threshold 0.3 **V or less provides positive, 

There's more for 



HEATHKIT 
CATALOG 

Read about other fine Ham equipment and 
our wide variety of outstanding electronic kits 
— everything from lamp dimmers to color tele- 
vision is in our big FREE catalog. 

Send for yours today! 

Heath Company. Oepl tt-27. Benton Harbor Michigan 49022 



clearly-defined squelch action. Other design ad- 
vantages include diode-protected dual-gate MOS 
FET's in the front end, IC IF and dual-conversion 
receiver. 

Outstanding Specifications 

The HW-2036 puts out a minimum 10 watts and 
operates into an infinite VSWR without failure. 
Receiver sensitivity is an excellent 0.5 ^V for 12 
dB Sinad making the HW-2036 ideal for use in 
crowded signal areas. We think you'd be hard- 
pressed to find a comparably-priced 2-meter 
transceiver that gives you the features and per- 
formance of the HW-2036. 



l! 




Jt*L 
-10 



-» 

-« 



r: 



■* — f 



-i — ■ — — * 




>4« J MHf 



*' «^J 



!*- i ' 



Zt*tt 
Rmt 

-10 

-» 

-SB 

-M 
-TD 

dB 



— T 



nH 



t 



■i* 



An l-pota IF crjtlmi riHar praitly m- Actual frp*clrum idilrn' photo* of Dm HW-21&1 

dv£«i idiKinr cK«aa*I laferttttftO*, Wl t p U l opantinfl «l ^« *«*- Spun wittliB W MKr oi 

■ full TO dS' 



IVtttt 



the Ham at Heath 




H£ATH 



Schlumberger 



Heath Company, Oepl. 11-27 
Ban ton Harbor, Michigan 49022 



Please send me my FREE Heathkit Catalog. 
I am not on your mailing list. 



Name 



Address 

City. 



AM-343 



State. 

ZJPL 



In the past 2 to 3 years, 
projects that have been 
coming out of ham shacks 
across the nation have under- 
gone some dramatic changes. 
One of the reasons for this 
is that integrated circuits of 
increasing complexity have 
become available at a price 
that makes it practical for 
more and more amateurs and 
experimenters to build with 
them. And when amateurs 
start to build, fascinating 
things can happen: digital 
clocks, frequency counters, 
frequency synthesizers, 
microcomputers and much, 
much more. 

One of the ICs that is used 
in many of these projects is 
the counter chip. It is the 
counter chip that I am going 
to be looking at in this article 
and you will see that it can 
do more than just count. 

Let's start by going into 
one of the more popular 
counters, the 7490, This IC is 
made up of four flip-flops 
which are internally con- 
nected in such a way that the 
IC can divide by 2 or divide 
by 5 and, by making an ex- 
ternal connection, can divide 
by 10, or count pulse inputs 
and give a BCD coded output. 

The flip-flops also have a 
clear and preset which are 
connected through 2 input 
NAND gates* The clear and 
preset are called Reset "O" 
and Reset "9", as they put 
the counter in the BCD 
output condition of "count 
0" or M count 9" respectively. 

A diagram and pinout of 



William Browning WB5IRY 
516 N. 95th E. Ave. 
Tulsa OK 74115 



How Counter ICs Work 



- - the next step is a micro 



the 7490 are shown in Fig. 1* 

To use the 7490 in divide- 
by-two operation, put the 
input on the "A* 1 input (pin 
14) and take the divided out* 
put off the "A" output (pin 
12). 

To use the IC in divide- 
by-five operation, put the 
input on the "BO" input (pin 
1) and take the divided 
output off the "D" output 
(pin 11). 

Notice that the two divide 
operations are separate inside 
the IC, so the 7490 can be 
used as a divide-by-two and as 
a divide-by-five section at the 
same time, using a common 
clear and preset. 

For the divide-by- ten oper- 
ation, both of the divide sec- 




IWPUT 



TOP VIE* 74*0 



tions are used. First the signal 
is divided by five, then fed 
into the divide-by-two 
section. To connect the IC 
for this, connect the "D" 
output to the *'A M input. 
Input pulses applied to the 
41 BD" input (pin 1) will 
appear divided by ten at the 
"A" output (pin 12). 



aunt 




Output 






D 


C 


B 


A 

















1 











T 


2 








1 





3 








1 


1 


4 





1 








5 





1 





1 


6 





1 


1 





7 





1 


1 


1 


8 


t 











9 


1 








1 



To use the 7490 in its 
normal mode of operation as 
a decade counter with BCD 
output, the "A" output (pin 
12} is connected to the "BD" 
input (pin 1). The pulses to 
be counted are applied to the 
"A 11 input (pin 14) and the 
output count will appear as 
BCD code on the "A", "B", 
"C, and (1 D" outputs (pins 
12, 9, 8 t and 11). 



INPUTS 



1 r 0UTF>UTS— j 




OUTPUTS 



6 GNfr 

_J 



Fig. 2 BCD output count 
sequence. 

Inputs 



Fig, 3, Pinout of 7445. 



Outputs 



D 


c 


e 


A 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 

















1 


1 






1 


1 


1 




1 











1 







1 






1 


1 


1 




1 








1 







1 









1 


1 


1 




1 








1 


1 






1 







1 


1 


1 




1 





1 












1 







1 


1 


1 




1 





1 





1 






1 









1 


l 




1 





1 


1 









1 






1 





1 




1 





1 


1 


1 






1 






t 


1 







1 


1 















1 






1 


1 


1 





1 


1 








1 






1 






1 


1 


1 







1 





1 









1 






1 


1 


t 




1 


1 





1 


1 






1 






1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 












1 






1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 





1 




1 


1 






1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 







I 


1 






1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 




1 



Fig. 1. Diagram and pinout of 7490. 



Fig. 4. 7445 truth table. 



106 



vcc r 
•a t 

_J L 



OUTPUTS 



; 







e 

J. 



i 



t 



! 



33 



■1 



M 



7446 



^ — r- 

ft c 

L INPUTB J 



i — r 



^5 

T 



LT RB/O Rft/| 



TOP VIEW 



T 




A 



1^ 

GND 



INPUTS 



_l 



The BCD output count 
sequence is shown in Fig. 2. 

In some circuits we may 
be able to use the output as 
is. That is, irt the BCD for- 
mat. In other circuits, we 
may need to decode the BCD 
to decimal form. This may be 
done with a decoder such as 
the 7445 decoder/driver 
which will take the BCD code 
as it is input and give an 
output in a decimal form. 

A pinout of the 7445 and 
its truth table are shown in 
Figs, 3 and 4. 

In other circuits, a seven- 
segment code may be needed 
to operate one of the seven* 
segment displays. A decoder 
such as the 7446 or 7447 
BCD to seven-segment 
decoder/driver may be used. 

A pinout of the 7446 and 
its truth table are shown in 
Figs. 5 and 6, 

In most circuits using the 
7490, it will be necessary to 
reset the counter to either 
"9" or "0" at certain times. 
To reset to the BCD count of 
zero, both reset "O" inputs 
must be at logic "1 ", white at 
least one of the reset "9" 
inputs is at logic l *0 ,t . To 
reset to the BCD count of 
nine, both of the reset ,£ 9 ,r 
inputs must be at logic "1 *\ 
while at least one of the reset 
"IT inputs is at logic "0". 

For proper counting, at 
least one of the reset "0" 
inputs and at least one of the 
reset "9" inputs must be at 
logic "0". Counting of the 
7490 will occur on the nega- 
tive-going edge of the input 
pulse. That is when the pulse 



COUNT 






K& _m_n_n_ 





Inputs 












Outputs 








LT 


RBI 





c 


B 


A 


a 


b 


c 


d 


a 


f 


g RBO Function 


O 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




















1 


Test 


1 

















1 


t 


1 


1 


T 


1 


1 


Blank 


1 


1 
































1 1 





1 


X 











1 


1 








1 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 


1 


X 








1 











1 








1 


T 


2 


1 


X 








1 


1 














1 


1 


1 


3 




X 





1 








1 








1 


1 





1 


4 




X 





1 





1 





1 








1 





1 


5 




JTk 





1 


1 





1 


1 














1 


6 




X 





1 


1 


1 











1 


1 


1 


1 1 


7 




X 


1 





























1 


8 




X 


1 








1 











1 


1 





1 


9 




X 


1 





1 





1 


1 


1 








1 


1 


10 




X 


1 





1 


1 


1 


1 








1 


1 


1 


11 




X 


T 


1 








1 





1 


1 


1 





1 


12 




X 


1 


1 





1 





1 


1 





T 





1 


13 


1 


X 


1 


1 


1 





1 


1 


1 











1 


14 


T 


X 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


15 




SE£h£nT 
DCS MSN AT >GN 



Fig. 7. 



goes from high to low. See 
Fig. 7. 

A second counter IC is the 
7492 divide-by-12 counter. It 
is similar to the 7490, but the 
second section is connected 
internally to divide by six and 

there is no reset to "9", only 
a reset to "0", 

A diagram and pinout of 
the 7492 are shown in Fig. 8. 

With no external connec- 
tions! an input at "A" (pin 
14) will give an output 
divided by two at the "A" 
output (pin 12). An input at 
the BC input (pin 1) will give 
an output divided by six at 
the "D" output (pin 8) or 
divided by three at the M C 
output (pin 9). 

For the divide-by-twelve 
operation, output "A" is con- 
nected to the "BC" input — 
an input at the "A" input will 
then give you a division by 
twelve at the "D" output. 

To reset the 7492 to BCD 
count of zero, both reset M Q" 
inputs must be at logic 1. At 
least one of the resets must 
be at logic for proper 
counting. Like the 7490, the 

7492 counting occurs on the 
negative-going edge of the 
input pulse. 

Another counter which is 
similar to the 7490 is the 

7493 4-bit binary counter, 
which can count to 16 or 
divide by 2, by 4, by 8, and 
by 1 6. 

The diagram and pinout of 
the 7493 are shown in Fig, 9. 

With no external connec- 
tion, an input at "A ,p (pin 14) 
will give an output divided by 



Fig, 6. 7446 truth table. 

2 at the "A" output (pin 12), 
An input on the "B" input 
(pin 1) will give an output 
divided by 2 at output U B" 
(pin 9), divided by 4 at 
output "C" (pin 8), and 
divided by 8 at output "D" 
(pin 1 1 ). 

For the divide-by-16 oper- 
ation, output "A" is con- 
nected to the M B" input. An 
input at the "A" input will 
then give you a division by 16 
at the "D" output. 

To reset the 7493 to count 
zero, both reset "0" inputs 
must be at logic 1. At least 
one of the resets must be at 
logic "0" for proper 
counting* Counting will occur 
on the negative-going edge of 
the input pulse. 

The 74176 is a divide- 
by-2, divide*by-5 or divide* 
by-10 counter with an added 
feature over the other 
counters we have looked at. 
It has the ability of strobed 
parallel entry. This lets the 



i* 



INPUT 



Ml 



Cr 



|I 



9 



=E 



[I 



counter be "programmed, 
and also lets it be used as a 
4-bit latch. 

The 74T76's diagram and 
pinout are shown in Fig. 10, 

To use this IC as divide- 
by- 2 or divide-by-5, no 
external interconnections are 
required. The strobe (pin 1) 
and the reset (pin 13) arc 
held at logic 1, An input 
signal at input Cpl (pin 8) 
will give an output divided by 
2 at output Qc (pin 2). An 
input at Cp2 (pin 6) will give 
an output divided by 5 at 
output Od (pin 12). 

For use as divide-by-10, 
connect the D input (pin 1 1) 
to the Cpl input (pin 8). A 
clock input signal at Cp2 (pin 
6) will give an output 
divided by 10 at the Qa 
output (pin 5). As in the 
drvide-by-2 and 5 operation, 
when used as divide-by-10, 
the strobe and the reset are 
held high. 

To use the 74176 as a 



GND 
IIP 




1 



c» 



J 



<J 



fNPOT 



vcc 

♦9 



*•:■ 



■02 



TO* Vlt* MM 



Fig. 8. Diagram and pinout pf 7492. 



107 




IWPUT 

a 




TOP VJEW ?4« 



A QA 

TOP VIE* 741 7S 



Fig. 9, Diagram and pinout of 7493. 



Fig. 10. Diagram and pinout of 741 76, 



counter, the Qa output (pin 
5) rs connected to the Cp2 
input (pin 6). The iftput is 
applied to the Cpl input (pin 
8) and the count is obtained 
at outputs Qa, Qb, Qc r and 
Od (pins 5 t 9, 2 and 12), The 
reset (pin 1 3) is used to reset 
the counter to BCD count 
"0". Put high for counting 
and low to reset. 

The strobe input is used 
for the parallel entry feature 
of the 74176. When the 



strobe (pin 1) is high, inputs 
A, B, C t and D (pins 4, 10,3 
and 1 1 ) have no effect on the 
outputs. When the strobe is 
put low, the outputs will 
change to agree with the data 
inputs independent of the 
state of the clock inputs. This 
feature will allow the I C to be 
"programmed" or preset to 
any count, not just "0", 

The parallel entry will also 
allow use of the 74176 as a 
4-bit latch. The data outputs 



Qa, Qb, Qc, and Qd will 
directly follow the inputs A, 
B, C, and D while the strobe 
is low, but will remain un- 
changed when the strobe is 
high and the clock inputs are 
inactive. 

The counters that have 
been discussed here are only a 
small sample of the ones that 
are available. With counter 
ICs, as with simple gates, the 
best way to find out just how 
they work is to use them. All 



ICs listed in this article are 
available for under one dollar 
from advertisers in 73 Maga- 
zine, so pick out one or two 
and start experimenting and 
then start building, ■ 

References 

The TTL 0s to Book for Design 
Engineers, Texas Instruments 
Incorporated, 1973. 
Digital Integrated Circuits, Na- 
tional Semiconductor Corpora- 
tion, 1974. 

The TTL Applications Handbook, 
Fairchild Semiconductor, 1973. 



TS-1MI 



«;<• 



MINIATURE ENCODER-DECODER 



□ Available in all ElA standard tones 67.0 Hz -2035 Hz 

□ Microminiature in size* 125x2.0x.65"high 

□ Hi-pass tone rejection filter on board 

□ Powered by 6-16vdc, unregulated, at 3-9ma« 

□ Decode sensitivity better than lOmvRMS, bandwidth, ±2Hz max^ limited 
D Low distortion adjustable sinewave output 

□ Frequency accuracy, ±-25 Hz, frequency 
stability ±-1 Hz 

D Encodes continuously and simultaneously 
during decode, independent of mike 
hang-up 
Totally immune to RF 



Wired and tested, complete with 
K-l element 



$59.95 

K-l field replaceable, plug-in, frequency 

determining elements 

$3.00 each 



COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALISTS 

P.O. BOX 153 

BREA CALIFORNIA 92621 

(714) 998-3021 




106 



PREASSEMBLED 



COMPLETE KIT 







Crcscomm Frequency Counters Features 



J High Sensitivity VHF pre-scaler (built-in}. 100mv 
RMS @ BOH @ 300MHZ. Frequency range DC 
through 600MHZ Model 600. 

2 Excellent temperature compensation crystal con- 
trolled time base, yielding + 1 part/ 10 stability per 
hour after 10 min warm up, + 1QPPM worst case, 
from 0° to + 55°C!, at 100Hz @ 450MHZ is attain- 
able, typically if calibrated to WWVL This is approxi- 
mately 2 parts in 10 ! 



] 



7 digit display, resolution 100Hz with 10m Sec* 
gate interval, pre-scaled! 10Hz resolution with 1 Sec. 
pre-scafed, 1Hz resolution with 10 Sec. gate inter- 
vat pre-scaled! 



4 



3 Easy 6 hour assembly; all circuit broad tracks are 
pre-tinned, have drilled holes and are plated through! 
All I.e. sockets included - Makes trouble shooting a 
breeze. 

D Cabinet, piexy window and all necessary compo- 
nents included for easy, trouble-free assembly. 

I 90- Day full coverage warranty. 

Optional accessories TCXO time base yielding % 
PPM stability, $79.95 

Optional 10 Sec. time gate resolution to 1 Hz. $15.00. 
(Free with purchase of above TCXO) 



Optional 12VDC power recepticle and cord assembly 
S1 5.00 (on preassembled counter only) 



Built-in 5VDC regulator; input to 3-terminal regu- 
lator is accessible for use with 12VDC out-board PS. 

You can use this counter mobile. 

"HAVE IT YOUR WAY" 

Complete kit or preassembled, burned in, and environmental chamber tested unit available for the commercial shop 
or modern ham shack. 



KIT Model 600K 179.00 ea. PREASSEMBLED & TESTED Model 600 AT 249.00 

Bank Americard and Master Charge accepted. Please include account number with order. 



NAME 



STREET 



CITY 



STATE 



2IP 



CALL SIGN 



SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO 





BJdg, 13 Euclid Avenue, Newarl 



WIRE DIVISION • COMMUNICATION DIVISION • ELECTRONIC DIVISION 



nxorporatwa 

vark New Jersey 07105 (201) sao^raiT J 



It is extremely handy to 
have a source of variable 
dc energy in the ham shack. 

The usefulness of this device 
encompasses many areas. For 
instance, many of today's 
projects are built around 
semiconductors which require 
various dc voltages. Much of 
the military surplus available 
requires either 12 V dc or 24 
V dc sources. You may not 
want your final conversion to 
operate on this source, but it 
can be very helpful to see if 
the equipment will function 
on its original source voltage 
before converting it. Those 
people active as mobilers cer- 
tainly could use a husky 
supply to test that new 
mobile rig. Obviously, any- 
thing that is battery operated 
could be run, tested, or 
repaired with the help of this 
electronic wonder. It might 
even help you start your car 
some cold winter morning* 

As you can see from the 
schematic, it is simply a vari- 
able autotransformer feeding 
a husky 30 V transformer 
into a bridge rectifier. The 
filter is a large capacitor* It 
would be nice to have a 30 A 
choke, but the filter shown 
has been satisfactory for all 
of the uses previously dis- 
cussed. 

Well, now that I have 
established two major facts, 
its simplicity and its useful- 
ness, let's build it. 

You may skip this part of 
the article if you have a trans- 
former or are going to pur* 
chase one. The transformer 
for this unit was a modified 
TV transformer. I located the 
heaviest one in the junk box. 
By the way, this was my first 
attempt at rewinding a trans- 
former, and if I can do it, you 
probably can also. 

First remove the outer 
shell and the laminations. It 
may be necessary to use a 
little force to accomplish this. 
Never hit the laminations 
directly with a hammer; use a 
mallet or a block of wood 
with your hammer. Take care 
to preserve the leads from the 
windings. 

Next, remove the secon- 
dary windings. Generally they 

110 



Front view showing layout of voltmeters, variac y control, Sl t S2, and fuses. The handles are 
very functional because of the weight of the unit. 




Charles O. Klawitter W9VZR 
4 $2 7 North Bar tie tt Avenue 
Milwaukee Wl $$211 



Inexpensive 
Variable DC Supply 



- - easy and quick 



are the outer windings. When 
you remove the 6.3 V fila- 
ment winding, count the 
number of turns. It probably 
will consist of approximately 



twelve turns. Usually this 
type of transformer has a two 
turns per volt ratio. Retain 
this information for rewind* 
ing the secondary* 



Finally, rewind the secon- 
dary; I used number 12 
copper wire with a thick 
thermoplastic insulation. I 
used this wire because I had it 



IIS VAC 




5 



-O0UTPUT 



VJO-SflvQC 



m 



JT~@^ 



left over from wiring my 
wife's dryer. Obviously, an 
enamel or formvar insulated 
wire is suitable. As you are 
winding the secondary, check 
to be sure that the lamina- 
tions will fit. I was able to get 
about sixty turns on the 
secondary - hence thirty 
volts. Using wire with thinner 
insulation, you can probably 
get several more turns. 

The diodes were surplus 
units which were mounted on 
homemade heat sinks, The 
heat sinks were nude from 
1/8 11 thick aluminum scrap. I 
used about 12 square inches 
for each diode. The heat sinks 
were mounted on one inch 
ceramic pillars above the 
chassis to promote convec- 
tion. Several holes were 
drilled in the chassis below 
the heat sinks; there was a 
bottom plate attached and 
two small 24 V dc surplus 
blowers were mounted on the 
back of the chassis. The 
output of the power supply 
was used to power the 
blowers. Even at five volts 
input, the blowers would 




Rear view showing general layout of diodes and heat sinks y output and blower fusing, blowers, 
and line input. 



move some air. The blowers 
really aren't necessary until 
the supply is run at high 
current output over a five to 
ten minute period of time. 
The toggle switch, S2, 



which removes the variac 
from the transformer and 
places the line voltage there 
instead, is used when there is 
a load which will greatly sur- 
pass the rating of the variac* 



This unit has been used for 
everything from repairing 

transistor radios to operating 
dynamotor powered mobile 
equipment of the 12 V, 30 A 
variety. ■ 



r* 



0011 S 




tell I4a 






from page 104 



exchange, about 7 miles sway at 
Belfair, Wa., and circled the building 
with 3 $4 BC receiver. It was easy to 
find the spots on the walls where the 
noise peaked. Local phone company 
employees blamed the trouble on the 
power people, refusing to believe that 
any phone equipment could cause radio 
interference. They were so insistent in 
their belief thai they didn't report 
interference to I oca! headquarters in 
Seattte, They finally told me to tell it 
to FCC, 

FCC contacted Seattle engineering. 
After some days I called engineering, 
and they said they would do some- 
thing about it. It has been 5 weeks of 
passing the buck, and until interven- 
tion by FCC, there was no action at 
all They will tell you anything, but 
do nothing. 

The trouble finally turned out to be 
the battery charger at the exchange 
office. They haven't fixed it yet, and I 
have notified them that my hobby 
involves circulation of audio currents 
through widely separated grounds. 

So, in the case of a pulse type 



that sh< shou 



noise, or a sharp rattling noise, 
particularly on 160 meters, check 
your phone line for the source. It is to 
be hoped that the management of 
your telephone exchange will be more 
cooperative than the locals. I don't 
know if the chargers used by General 
Telephone subsidiaries cause the same 
type of interference, 

Keith Olson W7FS 
Belfair WA 

SPLENDID SERVICE 

About 4 months ago I wrote you 
and complained about the very bad 
postal service and very late delivery of 
the 73 Magazine. 

I don't know how you are doing it 
or what you have done, but I now 
receive your excellent magazine for 3 
months in succession the first week of 
the current month the magazine 
comes out To beat everything, I 
received the December issue at the 
end of November, Needless to say, I 
want to thank you md your staff very 
much for this splendid service. 

i received this subscription to your 



magazine from my good friend Ed 
Domoert W2PCP. and this is a very 
valued present Living on this island 
"down south of you/' it is annoying 
how long it sometimes takes to receive 
the mail from up north, Here again, 
you beat the others, and once again, 
thank you and well done. 

William Vander Graft PJ2WI 
Curacao, Nath. Antilles 



inflation gets much worse, Sandy 
Claws may find himseif going down 
the drain instead of the chimney.) 

Jim Miller 

Waterloo SC 



THE BROAD SPECTRUM 



] 






SANDY CLAWS 



I received the sample copy of 73 
today which I had requested some 
time ago when your subscription offer 
came. 

Looks like you do have a pretty 
good magazine, However, it sure let 
me down the very first thing. You see, 
t have been taking another magazine 
for several months just to get the ad 
section, because I want a good used 
SSS/CW rig So, right off the bat r I 
went to the back of 73 and searched 
all the way to the front. Then from 
the front all the way to the back. 
Plenty of good-looking new stuff. But 
if I give around $700 for something to 
play with, I think it should also cook 
my breakfast! So the answer is a good 
$400 used outfit. 

I certainly appreciate this oppor- 
tunity to see what 73 is like and after 
my other subscription expires and I 
get a new rig, perhaps I'll try iL With 
tax time here and the usual rough 
time with Santa Claus just over, things 
are pretty rugged, even in Dixie. {If 



This note is to inform you that I 
have been very pleased by the excel 
tent service and response of your 
advertisers, namely Ramsey Elec- 
tronics, James Electronics, and many 
others. 

I might also add that your many 
construction articles are very FB and 
your publication covers the broad 
spectrum of amateur radio very well 

Alex Hellman W20EQ 
Woodhaven NY 



29.6 



I read Martin Green baum's article 
"Ten Meters: Dead or Alive?" with 
great interest. However, there was a 
gross oversight in his article, especially 
with the great interest there is today 
in FM. 29,6 MHz has for years been 
the FM channel on ten meters, and 
you haven't worked DX until you've 
worked someone fullnquieting 3000 
miles away, or worked your next-door 
neighbor through a repeater 3000 
miles away. With the low cost avail- 



Continued on page 172 



nt 



Eric G. ShaJkhauser V/9CI 
527 Spring Creek Road 
Washington IL 61571 




Form TW 



LICENSE FOR 



AMATEUR 



STATIO! 



(OhiiiI *r PHlrlrtat) 



Department of Commerce 

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION 
AADIO PEMVICK 



ffumtmttt to ft&€ act to regulate radio eommunieatirfn t approved August f$, 19 
■ *♦ S. SclialMians&er a citizen of the State 



, having applied there for 9 is hereby granted by the 

Secretary of Commerce, for a period o/. rt _J35iL_ year , on and sukfect to the restrictions 
and conditions hereinafter stated and revocable for cause by htm, this License to um or 
operate (he apparatus for radio communication {identified in the Schedule hereinafter) for 
the purpose of transmitting private radiograms or signals, notwithstanding the effect 
thereof extends beyond the Jurisdiction of the State or Territory in which the said station 
is located; J*ravided f That no interference other than may result under the restrictions 
contained in this License shall be caused with the radio communication of stations 
of the Government of the United States or licensed stations. 






in The use or operation of apparatus for radio eommunicatioti pursuant to t): 
License shall be subject also to the articles t and regulations established by the Interna- 
tional Radio-telegraphic Convention, ratified by the Senate of the United States and 
caused to be made public by the President, and shall be subject also to such regulations 
as may be established from time to time by authority of subsequent acts and treaties of 
the United States. 

S, The apparatus shall at alt times while in use and operation be in charge of a person 
or persons licensed for that purpose by the Secretary of Commerce, and the operator 
of the apparatus shall not wilfully or maliciously interfere with any other radio 
communication . 

$* Tlie station shall give absolute priority to signals or radiograms relating to ships 
in distress ; shall cease all sending on hearing a distress signal ; and shall refrain frot 
sending until ail the signals and radiograms relating thereto are completed, 

5. The station shall use the minimum amount of energy necessary to carry out any 



communication desired t and the transformer input shall not exceed 



one 



kilowatt* 




"^me—hoif— 
6* Tlie station shall not use a transmitting wave length exceeding 200 i w, 

7, The station shall not use a transmitter during the first IS minutes of each hour t 
local standard time T whenever the Secretary of Commerce by notice in writing shall 
require it to observe a division of the time, pursuant to the Twelfth Regulation of the act 

8, The President of the United States in time of war or public peril or disaster is 
authorized hy law to close the station and cause the removal therefrom- of all radio appi 
ratuSj or may authorize the use or control of the station or apparatus by any department 
of the Government upon Just compensation to the owners. 

B. Tlie Secretary of Commerce and Collectors of Customs or other officers of the 
Government authorized by him may at all reasonable times enter upon tlie station for 
the purpose of inspecting and may inspect any apparatus for radio communication of 
such station and the operation and operators of such apparatus. 

10* The apparatus shall not be altered or modified in respect of any of the particu- 
lars mentioned in the following Schedule except with the approval of a radio inspeo- 
tor, or other duly authorized officer of the Government. u— imp 




* BLtike uut ■* <mu " If lb* ettttton b* within, G nmtlcal talk* of & nnval or laUibiry fUtion; othenriia ejtrlku oat •■' one-liAlf,* ' 





One of the first amateur licenses issued shortly after they were required. 



112 



The History of Ham Radio 



- - part 



When trying to get just 
a glimpse of wireless 
history in a nutshell, it is 



traditional to lay most 
emphasis on the years from 
1910 and on. This period 



coincided with radio rules 
and regulations, the three Rs, 
being formulated by the 




SCHEDULE OF STATION AND APPARATUS 






Jfatne of aivner, 



Location : Stats, . 
Citif or town,. 
Official call, — 



E* G* ..shcllrhattsaer 



jlir&al:& 



7 Count y ; 






■ ■ 






terli3£ 



; Street, 



*cy 



Yo. 



ft 



— *1-fT !■ I - 



Name of naval or military station , if w 




9 k B ■ 



5 nautical r. 




Power : Transformer input, ... 

Antenna ,* Type (T, "I, ft**** Iflw 

— — t y\^ 

Weight, « }.l. :t.^J! ~~ ; JBbr; a! length, 



it 




(Afcet* frusml) 



fFfrea; Jdimber in vertical pari 



In horizontal pari 



The normal sending and receiving wave length shall be 




r$ and 



the elation is authorized to uee the following additional ivat ngthe, not exceeding 200 



meters : 



17 






■ 



>>■*■. . 



meters, ... 



This License expiree on _ 



■» w - - , 






£ r. CHJMBERLAIX t 

Commissioner ef Jfavijtatiim, 



ED1VIXF. SWEET. 

dsrithimt Secretary of Cerumen*. 







-JL H*^^^?# ■P^'^g^ MM I i ■ ■ i ■ 1^ ^M^#-l ^^^ ■■ i j Smiw^ b 



ilia. 



, .. j 



Date, .. 



-.,7516. 



iij*/ 



♦Hot to mamd 1,000 - or ti the ttolkn bt wliliin 5 ntotial milti of t uv*l or military frttiian, oat to 




United States government. 
We then project the general 
accumulation as far as 
1927-1928, after which time 
some degree of order was 
again established in the radio 
industry, overall. 

In telling our story, it is 
impossible to refrain making 
pertinent insertions of 
interest. There were many 
occurrences during those 
early years that stand out 
vividly in memory and need 
telling. Those beginning years 
were mostly of pioneering 
and exploring, bringing forth 
many discoveries and inven- 
tions in rapid order, in very 
short periods of time. 

1909 

To begin with, let me set 
the year 1909 as a reference. 
Why 1909? We will become 
aware of the reason as we 
review the history in relating 
the magic that is wirefess. 

And it sure was magic to 
everyone in those days, 
believe me! Let me take a 
short glimpse into the past 
history of wireless. There 
were no laws on the books. 
There were no rules or regula- 
tions pertaining to wireless. 
The general public was not 
even aware that radio waves 
existed. They had no inkling 
of what was meant by com- 
municating without wires. 
Practically nothing was 
known about electricity. All 
this was a mystery. 

1888 

In 1 888, just 89 years ago, 
a German Scientist made a 
discovery when he sensed 



113 



that there was something 
present in the vicinity of an 
electrical spark in a Lyden jar 
discharge. This elementary 
discovery made by Heinrich 
Hertz set the stage for many 
scientific investigations. They 
were carried on in university 
laboratories, stimulating re- 
search in the field of electro- 
magnetic waves. 

1892 

About this time p along 
came Marconi from Italy. He 
was born in the year 1 874, At 
the age of 18, while a fresh- 
man at the University of 
Bologna, Marconi discovered 
that an electric discharge 
from a condenser could be 
detected. This made possible 
the transmission and recep- 
tion of signals over some 
distance. Playing around and 
experimenting for four years, 
he finally went to England, 
where he demonstrated his 
findings and equipment. 

1896 

In 1896, Marconi obtained 

a British patent for wireless 
telegraph apparatus using 
electricity. How utterly novel 
and primitive that description 
sounds today. And that was 
only eighty-one years ago! 
(At that time I was 3 years 
old, but do not recall the 
incident!) 

1897 

Within a year, commercial 
interests became aware of the 
possibilities in the application 
and use of Marconi *s inven- 
tion and organized the Wire- 
less Telegraph and Signal 
Company; Ltd. ( in England, 

1899 

In 1899, Marconi and his 
assistants succeeded in 
sending signals across the 
English channel with their 
crude equipment. The main 
bottleneck was their iron 
filing coherer for detection of 
signals. The use of galena, 
silicon, or carborundum was 
not yet known for detecting 
wireless signals. In this same 
year, the Marconi Wireless 
Company of America was 
established, 

114 



FBfm ?«* 



AMATEUR APPLICANTS DESCRIPTION OF APPAl 




DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION 
RADIO SERVICE 



Tiff foflowtsefem of ds autUi on of 



U<*wUltw»f • s 

m Tgtm tax Th« laspGeior. If inn imdiii j will than «j 
The inf ruction h desire! pdranrilr ** ifttf i-**l» at tft* d< 

CM dim I DMltlOO ft'Vi imrtlttulari f 

open to publio impaction. 



ud 



dftt&fl* are !it>iiir*d v> ffwiEHUta tbe elaaal daattoa ami i*rtitfularir 
Ikum**, ThU form will ool M 



•fad In diipUcat* tofbaarflolMvafterfcr vvhinHtHt 
i ae UhMnTciaaa (latfam aggUoa&M tor « imitaT flew—' 

•iiQE .f #tatioa*. and wiUtKA. of ijotLrtft. tn» tn^tf iM»™t«d in 



NOT ICR— Tlsta far* mutt fa* uUitlttwf Lu UofJioU* t» ih* tmM* Hi^ifm til Uu *fyUmf* tUMrftt, 

I. GENERAX DESCRIPTION OF STATION. 



£ fttne of applicant. 

Plac* of birth 

a> litres*, ..,„ . 






.HAllaida.. 



> it? or town.) 

sr liBg„. gjfegMlan 



funrtjjn 



of tbe st*te oi „_8j&x &*i&. 



-^., 



or a conjjjanr 



li 



Loot lion of ataticn j State, 



■ "»■ - - 



VnTftiiVtt 



,j County, 



CSty or TWn, „ j5.l£SXll&&«. 



; Street 



-■«■* * H t * * W*-| 



to ttt opermtod by „Jj*,9» .^XVi*^ &§J holrfioy operator * lieec* 



Lnocd b j 



L . ■ . ■»■ ■! ■* 1 



"ciw^j " 



(Warn* flri'J UUp 01 QiAiniiilAg utltraf . j (&**■»} {!*]■«*) 

Nan it* of daviiI or military nution, if within Ik* riaaUcaJ miles of Uu> ^ilion for which * licenae la dtvlrnd, ._ ZlGTlfl 




wp™™^-*-* mm 



II, PO¥EB BUPPJLY. 

city tn&bir* geueraioT, atoraRo Jittery, etc J!rilIL„CiAy..r^ala& ■ .-lIQ^YJll^JJL A »ff t ,, , . 

Givfl following data, meagurad und<«r normal wwdipa; conditions, k<*y depreaaod : 

3-3 a. Voi*a_,_ -C 




Fottri _ W. Tranirfomwr or induction coil rated at 

DeBcripdoji of FHn;iIlnt irm Iraiujfnnr.^r nod imutti 



-600- 









.IE bxa,aB^JCibl3DiL-ln-.^xi n_J_u_y 2 3£-X£#~ .xx^J^L^-^^ta-ftfl^j 
AiiiiitioajLi t~w~»;™- Q Gfttiane» T gf gl&AB pl^te type r oil iflgreraad. 




l*itU<tItfK)ftf 



III. AKTEXNA, 
(T, 1, fiau t umbreBa, *l&), ^^ i*Xi«i_i^ __2 iSP.?^. - 



Ma^dmojn heigh: aborv grotmti f . 

IlodiotUal Icnuai^ M _ 



.53. 



■ ^ * - m ' 



feet Totel lonfth (from appatmhai) 






T toeL Vftrti«»J length, indwdiuf; n t 

KnmbeT of w±r«t fn horlH5ntnI part, ffliUt^ la vertical part „.„_9lk4L. 

Separation between wirea, %£ i ncY #fl feet. Leegtli o( groond Ica/i . 

Gimmd lead connected to —JAtATrplpA. XUHnlag X.Jt^^JJa&gJ,. JgqUSJ ^1 

Oiijer eaaeotJa? dlmenaJoiw, „.&erial-JtA-3.5.J&p ^bAV.^..gr.Ciimd .Oafl... 

__J3L5^1i ££g pth#r end. 



»* ji fc* ■ ■ 



frw-L 



■ 



' - — ■ ■- WS M 1 



' r i --. 



Is abHu eondoMer Ufed in "****»* for trmaamittirjff? 



i - i i 



r— ..... 



■•*» ■■ ff ^ f *^l^ > l ■ ■< 



Finnkh eketch. of anteuoa, wxta complftlo dfrnensiuna „. 



— ■ - 







1900 

At the turn of the century, 
the English company changed 
its name to Marconi Wireless 
Telegraph Company, Ltd., to 
be more in keeping with cur- 
rent developments. 

1901 



In 1901, Marconi and two 

of his engineers came across 
the Atlantic to set up their 
wireless equipment in 
Halifax, Newfoundland. They 
succeeded in receiving mes- 
sages across the waters from a 
station transmitting out of 
Polduh, England. All this on 



very long wavelengths, since 
the shorter ones were still 
undiscovered. By this time, 
many ships at sea were in- 
stalling transmitting and 
receiving equipment and 
many shore and inland loca- 
tions established communica- 
tion centers. 



IT- GKNERAXi I3TFOBMA1TON. 

al wave length need in tending t'- •*--■ ^QQ ««** maters. Other w**e lengths, _„.„ 

Son.— In way bum t»<» or wn nw an AlmuitftaeatuJjr m4lmt«l from ill* umnMntttrr. 0*»w ni«*i J* taktv U»t bo w*t» 
ul d*y cozaniunkAting nug« with KhnilsT f tallon .... Ii£ "gQ*^ &YiTln& OR.y r 

iHrfletfrm cl ftiiiosi with which «rniraanw*twn ii auried cm : 



•----■ — - 



not bWi in lvfth. 

, , mile* 



22S2L [£. Btraek Dfettnce, 3S£4£LJ2LL. Owner, ff . R-ffej th 



Street Pi&tance, 



Owner, Lyl ff EVegfrrH a 



Be 



UWDWj ■ » ■■ ■. . — —rt.. 



Ke* „ 



idtttml information; 



i p* ^ n ifc t i ■ i ■ y fcj ^ ■■ p w ■"■ ■ M iii*i —■■!■ mi Hill ■ ^m a* j^ ih— ■ ii*i* i 



_ „<=?_£ , 



JS 



f 



INSTRUCTIONS TO RADIO INSPECTORS. 

/ 
Fleam Kod ont thic form in triplicate one for the Applicant' t Blee, if he desiree 

When filled in mod ntamed, fill oat the following ; 



fieeef red bj _. 



*,- 



Diite, ,~« 



■ M — ■ IT milMWl ■ - - — ■^ ■■^■ ■■■■J ■Til I .1 ■ ^■■■T^"P " •*■■ 



0* 



m 



Q 



"IfS^}" 11 * 1 ™ 8 * 11 ^ 11 - 



*' Of - »^i-m> l 



Dfctecf 



II %■ iiH- jLlPHKewBWf iFv ml* *wwa h i ■ ■ ■ 




Tbo ins-pector will then retsin a &>\y for *h» file, end forward the form to the CbannWoner of Navigation, to whom the 
honid <I«u submit a ep*ci*l report before Iwuinj the litmus If he be la doabt 01 




An apparatus description, one of the required parts of getting an earfy ham ticket. 



1902 

By 1902, a great deal of 
interest was shown in the 



application of this relatively 
new phenomenon, Gradually, 
better detecting devices were 



invented and larger stations 
were erected, in Europe, 
America, and other countries. 




The station of 9 AHO. 



One should call attention to 
the contributions made at 
this time by Sir J . J , Thomp- 
son, a British scientist, who 
had discovered the electron, 
enclosed in a vacuum tube. It 
was a sequel to Edison 's 
invention of the light bulb. 

1904 and 1906 

This ted to the develop- 
ment of the use of vacuum 

tubes in detecting wireless 
signals, where J, A. Fleming 
in 1904 and Lee Deforest in 
1906 made their contribu- 
tions. While the sagas of the 
sea kept the newspapers busy 
and the public talking of the 
great wonders of wireless and 
its possibilities, what do you 
suppose was going on among 
the younger scientists across 
the country, especially in the 
eastern part of our United 
States? All of these intriguing 
possibilities of radio did not 
just belong to commercial 
companies - by no means! 

Here we digress a bit and 
look into the back rooms and 
woodsheds around the 
country, taking note of the 
enthusiasm and the influence 
that wireless had produced 
among the young. We need to 
find out what was going on in 
these areas, since this part of 
early wireless history is vital 
in following the progress of 
the new discovery. 

1909 

This brings me to the year 
1909, previously referred to. 

While the commercial 
interests considered wireless 
in terms of their restricted 
domain, we find a group of 
"wireless kids" in New York, 
no more than ten in number, 
all in their teens, getting 
together and forming a Junior 
Wireless Club on January 2, 
1909. They were putting 
together metal plates, wires, 
and iron filings, making their 
own coherers, winding coils 
and other paraphernalia, and 
succeeding in sending dots 
and dashes according to the 
Morse code, between their 
homes, from block to block, 
and even across miles. They 
were listening in to what was 
going on, hearing the mes- 



115 



JUNIOR WIRELESS CLUB, LTD. 

turn ummrn m* &r §n\ r 
Miiu Hi* on\ 3TATio\. 



ft I li sioWM. 4r . In Prr**dr*H H-*d- 
ilflarl'ff at IHr \ntM<* Cffllilit 
*|i>rft *po»fil" *lnf' fa l.» fa 



to «nf«r th» rhi&mojri acid npur.m»r,'«! 
•♦*iir*B flf i^ \^4?*l*»# tlu • J 44 

• •thou: * cuidf. far th- officer in rhJirf* "I 

#*.*,-' r tf - . fna ih* i to4 , 

But **;-*• proptr jt .<«IaiU'* i* *rur 
from tk* rJubn fotiEti %>r+* 

maintain* r* al h.% bomi, 

1 



•dd u» to* #* * b*4 *ta*tr^ ti-tiv^ t - up 

Uih# ocnigMO oa# a.*- of tb« r*> 

|>laM*-*a*cfe I -'*■ i 

T*mily jo ■ban wound up -h»n« fr 1 a n 

»ir» cnmpJtmriaa ov#rh*«'l :♦:** M*nh 

mora* ihan th*y loo*. a*o not 10 b» If I ta 

nor*-* 

Id fari if I* no •*'- • * ■•• 

at nr,r«l W 
flnrt fMii.M *» »** 

b*|i*rx «m| ef»»o * *ft*«l a*** paf-| 

•laM ftpf^artnf « *** 

wlifrh fhnv* o\ irl 

mfl *o** !*i|v arranjf* * ir * 

v lb U 1 H afeat » 
»»-Oi Th.i** o!a«?» • brmnrh *a«f 

or tilf i»ni or* *$•*** * * '-1 *^ ' 
ape- * • ■ < *a t ha *? *• • aJW 

'*»'ltl-»i 1* *f*fr «ii |);!.4 «►! ■ »•"* t tit 



• «'i #*-»fw ■ ■ *< 



,n'nr *-.#* t » * " * 

I 

c 



* . * 






l 

■ • + 




i *r<*yrMi 1 



ih* Arn-mta, ttniiv fimrt»f« and 
rnr-»T^** m*y H« 9**-r* 1 wl * 

r^ttf*ji* in* 

*ljOok 4ig! oft ifort feir If -r *r*. lr^nf %r: 1 . 

yoo look oKiC ani *1i-n t #f*i>. ' iac o it d*/ili:i, «• in\tm\ >*m 

Th# ^iyhmarTi *n! rvnni'ing nfj V w;">cf which frtnrt m 

» impcwutg. »Sn ^1 Mrmdablt <**. * w«J1 r« fit tlwi Coital T*>rr*tA 

lr» •mrmwhjK im« Jn nil ir>kiiT >• ijiummnul 

to th* wjf*|sft» |flM|ifiun<* itmrimnrw -mt t*\*c>*r t« 1**4.t.t-« »>it! 

■t *>«)* lido of iJm •vin.-fn*', ilm we miint 4,* w * 

•fnhaa r^w ih* *47 and th*> a^ •|«4« i om|«t 4>lt 



3 ^ II ft - 






. K 



tiaf 



itb thrm* corvduita ahov«lloaM priAt*4 liola of 



«1 rut* kt faf^tfc4irO 



*i j*fcA^ I tia* .1 ihof ar« at !• Ia t%«r - 






This article appeared in a New York City newspaper early in 1910. The hoy in the picture is the 
first president of the Junior Wireless Oub t later renamed the Radio Out of America, 



sages floating around between 
ships and shore stations* This 
was real fascination! 



1910 

Naturally there were 
bound to be conflicts 



developing, especially 
between the commercial com- 
panies and the "interlopers/* 



Interference occurred and 
became objectionable for 

boys." So in the 
year, 1910, the 
problems were 



"the big 
following 
existing 



brought to the ha lis of Con* 
gress, to find ways and means 
to regulate wireless communi- 
cation and define domains. 
True, the ether was free space 
and belonged to everybody, 
but the commercials and their 
interests sought to have 
vested right in their use of 
this "free" space. Thus, the 
conflict . . . 

The conflict was brought 
to a head in the introduction 
of two bills, one in the House 
and one in the Senate. House 
bill #23495 and Senate bill 
#7243 were introduced, The 
senator strongly in favor of 
these bills was none other 
than Chancy Dcpew of New 
York, which was the 
bailiwick where the inter- 
lopers were operating, The 
contents of the bills were 
strongly against any use of 
the airways by anyone except 
the commercials. The teen 
agers with their homemade 
equipment and their deter- 
mination, organization, and 
above all, their spirit, had 
other ideas. They wrote a 
letter to Chancy and told him 
so. Here we note something 
which will be of interest to alt 
of you. The boys of the 
Junior Wireless Club had a 
meeting, selected their repre- 
sentatives, and asked to have 
a hearing in Washington. 
They composed another 
letter to Chancy Depew f were 
granted a hearing, and on 
April 28, 1910, were given 
the privilege of presenting 
their case. Believe it or not, 
these boys won their right to 
go on experimenting as they 
had done before. This Junior 
Wireless Club had performed 
like veterans in the halls of 
Congress, and to them and 
many others went the free- 
dom of the ether for many 
years to come. 

1911 

So in 1911, the enthu- 
siasm on the part of radio 
amateurs grew tremendously. 
In the same year, the Junior 



116 



Wireless Oub changed its 
name to The Radio Gub of 
America, and remains so to 
this day. The members 
became notables in wireless. 
The club was held in very 
high esteem, especially after 
their confrontation with Con- 
gress and their display of 
courage and dedication for a 
cause dear to their hearts and 
right in principle. 

By 1911, every wireless 
company and operator on 
ship and shore knew that 
regulations were a necessity 
to hold down interference in 
radio communication. An 
Act, dated June 24, 1910, 
authorized by our Depart- 
ment of Commerce, Bureau 
of Navigation, became what 
at that time was considered 
the law of the land regarding 
radio transmission and recep- 
tion. This Act consisted of 
four sections, all very general, 
and was labeled An Act to 
Require Apparatus and Oper- 
ators for Radio Communica- 
tion on Certain Ocean 
Steamers. 

1912 

On July 23, 1912 (two 
years later), and then only 
pertaining to section one of 
the four sections, the Act was 
amended, spelling out some 
specific details concerning 
operators and ships a l sea. 
From then on, all trans- 
mitting stations would have 
to apply for a license to 
operate. The law was not too 
specific. It had loopholes, and 
many inland stations, 
especially amateur radio 
enthusiasts and experi- 
menters, went about hooking 
up induction coils and going 
on the air with call letters 
assigned by themselves. For 
instance, a "one inch 1 ' spark 
coil was considered to be 
limited to no further than 
eight or ten miles, so did not 
fall within the law crossing 
state borders] What a "primi- 
tive" concept of wireless in 
those days. The type of signal 
coming from these amateur 
operated coils did not con- 
form to any known band- 
width or frequency stan- 
dard. A signal was "just a 



"Radio Apparatus 



99 



^rapt-nta a. <j*flde4 ad vim anient tn lb* production of 
InMrnnieDhi ftf una I in fur the tRLO.nBljnl« of loteili- 
t«nee without the ua* of wlna. We rtitend our heart? 
cansmtuliLtlotii to Ihrr mrmbprv of Un? AfcUM'luLitiii in 

rliHr ftfTarli lo form nil HBbrokefl < Imlti aj \mnteiir S union a Unking the various ttftt«ft, unii will ttflftf out willing fiuptiurL ami 

HKj-isiniMi- In any un> pCttfelalQ In gttrmounttttK dlfllriulilM Unit in a- nrlBi+» 




AJirn won* ct x&Extm lb*»3 hs 
*■? CMalAcn* ri*:'s- i an r *»!» d 5c 
fa vklck u HHn u af ill a Una r* tnd- 

^xrwcf ife ?cx amw • »<** fcj 

omwt irarwfniianas «rt-3 f w mttWn. 

Our Anew Dw'lftfi,- will 'i»- 
Upw ^»lrfii«r Pine? TtauninUMnvt 

fciiiiffl&nfcily mttTftC.iJTiR prlr*» 

Iramt ran ' H*J.Id' Anr-+'»Ui" *"5 
Mmd pop ud*ri dhceitot ■ 
which vtD tn*af# rau sf po»il I ** *>i- 



C*+ #h£i*t* Ertf-KTCT *Pui 3Q0O 

Th*4< ■ -' -yiUf-pe* Wllft ciif Mff* -Moll*' 

1 Tifcrurft.il ,"i jl|,..j: : li irtOf* fllu l .;ar«r[y con- 
»rrun*-1, lsi»l*« ijTrc-n !< I&GQ 

n*l«f *"fi't !*+"C^ 1 tJCT^F*"' 1 *"-*' 1 / l!K*^*C3i ■ 

*ti!aiMiri:t 

f 2* 00 



f With U Yon Get Wh*t Yrt* 
W«nt. When Yen W*n* It 





fHf "fltoio iuf(*ioir »to ot> 



T>*4*C#frtJ « 

mam 4A sn T-* mu4 itnettvuv 

and • MMrN*«9tffet** H*For^t AsSw Dm «snr 

A CM* COW J Iittr 3 3 rmtnbqf * df* C*Hl arwTJIM 

lti« AmUrun juid m*UI« egittttftf «i"te» *0f p«o 
jr»4M or mw ■ , 

ft* murine r»n^^ e*n Nt tactttWl 3 ie J 

limn taUra our Aiidlttn Mtl»n=ife« rwmHitl* 1*- 

nmci#ni to i,im«m** ih+ 1 



THE * HfcOlO IHTm»|ltlO**t 



THE RADIO APPARATUS CO. 






tfliMi ■! Appinroi for mm AJ- 
vmikicJ Qaaa ol E*p«*utwr«H«T*. 

POTTSTOWN, PENN* 



As soon as radio became popular as a hobby, equipment began appearing on the market. Note 
the flamboyant style of the copy, typical of the period, This ad appeared in 1915, 



signal/' 

At this time, a number of 
wireless organizations blos- 
somed. Notable among these 
were 1) The Institute of 
Radio Engineers, 2) The 
American Radio Relay 
League, and 3) The National 
Amateur Wireless Associa- 
tion. Up to this time there 



was very little literature or 
published information avail- 
able. It did not take long for 
these to appear. Soon small 
companies issued store 
catalogs offering everything 
from loose couplers to 
crystals and crystal holders, 
headphones, and all sorts of 
gear to get the amateur 



started. Enthusiasm ran high. 
Wireless was a new found 
discovery and appealed to the 
young as well as to the old. 
Wireless could be used to 
span great distances and for 
so many experiments. The 
fascination of distant com* 
munication without wires was 
gripping and overwhelming. 





&&S 



H 




* ^ Association 



'Hftj Hint 





lutvtng fmmUrti«l 4£a*iptfrtriur>- i jfrtlmiml* mu\ Iiuvittg nKuwn (hnl he 
In it Hlmlriil iif l-t-siilli) ' « ■ r ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 > 1 1 ■ .iiinu |m htrrh%' nrrrpinl in ffltu%n *rii|i 
nnd full m*Miilp^r*liip in THE NATIONAL AM ATI] IK W Uill.lSS 
ASSOCIATION Mf Ami- ri in. II,- 4ii>rci-n lti>ri<liv an H lio%vu hy h\* r*iij- 
unliiMv lo proiiuilr thv itilrrcHtH of rx(>i rim^nlnl niditi wtirk uiul nf nil 
iiiiU'n l4»4*fc*5Pf ^ i' IheTjk'WU i»f IJjiiljii I <iiniiiii»iiiit»irii ul I hi' Lulled Bint**** 



Htftif^ h}A 



Ajipiwrd i 







f# 



dktSH*' 




fj ul !■■■ 







Issued in January 1917, this certificate was one of the first of the "awards'* that hams have 
a/ways displayed with pride on the walls of the shack. 



117 



WHAT A GOVERNMENT LICENSE 15, AND HOW TO GET ONE 

Th« Law governing the operation of imateur matione wu not pan-ted with Ike Idea of etlenrtni the amateur operator— on 
tilt ecHitrery, u U an official rmuguUlaii of Lie amateur'* rlfhia— and a Government I'ctDM eprrl*§ wft)i U advanusea and prlvi- 
lece* that otberwlae th* amateur would n«t enjoy— thai it, If hv keepi wiinln the law, Thm law m It r#lei«i to U»e operation of 
■mataur nation* la u*»lf la sol ■ atrkrt ana. ir yon hnTe a r*<eirl»i atauon anty. It la not necMtarr rar r«a u» |ft ■ Hewn**-. If 
Ton operate a aendlog whoa* power u f raai eooufta to reach fearoad the bq lindane* of lb* elate ron ar» locate^ la. or to lntert>re 
with lha Uc*n**d station* Is the itai*. th* law aajra 70a nun hav* a lice*" Briefly, it itatea that your ware lanfftb ahatl not ■*- 
c«?d !60 metwr* and your tmneformef input ahall not «fwfl r KW Or If your atattoa ti located within n>a nautical mile* of a mil- 
itary or natal elation, rour iranaformet Input ihall not airecd HKW, 

The Heenee li tree, end the only requirement! are. that you answer correctly the Quaitlom naked to the tormi neat you, 
and that yon ire ani« to tranacnlt and receive uaaafcfe* at the rata of at laaet S word* a minute To fat one. write the Radio In- 
ipectnr* Department or Commerce, Bureau of HatiiatioD of the Dletdct headquart«re oeareit you. and aefc for form *5i, f Appli- 
cation far Oparaur't Llc«na«> and Form 1*7 (AppllctLioa tor Lleeae* for Land Stat loo) both of whkh will he forward ad to TOu 
XI you have 1 Henna*. Official Call Let ten are seaifued yon which no en* *l>e can tie* You heov what you can do. and what ywu 
can't do, and no one can Interfere with yon In any way eo tQBf en you obey th* Lew For your own protection you ehould f*t one. 

In J 91 5, the Centra/ Radio Association issued its Blue Book^ a reference text for early 
amateurs, ft included this explanation of why licenses were required. 



1914 

Hiram Percy Maxin was 
one individual who could 



come up with the right ideas 
at the right time, and the 
ARRL was his heritage. No 



sooner had this enthusiasm 
caught fire when World War I 
broke out in Europe in 1914. 



1917 

The conflict went on for 
several years and sure enough, 
the United States became 
involved in 1917. All radio 
amateurs received notices to 
dismantle their equipment. 
Many joined the services in 
one capacity or other, many 
into the Signal Corps where 
their training and experience 
as radio operators was greatly 
appreciated by the govern- 
ment. 

7o be continued. 



This antenna was one of 
the most popular 
antennas for amateur use, and 
it deserves more attention 
than it gets now, although it 
was first designed in 1929. In 
that year, two amateurs, John 
Byrne and Ed Brooke of Bell 
Telephone Laboratories, 
under the direction of Pro- 
fessor W. L. Everitt of the 
Department of Electrical 
Engineering, Ohio State 
University, experimented 
with and perfected this 
antenna. It was reported in 
September; 1929, QST by 
Loren G. Windom, and there- 
fore became known as the 
Windom antenna. 

Its chief advantage is that 
it may be used on all even 
harmonics with a single wire 
feed. Since amateur bands are 
harmonically related, except 
15 meters, it may be used 
without change for an all 
band antenna. By cutting it 
for 80 meters, it can also be 
used on 40, 20 and 10, with- 
out changing the properly 
placed single wire feedline, 

The length of the antenna 
is determined by the formula, 
468 /frequency in kHz. Thus, 
for 3725 kHz the length will 



JerroJd Swank WBHXR 

657 Will* bar Drive 

Washington Courthouse OH 43160 



Remember the Windom! 



- - is this the world's simplest 
five band antenna? 



be 125'8'\ The distance of 
the feeder from the center is 
approximately 14% of the 
antenna length, or about 
17'6 M . At this point there are 
no standing waves on the feed- 
line. By tapping the feeder up 
on the plate tank until the 
transmitter loads properly, 
you can tune for whatever 
band you are operating in. 



Fig. 7. 



Lira "'iSfcl 



CENTER 



See Fig, 2. The feeder is #14 
wire, any length. 

To reduce the chance of 
getting rf in the station, the 
method in Fig, 2(b) can be 
used, with link coupling to an 
external tuned circuit. This 
antenna at the feedpoint has 
an impedance of approxi- 
mately 600 Ohms. 

There has recently 
emerged a similar appearing 
off center fed antenna which 
is incorrectly called a 



Windom, as shown in Fig. 3. 
The theory is that this is fed 
at a 300 Ohm point with 
twinlead, which can then be 
transferred by a 4*1 balun to 
75 Ohm coax. There is some 
controversy about this, but at 
any rate the feedlines should 
come away from the antenna 
at a right angle for at least a 
quarter wave length, and the 
equipment should be well 
grounded to prevent floating 
rf in the station, ■ 




LtFEET)- 



^P 



4feB 



tTL— J 



4*1 
BALUM 



TO TRANSMITTER 



Fig. 2(a). 



Fig. 2(b). 



Fig. 3. 



118 



SST T 1 RANDOM WIRE ANTENNA TUNER 



IF? 



All band operation <16{>1G meters) with 
most any random length wire. 200 Watt 
power capability. Ideal for portable or home 
operation. A must for Field Day. Size: 2 x 
4-1/4 x 2-3/8. Built-in neon tune-up indica- 
tor. Guaranteed for 90 days. Compact — 
easy to use. Only $29.95. 





ASTATIC 
MICROPHONES 



T-UG8-D104, transistorized , T , $48.60 

T-r G9-D104, ''Golden Eagle/ 1 transistorized $95-40 
T-UG9-D104, "Silver Eagle," transistorized . $69.95 
UG-D104, ceramic or crystal .. .*.*.....», $42.60 



CES Touch Tone 
Pads - S49.95 o». 
• Mod«l 200- 
acoustic coup 
ling •Model 210 
for mounting on 
wplkies or hand 
hetds 



OQQ 

ssssss 



MODEL 

200 




MODEL 

210 



CES Mode* 220 
CES can now offer 
you a TOUCH 
TONE* back for 




Standard Communi- 
cations hand held 
radios. This ti the 
complete back 

assembly with the 
TOUCH-TOME* 
encode* mounted 
and ready to plug 
into the private 
channel connector. 
Also included is an 
LED tone gen- 
eral ion indicator 
and an external tone 
deviation adj ust- 
ment. 



talk 
power 




for an Economy Price? 

THAT'S RIGHT! 

introducing the ECONO-LINE 




VlHMil Influt OuteuT Ti*«*! 
?U? S20W569QW I0in,'70our 
7Q2B l aw eOHQW lift 70 our 



143 149 WMr £139 00 
143T49MHJT 5 1 69 00 



Now get TPL COMMUNICATIONS 
quality and reliability at an economy 
price. The new Econo Line gives you 
everything that you've come to expect 
from TPL at a real cost reduction. The 
latest mechanical and electronic construc- 
tion techniques combine to make the 
Econo- Line your best amplifier value. 
Unique broadband circuitry requires no 
tuning throughout the entire 2-meter band 
and adjacent MARS channels. See these 
great new additions to the TPL COMMUN 
ICATIONS product line at your favorite 
amateur radio dealer. 

For prices and specifications please write 
for our Amateur Products Summary I FCC 
type accepted power amplifiers also avail- 
able. Please call or write for a copy of 
TPL s Commercial Products Summary. 



$39.95 

kit 



SLINKY! 

A LOT of antenna in a LITTLE space 
New Slinky® dipole* with helical 
loading radiates a good signal at 1/10 
wavelength long! 

•patent No 3j.Vt.210 

Ki WtCTvf nil 




•• mil 



mt tip mi 



m FEfi lafnifg 




.In 



a uii :a*i u.yi tq.i 



mmw 



l* If! CHI It CM.) 





iwtcutt 4iiHtiei U4 




*** li«r(a 



• Tft* ^tCirKsiiy tmaU BO 1 7$. 40 1 20 m«1tr antenna operate* 
n any i«ng if. from?* to 70 tort • «o wan o*it*i or tfamamaich 
n*«d*d * portibta- wacta A itorei in minute? • small 
tcnougfi to ht in attic o* ■p»rtms« [ • lirft *$■> powe* • low SWA 

ovef CDm p i«f e 50 ?S 40. A 20 mafar ban^S • much kjrw»f aTmo- 
spheric none pickup than a vertical and need s no r «d<a is ■ hit 
includes a pair ol *p*cialty-m*d» 4-inck £a. by 4 inch long 
corfa, containing 33a Feet of fidiiung conductor, balgn, 5D n 
ftGM Ucoii PL ?S3 c or. nee lo i nylon ropa & instruction man- 
ual * "o * m use by US Dapt ol Stale. US Afm, radio schoots 
flJus thouaandi c* Ka*n» tne world over 




G^-fc »r» Htlt 




Walkie Talkie 
146 A 



it- NOW I 



Ptenny Pincher 14GAafl XTALS (Specify three frequencies] 



.$298.00 



34/94 



94/94 



• Standard 
Communications 



SCOTCH TREAT SPECIAL as above includes rubber ducky antenna. 

Nieads with charter .,.,..,.., , mmt ,$335-00 



34/94 



94/94 



SCOTCH DELUXE as above pi us Deluxe carrying case , $349,00 

THE WORKS: all channel s youf cho i ce spare N ic ad Battery p ak . ■ , . - . . .S400.00 




MOBILE DELIGHT HORIZON 2 
6 channels your choice 5/8 wave gain antenna 
Trunk tip or roof mount your choice . . . * ***«*•>.♦* . - . .$295.00 



MOBILE DELIGHT D 



Horizon Z 

25Wam12ChanneJf 



■LUXE as above but all channels your choice ■ ■ ■ ■ $325.00 
■ i * ' i r^— ^^^^^ i i *■ 




Name, 



Call 



Address. 
City 



State 



_ Zip 



Order: 



Radio Electronics 

209 Mystic Avenue 
Medford MA 02155 
(617) 395-8280 

New England's 
Friendliest Ham Store 



□ Check enclosed 

D BankAmericard D MasterCharge D American Express 

Credit card # Interbank # 

grgnptiirp. . Card expiration date . 



FREE Gift With Every Order! 



ALL SALES FINAL ! 



MasterCharge 

American Express 

BankAmericard 

accepted on 

MOST items! 

Prices FOB Medford 
MA + All units can be 
shipped UPS. MA resi- 
dents add 5% sales tax. 
Orders over $1000 
deduct 5%. Add $3.00 
for shipping & handling 
on all orders. 




HUM RRDIO 




COMMUNICATIONS 



IS 




THOMSON-CSF 



NPC 





ELECTRONICS 




MODEL 


NET PRICE 


103R 


$39.95 


12V4 


St9.95 


•13HM4 


$41 .95 


600 


S20.50 


104R 


$49.95 


102 


$24.95 


12/115 


$69,95 


6t2 


S27.95 


108R 


$79.95 


107 


S28.95 


108RM 


$99.95 


12 HM4 


$29.95 


109R 


$149.95 






ALSO 1 Availabta m 
13 HM 4 with built in 
loudtpeaker. 

Oulpul Voltage 
Continuous Currcnl 
Regulation 
Ripple.' Noise 



MODEL 12HM4 



NFC 2.5 Amp Regulated Power Supply 
Solid State Short Circuit Protected 



low cost regulated power supply 
outeiry converts US vohs AC to 
13 5 volts DC _ 200 rndlivails 
1 5 amps c&fiJtrHious. 2.5 Bfpps 

reg ir)eaifv wrier) let operating 
mobile CB transceiver in your 
home or office base station 



1 YJMCAt, 

13 5 i 5VDC 

T.a Amp 

?5 Amp 
SmVWMS 



MAJOMuM 
14VDC 



tqmV RMS 



Ceo* 3 IHh 4" iWI a 5V <OJ Shipping Weight 3 tbi 



MODEL 107 

NPC 4 Amp Power 

Supply. 6 Amp Ma*. 

Solid State. Overload 

Protected 




POWER SUPPLY 




Functions sttentfy m convening 115 vote AC to 12 vgrts OC 4 
continuous, % amps max Enables anyone to enjoy 06 radio, car 
cartridge, cassette player or car radw in a home or office 



Conumuoui Curr«fi| (Full Load) 
Oulpui Vallage I. No Load) 

Ckupul V«Unge I'Full lend) 
fi I luring Capacitor 
Ripple (Full Loadf 
Short Circuit Protection 

m\ • *». iWiii^ ^Dj Sh.pp.r1gWe.5r-r 5 ibi 



4 Amp 

16 V ma> 

12 Vmln 

lO.Orjrj i*F 

J V RMS 

t her mill Breaker 






£HM >' 


^V 


NPC 


# 


POWER SUPPLY 






REG 


ULATED 0* 


rn*Nictivin 
111 V4CM3 5 VPC > * 4l»P RfG 




MODEL 103R 



NPC 4 Amp Regulated 
Power Supply, 
Solid State. Dual 
Overload Protection, 



Converts 115 volts AC to 13 6 volts 0C rZOO milhvons. Handte 2 5 
.imps continuous and 4 amps mai irjeaity suited tor applications 
where no horn and OC stability art mporam sjc* as C8 transmission. 
W nam qo*o Transjnaer. ana rugn Quajirtv •ejRHrac* car stereos 
Can also &e used to trickle-charge 12 voft car batteries 

TYPICAL. WAXItflfU 

Output Veritagr i3fi<2VDC tj.e - 3 VDC 

Line.' Load Regulation MmV 30 mV 

flipple/ Noise JmVRMS 5 mv RMS 

Trgnsieni Response 20 uSec 

Currant C onli nil pub 2 ,B Amp 

Current Limit 4 Amp 

Curreni FaklbnCh 1 Amp 

3 p5*4VfW}s5*'*rO) Shrppng Weight 4 lbs 





MODEL 109R 



♦ 7 






w 


p 


1 


■ 

r 




;" 


** 



MODEL 108RM 

NPC 12 Amp Regulated 
Power Supply 
Sal id State. 
3Aiy Plot acted 
Cu«tni M*(«r 



This heavy duly unit ouietty converts ifi volts AC te 13 6 von* DC 
k 200 millivolts B amps continuous. 12 amps max All solid slate 
Features dual current nvertoarj sari overvciiagr protection ideally 
suited for opeN-iiing mobile Ham radio 2 meter AM -FM-5S8 irans- 
neivers irt vow Nome or office Can also be used to trickle-charge 12 
volt car batteries 



Output Vohage 

Line/Load Regulation 

Rppte/Nofse 

T rannem Response 

Current Conbnuom 

Current Dr- - 

Current FptdGac* 

Ovtrtrottsgc Protection 



TYPICAL 

13 6 1 2VDC 
MrnV 
2 mV RMS 
2QuScc 
B Amp 
12 Amp 
21 Amp 
Hi V 



MAXIMUM 

13 6 » 3VDC 
50 mV 
SmVRMS 



15V 



Caw 4»" 1H1 m tW tWI * SV '01 Shipping weight 9 S ins 

ALSO AVAILABLE AS MODEL 108RA 
WITHOUT METER AND OVERVOLTAGE 

PROTECTION 



NPC 25 Amp Regulated Power Supply. 4-Way P'otecteo 
Output Voltage and Current rVleten. 

Extra heavy-duty umi quiclly converts 115 vails AC to 13.6 volte DC - 20Q 
miliivolls. 10 amps crjniinurjus, 25anip5 ma* All solid state. Features 
dual current ovetfoad. ovBrvoitao^e and thermal protection Ideal I v suited 
lor operating mobile Ham radio and linear amplifier in your home or omce 
Excellent oench power supply tar testing and serviang pt mobde cnmmO' 
mcahons equipment 

T*PIC*l 

13 6 2VDC 
Somv 



Output VoUege 
Line/ Load 



HjppteNoiee 
Tro.Ti'Menl Rekponse 
Current Continuous 
Current Limil 
Ovfat-wollagb Protection 
Tharmnl dverload 



SmvnwS 
20 u Sec 
id Amp 
26 Amp 
14&V 
tao-T 



WARIUUV 

13 6 3VOC 
1O0 mv 
10 mv RMS 



15V 



Caw 44< (Hi x 9' |W| x fit" |D| Sttippmq Weignt: 1$ toa. 



MODEL 104R 

NPC & Amp Power Supply 
Regulated. 
Solid State Ouai 
Overload Protection 

Converts 115 volts AC to 13.6 votts 

DC 1 200 millivolts Handles 4 
amps conii minus and 6 amps max. 
w Ideally suited for applicaiituks wtiere 
15 imporlant. such as CB Iransmission small Ham 
high Quality etgnj-trac* car stereos Can tie used to 
cat batteries 

1 tPiCAl 

11S 1 3VOC 
50 mV 
5«nVRhtS 




excellent DC stability 
radio transmitter and 
Sfickl* cturoe 12 volt 



Output 

L<ne/Lo*d Regulation 
Ripple/ Norte 
Treneieni Response 
Current Contmuaus 
Current Limil 
Current FolldUBCk 

Cato 3' IHM5 



VAXiVgU 

13.6 ) 2VDC 
20 mv 
2mVRM8 
2DuS«c 

4 Amp 
6 Amp 
2 Amp 

fW| tfl 1 ' iD|i Shipping Wa^ht: 6 lb». 




MODEL 12V4 

NPC 1.7 5 Amp 
Power Supply. 
3 Amp Max 

Functions silemty iri conven- 
ing 115 votti AC to 12 votes 
DC ideaify suited tor most 
applications including extract stereo, burglar alarm car radio art 
cassette not otayer wtim power mmg 

CorrtjfiLJDUs Currem (Fun lowa 1 
Output Voitege jNo Load) 
Output Vortage iFuil Load} 

Fihttirrg CapBLiitir 
Ripple iFuii Load 1 
Shon Cifcuii Protcciiun 

Ceee 3" <H \ x <" j W) h 5 - iOt Shipping Welgrrt 3 iba 



1 .75 Amp 
1 6 V may 
UVmin 
5,000 uF 
A VRMS 
Thermal Breaker 




mil IU STATE 



MODEL 102 

N PC 2.5 Amp 

Power Suppfv- 

4 Amp Max r Solid St«l«. 

Overload Protected, 

Functions silently in convert' 
ing 115 volft AC Id 12-voJis 
OC 2.5 amps continuous. 4 amps max Enables anyone to enpy CB 
radio, car 9-track cartirjge, cassette tape player or car rarjio m a home 
or office. 

Cen0noousCumirTi|FuriLoed| 2 5 Amp 

Output Voltage i Hq Load< lfiVmu 

OvCput VOftage (Fyi Loedi UVmm 

F^llenrvg CapacHor 5 .000 up 

Ripple ( Full Load J 0VRMS 

Shon Circuii Proledion tnerrnel Break** 

Ca*&. 3" iH) x 4V tW> iS 1 . (Oi Snipping Weight. 4 Ibe. 




Output Vottage {Ha Load? 
Output Voltage ifuu Loedi 
frequency (Ho Loodi 
Frepuency (Fun Load* 
Power Conttnuout 



Pa/aneJ Conned •&« 



ti VOC IN 




MVPC IH 


MS VRMS 




130 V RWS 


100 VRMS 




115 VPMS 


SfHz 




&Q F*I 


WM2 


aoow 

J40W 
350W 


$ZHr 



MRRINE G- RV model 6 i& 



All Value* Are Typicii 



MODEL 12-115 

NPC 12 115 Solid State Inverter, 700 W 

Parallel Connection tor Higher Power up to 350 w. 

Converts i? volts OC lo 1 15 volts AC Sp 60 Hz outpui. 200 watts com in 
uous operation with peak power up tn ?40 watts Alt silicon sernicnnduc- 
tors assure high reliability a! excessive ambient temperances The 
output voltage is a souare mwt The inverter is not recommended 
where high transients art not tolerable 

The 12 1 1S allows you lo have AC house Ctftart in your boat car, tmrjL 
carnper house trailer, or housebget Wilt oppraie snoii househok] appti- 
T V hand tools, electric shaver AC radios and 1 ignis within 
rating Built-in overload protection 

Case -4b" fH) ■ ' iWnV: |D| Shipping Waight- 7 Ibi 



Modal 612 
Power Convener 

NPC 612 converts 6 volt 
negative ground or 12 volt 
positive gmund electrical 
sy&tems to 12 volt nega- 
tive ground operation. 
Provides full 2 amp con- 
tinuous power The in- 
eipensive solution lor 
MttaJlinrj car radio*, stereo 



in vefiides wttti 6 von neg- 
ative ground or 12 volt 
positive ground systems 

Co** 2V |H|m3 (W| *5' iOj 
Shipping Weight 1 lb 




6 METER BEAMS 




3.5-6-10 1LIMINTS 



proven performance from rvfxadV full slie, ■ meter beams, 
tlempiit ipse lugs and length* have been carefully engineered Co 
Hive lw*i pattern, high forward Rain, **<*** front ubacb ratio 
and broad frequency reaponie* 

liMomn urn ,06S wall and elements are 3 A" 1 - S/B" *049 wnll 
Hastnlnsji rhrome fmlsh nltimlmim tubing* Th* 1 'A and Q element 
hnennn Jwve i a/fl" -1 l / <"btwmii The 6 and 10 element beams 
hive 1 Jy/fl" - 1 1/2" booms. All brackets are heavy (gauge 
formed Aluminum. Bright JiMinht-ud plated ubol La art" a iJJuf table 
for up to I 9/f " maal on ;i And S element and I" im C and 10 
element brims, All model* rrm\ he mounted for horizontal or 
vertical poUriEStin* 

Se* fratupe* include adjuaublr length elements, kilowatt Retirfi 
Match and built-in «u ftattag fcr dtreei al ohm feed. These 
beams see factory marked and supplied with tost rum no- for 
quick Assembly, 



DnP'jmpn 


Jffaemcni 


tj.., r ,T ..--- 


fi etemrrtl 


IQi<fiiwK 


Model No, 


A50 3 


A&05 


AS06 


ASO 10 


Boom L oiji h 


6' 


12* 


30 


J4 


Longed El. 


IT 7" 


1.1 r 


TT7" 


117 


Turn Radius 


6 


r.r 


,11' 


13 


f rtid -Gil it 


7.5 dB 


SBdB 


1 1 5 dB 


!3dB 


FrB Rftio 


?QdB 


2^ flH 


26 dS 


2Sd& 


'.'.■ 1 


7 Itn. 


11 II .-. 


IS lbs, 


3S lb* 




RINGO 
RANGER 

tor FM 









1^ 




f 


II 



4,5 dB" - 6 dB" 
Omnidirectional 

GAIN 
BASE STATION 

ANTENNAS 

FOR 

MAXIMUM 

PERFORMANCE 

AND 

VALUE 



Cunh Cmfl has created another first by milking the 
world's most popular 2 meter antenna twice as good. 
The new Kingo Ranger in developed tram the basic 
AR-2 with three half wave* in phase and & one eighth 
wave matching stuh, Ringo Ranger gives an extremely- 
low angle of radiation for better signal coverage- It La 
tunable over a broad frequency range and perfectly 
matched to 52 ohm max 

AflX-Z 137-160 MHz. 4 lbs.. MT 
ARX-220. HMtfl MHi, 3 Rra,. 75* 
ARX-450. 435-4*0 MHz. 3 to,.. 39" 

* Refemwe t* wave dlpolr. 

** Reference f« wa** whtp used ss gain itandard by many 
manufacturers. 
Work full quieting into more repeaters and extend the 
radius of your direct contacts with the new Ringo 
Hanger, 

You can up date your present AB-2 Ringo with the 
simple addition of thil extendi kit. The kit includes 
the phasing network and necessary element extensions. 
The onJy modification* required are easy to make saw 
slits in the top section of your antenna, 

ARX-2K CONVERSION KIT 



2 METER 

ANTENNAS 




A TM nJhtGQ A,7sdB iUin h r*l>ntirp ^ w«™ wbjjn Naif w«v*i IttitfUi ab- 
tpniviia With dJrn- 1 d* Kroutid US tffvln f**4 t*k«a PU-Xllt, low an*;!* ur radJa- 
tiuii with 1-1 aWR F*elflry prftmaemtilpd *pd ready in lititakl, 4 meter 

|.irll, ,- ■ 1 Mi.r'rrj .■■' tfQ MM I V.I. n ! L4 •■ p| Rn-.r lr ■ : , • ?,!r.£. : - 

In 1+1* thjijn *ll other JTM HJil*nri4J MnHned 

Mr-trl V-mib-r AlUi AH-» *Jl"« AW'IW AR-«0 

rmpwvY «Hr ias.ir» iis-tTs shh ikhis 444-ita 

Fwi .-»Slf Waoa 1» 3*0 J<* ■» ISO 

WttM ami aa, ft JH - Ji' ST JT JT 

■ ^ SOLI Up In t aV Gatti 
1 17 MHi - » »0 KHt — If 

r* - ia i«2l sa 



VM"Uc*J *DK>i>n «xut net ■nipm* 

mt4D 1*4 - IM KHa. IDSS wStU wiad um J M >q f» 
ArK-ZID Z39-ia ItHs 10«l watt* wqal *n» % IS aq It 
AFM-HD 436 - 4S0 MHa IrtW *aU* wrnJ irti i I) mj n 

O.SOWfH P*CK TH^ b(j plftiwt iil f|pm?nt .irriyi fur J impler FM. u^ea 

tWt> A147-M yupis With 4 horiKintAl AluUDtlDg bDOIfl, 11W1HI11I h:impp.>! iin.L 

nJ] hnrYlwAH' Pn™'<inl rnii> HI dp. F"B rniio 24 da. "^ p^^r twAmwidUi 
4ii , dkHiiniMiiiiiH J-t-l".va(l" h Id", liii-n rhdLuu w. wf-i^hl IS lira . AS <'hm f««d 

taHti fi^asn flttins. 

AHf-33 146 - 148 Mil*, 1PW Wilt*. *-iruJ lesStVH if] 




STaC) ftTSCKSWG arrs Vpfc mTlndn IwinazBital mniAtdv 
fekrtnn «ad aDstrarUena f pt t»» rrrtiralJir ptiiaJ-.wsd >A|ft* . 
tha mmflw aitaa». 



Tarawa. 

3 dO gain 




[ 1 1 tl tLEMEHT TA&IS Taa cLtadfcrd. irf canpanmn In VHF-lTlF eeaa- 
annnifsHsn*. saw mi (or HI aMt ^rtltral i>4arijgitiRt Jtm four and ■*» atK 
aaml medal* can be tnwar Uda nuunlad. All ace ratad «1 IQQff wmUM wua 
4tr*ee S3 oltro fwJ *nd PH3» rafmsrkra. 



Honnt 1jjitBT*t ela. 
Wiht ■TAim radm.5 

Cillli'K mill* dB 
'* i*SWtf benni 
Wind «raa «q H 
FrpqHPhcy MHi 



A 1 47- II 

ill" Irt' 
Situ, ■■-■ 

Uf.Uk 



A- UT-4 

11 iq~ 

44' 

'HI 
It 
144-141 



A44S-3 1 

sn-.'ia" 
4 lbi.. ftfii- 

l."l.2 -2H 

<&* 



A4«i« 

3 llH. IH 

it -in 

440-4 SO 



A 2^-11 

ioi-.-2S H 

: I. -I* 
4¥* 

■•i-i 

220-225 



f FM TttUt IZ-4 «JB C*iO T« e1«n*fdj lsanionra] pnlanaalMn rar lo» 
aaal r**arae« and In a-liimali wrtaral po3*r:iaUoi3 for FV '«t'h* For' 
ward BUM JJ * dB F B r*tn> IS 4H S«aan karU 1»" . wirHi 

■ir . 51 own Redd* MaU-S drt*aai i*™nu ^*a« PUS 

■rpanlc Fttad tiaem 

AliTMT 1*5- i<- NHt tasd wmili wnal araa IIIh fl 



HIGH PERFORMANCE 
VHF YAGfS 

3/4 , 1-1/4, a METER BEAMS 

The standard of comparison in smntnur VHF I HF rommunica- 
tloni t'ush Craft yagli c&mluai' ill out perfarmantP nnri relU- 
bilU> with npiimun; slrr lot esse of assemhlv and mounting, at 
JT4W aile, 

Li£ht«.ct|cSi yet ntsxerf, the •nteenss bsve 3/li" Ou ». solid 
aluminum elements *jih '■ l«T center sectifSM rnouRteifon scary 
duly tor Mil bracket*. Bmshb are l and Mfc sl JHil s sim 

ItlbttSf. Mast rawniA of I •O"' funasd liuMinunv ha*r adjustable 
Unbolts tor up to I-l/^** O-D. masts- Tli#* tin hr mounted 
lor horizontal or vertical pels Has lion. Complete instructions 
Include data 4m 2 meter r Al repeater ope mi ion. 

New features Include n kilowatt Herfrfi Match for direct &Z ohm 
conxlNl feed with a stnndurri PL-259 fitting. All rletnenLfi are 
flpncffl at .2 waveLtitkfilh tod tapered far improvi-.) htttidwidlh' 



Mod*i Ni? 


A1A4 7 


A 1 -14 1 1 


A2?tl 11 


A430 11 


Deicripiran 


2m 


?JTI 


1%." 


W 


£lenwn(i 


7 


11 


11 


11 


Boom Lngrh 


99' 


14)4 


ntfr 


57" 


Wf ■Op I 


4 


S 


4 


3 


P*(I Ciatn 


ttdfi 


13 d8 


13 dB 


l3dB 


1 S Rata) 


76 dB 


30 46 


2h 3fl 


2H dB 


Fwd tocara* 










)%p«aT. pi 


46 


42 


4? 


47 


SttrT P*ni4 


1 to 1 


ttol 


1 to 1 


T to- 1 






Description: 

2DEI&merTt 
OX- Array 

Frame & Harness 
(40 £ J 

Frame & Harness 
100 El i 

1-1 52 ohm Balufi 

Van, Pol. Bracket 

t20EM 



Mooai: Price 





VHF/UHF BEAMS 
A50 3 S 2750 A144-7 

ASO-5 3950 A 144<11 

A50-6 59 SO A430 11 

A50-10 89.50 

AMATEUR FM ANTENNAS 



A147-4 S 15.95 



A1 47*11 
A147-20T 
A1 47-22 
A220-7 
A220*1 1 
A449-6 
A449-1 1 
AFM-4D 
AFM-24D 



24.95 
47 50 
69,50 
1835 
2235 
1535 
2135 
53.50 
49,50 



220 MHi, 
Model: Price: 



AFM44D 

AR-2 

AR-6 

AR-25 

AR-220 

AR^iSO 

ARX-2 

ARX2K 

ARX220 

ARX-450 

432MHZ. 
Modal: 





19.95 
2435 

I ^j .k?3 



4750 
1850 
2450 
2150 
1850 
18.50 
2850 
1135 
2850 
28.50 



OX- 120 $3950 DX^2S) *32-50 DX-420 13.50 



DXK-140 4S2.50 DXK-240 M9.50 DXK^440 *36.50 



OXK-180S10000 
0X1BN $10 95 



OXK 280 §86.00 OXK-480 170.00 
0X-2BN 410.95 DX-4BN »10 95 



DX-VPB S8.96 DX VPS *8.96 DX-VPB $6.95 




hf engineering 

THE WORLDS MOST COMPLETE LINE OF VHF-FM KITS AND EQUIPMENT 



RX2BC - 
RX50C Kit 
RX144CKit 

RX144CW/T- 
RX220CKit . 

RX220C W/T 
RX432C Kit 



28-35 MHz l*M receiver with 2 

pole 10.7 MHz crystal fillet . . 5995 

30-60 MHz rc*r*/2 pole 10,7 

MHz crystal rilter . . . . 59.95 

140-170 MH*rcvrw/2 pole 

(0.7 MHz crystal filter . - , . 69-95 

same as above - factory wired 

and tested ». $ 1 14.95 

210-240 MHz revr w/2 pole 

10,7 MHz crystal filter - . . €995 

same as above - factory wired 

and tested ......... 114.95 

432 MHircvrw/2 pole 10.7 

MHz crystal filter . 79*95 

accessory I liter for above receiver 

kits gives 70 dB adjacent channel 

rejection t . \ . . 8.50 



RECEIVERS 




RF28 Kit 

RHOKit 

RFM4DKU . 
R1-22UD Kit , 
RF432 Kit 
IF l0.7FKit . 
FM4S5 Kit . 
AS2 Kit - 



10 meter RF front end 10 J MHz 
output . . . 

6 me let RF front end 10.7 MHz 
output ,..<... 

1 meter RF front end 10.7 MHz 

output 

220 MHz RF front end 10.7 MM* 
output , 4. , 

432 MHz RF front end 10.7 MHz 
output ... 
10.7 MHz IF module include* 2 
pole crystal filter . . 

455 KHz IF stage plus FM 
detector . .... 

audio and squelch board 



12.50 

1230 

17.50 

17.50 

2730 

27.50 

17.50 
15.00 



TXt44BKtt. transmitter exciter I watt - 

2 meter* . - . .$ 29.95 

TX1 44 B W/T- . same as above - factory wired 

and tested ... 49,95 

TX220BKit transmitter exciter J a ait 

220 MHz 29.95 

TX220B W/T* * nine as above - factory wired 

and tested . . .... 49.95 



TRANSMITTERS 




TX432R Kit. 

TX432B W/T 

TX150Kii . . 



transmitter exciter 432 MHz 

same as above - factory wired 

and tested 

300 milliwatt, complete 2 

meter transmitter. 

less crystal and mike 



39.95 
59.95 

19.95 




PA2501H Kit , 

PA2501H W/T 
PA 40 1 OH Kit 
PA 401 OH W/T 
PA 144/15 Kit 



2 meter power amp - kit 1 w in 
- 25 w out with solid state switch- 
ing, case, connectors 59.95 
same as above - factory wired 
and tested . , . , . , 74.95 
2 meter power amp - I Gw in 
40w out - relay switching . 59.95 
same as above - factory wired 
and tested ....... 74-95 

2 meter power amp - Iw in - 

1 5w out - less case, connectors 

and switching 39.95 



POWER AMPLIFIERS 




PA 144/25 Kit 



PA220/15 
PA432/10 

PA140/10 

PA 140/30 



Kit 
Kit 



similar to PA 144/1 5 kit except 

25 wotft 49-95 

similar to PA 144/ 1 5 Tor 220 MHz 39.95 

power amp - similar to PA 1 44/ 15 

except 10* and 432 MHz 49.95 

lOw in - J40woui - 2 meti 

amp - factory wired and tested . 179.95 

30w in - I40w out 2 meter 

amp- factory wired and tested . I59. Q 5 



PS15C Kit 




PS15CW7T . 
PS25C Kit . 

PS25CW/T . 



15 amp - 12 volt regulated 
power supply w/case, w fold -back 
current limiting and ovcrvoltape 
protection ....... 79.95 

same as above — factory wired 

and tested °4.95 

25 amp - 12 volt regulated 

power supply w/casc. w/fold-bacfe 

current limit in# and overvoltage 

protection - .129,95 

same as above — factory wired 

and tested . . . . , . 149 95 



POWER SUPPLIES 




adds over voltage protection to 

your power supplies, 15 VDC max 9.95 

I 2 volt power supply regulator 

card with fold back current 

limiting ..... . . 8,95 

new commercial duty 30 amp 

] 2 VDC rc^ubted power supply 

w/case, * /fold back current limit* 

im: and over voltage protection 

wired and tested 239.95 



RPT2S Kit 
RPT2S . 

RPT50 Kit 
RPT50 . 

RPT144 Kit 

RPT220 Kit 
RPT432 Kit 



repealer IOmeter .... TBA 
repeater •■ 10 meter, wired & 

tested . • TBA 

repeater - 6 meter ...... TBA 

repeater - 6 meter, wired & tested TBA 

repeater - 2 meter - 15w — 

complete (less crystals) . . , . 465.95 

repeater - 220 MHz - 15w - 

complete (less crystals) , . . 465,95 

repeater - 10 watt - 432 MHz 

(less crystals) ...... 515,95 



REPEATERS 




RHT144 . 
RPT220 . 
RFT432 . 

oruti44 

DPLX220 



repeater - 1 5 watt 2 meter - 

factory wired and tested . , 695.95 

repeater - 15 watt - 220 MHai - 

factory wired and tested 695.95 

peatei - 10 watt 432 Mil/ 
factory wired and tested . 749.95 

2 meter. 600 KHz spaced dup lexer, 
wired ;i nd tuned to frequency . . 399.95 
2 21 J MM/ dup lexer, wired and 
tuned to frequency ..... 399.95 



TRX 144 Kit 



TUX 220 Kit 

TRX 432 Kit 



case and all components to buikl 

1 5 watt 10 channel scanning 2 

meter transceiver (less mike and 

crystals) ..... 219.95 

same as above except for 220 MHz 219.95 

same as above except 10 watt and 

432MHz 254.95 



TRANSCEIVERS 




SYN U Kit 



SYNH 



2 meter synthesizer t transmit offsets 
programmable from 100 KHz - 10 

MHz, (Mars offsets with optional 
adapters) ..... , 169.95 

same as above, wired and tested 239.95 



SYNTHESIZERS 




111 I44BKU 



NICAD . . 
NtCAD . 
Rubber Dude . 



2 meter, 2w t 4 channel, hand 
held receiver with crystals for 
146.52 simplex , . 
battery pack, 12 VDC, ¥i amp 
battery charger 
2 meter, with male BNC con- 
nector ... . 



WALKIE TALKIES 



129J5 

29-95 

5.95 

8.95 




OTHER PRODUCTS BY VHF ENGINEERING 



CDl KH . 

CD2 Kit . 
CM Kit . 

CQR2KH 
SC3 Kit . 
Crystals 

CW1D Kit 

CW1D . , 
CWID . . 

Microphone 



10 channel receive xtal deck 

ml diode switching .' ' - . . 6.95 

10 clunne! xmit deck w/switcb 

and trimmers .,„... 14.95 

LfHF version of CD-I deck, needed 

for 432 multichannel operations . 12.95 

complete COR with 3 second and 
3 minute timers ... 19.95 

10 channel auto-scan adapter 
for RX with priority. . .19.95 

we stock most repeater and sim- 
plex pairs from 146AM 47,0 (each! 5.00 
159 bit, Held programmable, code 
identifier with huill-in squelch tail 
and ID timers ...... 39.95 

wired and tested, not programmed 54,95 
wired 3 ml tested, programmed 59.95 

2,000 ohm dynamic mike *nh 
PXT. and coil cord - , , 9.95 



Now You Can Receive The Weak Signals With The ALL NEW 



AMECO 



PREAMPLIFIER 



Model PT 2 » ■ continuoui tuning 6-160 
mtttt Pre Amp apecifkalh deaifned for 
uk with i ifanac«i>er. Th* PT 2 corn 
binei the feature! of the well known PT 
wilh new inphiititifed control circuitry 
that permit* it I o be added to virtually 
any Iraeeemr with No modification. 
Nb Kfwui ham can he wilKuul 



ntiO. 



• Improve* ■entitmt* and mfnal t< 

• Booati eip-iaJa up to 26 dk 

• For AM or S5B. 

• Bypaaeea ifaelf iu torn a tic ally when the trartaceivcr it tranamittinf 

• FET amplifier give* luperior croea module t ion protection, 

• Advanced loud itatr circuitry, 

• Simple to imtal]. 

• Impr-ovo immunity to lran«eer»er front ^end overload by nee of ita built-in attenuator, 
natter power control for elation equipment. 



«toot L PT i 



$69.95 




modal 377 C LI PRE AMP 




COAXIAL ANTENNA CHANGEOVER RELAY 




Model 372 - $27.50 






*r». 
no 





Model 377 -Si 7.95 



JT7_ 



£ u#*)r^JCMi m '*♦ jt* Car be ocwuo fnvn VO* omui 
*o» nynpirwlv jfeuiomittC operation c* from FTT or marul 
T/R iwiictv. R*c&v*f moot 4 *jioiT4i»a»iv grounflto wtian 
Hit r*lay <1 ■" th« Trinirnii ponEiQft. W«d* AC dpcrtdng 
vollvigr lange and tow OfMrinnfl Cur^ni 




h«ni_i«i 



mi ti 
i^MaiHI.pCittl 
flflTlM*— I ^«*U*i 

n/r * i i/r 



UNIVERSAL HYBRID COUPLER II PHONE PATCH 




Connect tout tunon io tut i ** jefto n i lint*. F>* 
mtilcri-Mfecue 1 * nXtlfi flu* iompiwl* fie K>tn lily 'o* 
Pitching Iflf italwjn [□ Jh# 1in* and 'or 1*pe record ir*| #n<l 
playback la or train rhe imr or inn natium The Hybrid 
i .ruLiit prdvidn tar cftorlteii VOX otwrauofl ol l he phone 
MtCtV A bu^l'in Camprmtmp ioe«;ri pr»»mcJifnaf/ljmiWr 
(■n Mod*t 30Q2WI mrnim it* i#v*i oi w 
«nd ***Q {pjtanti OHrmHwViQn *r P* I 

4 teed at 1*1* nawm -^toonon* ITue Cb*w*v •>«• 

*nr^t»om M « praimBM^ai lii i Li l i ei thrift ft* H*t**1 
mt&opnone if dWdl 

■ KMtiticnwii 




BARKER 4 WILLIAMSON, INC 



Model 359 - $37.50 



Model 300 2W with Compreamp 

-$125.00 



Model 300 1 W without Compreamp 

- $85.00 



COAXIAL SWITCHES AND ACCESSORIES 






Intra*** vftjf tfanafHtWl *thKtn« spMcn cower m *? 
*0uf tiTT^H. Qf .a* ■ MnW pflbj 'or 'tcvd* or p*J?i< 
«ddr*H lytfarh *tr .TTif^o.*} itfltrnwia. Ttat '*oii*pi 
iranvilOr^ed Aud>o PrearnpLf.** farmer C*n b* uatdifTn 
*M types o' tr#rtvnitt*r>, F%***f*d by 1 tongtoi-r^ df* DH 
battery -no internal cower needed, InnUli wilhoui any 
winrtg chingn 4n vout rmrtimHiEr Ju-i canrteti ih* 
Goftyttwmnw bMEwMn vour microphone I &0 .000 -ohm 
rJifrwmic c hnghH*flp*d*riC8 oprjpfnkr #nc> vOuf U*nifTiU«Jf"t 
miiiuglHX* input oonmctor Ffont^Mrvl rocU* iwitE^ toll 
th* Cb*i»t*1i**I *fien tOu *wtI te 

iitaaiw*t*t** > toQ. 



for *ntenn# Mritctiori ind RF twitchvnf 



MfhquRiitV *wtch*t n*» vt tiw tMnpWd 'at in* 
tv v**rt Crane i**ctiB *'<*• Dhv^gt *v 
tacti *nd vi**» oltud ccnajtion gpwt uninKcncd p***o* 
rf.tr *fti tyd« 'rmurv-m v HO w*v 



Crouur* 1— rtirrn «f JO MHM >i -*5 dH U1«t*d *PU*tt*m 
«H*m *"tJ -BO ft) b*t«llfvn ilH»n»*;i sblletl. 




64W aWAiir twntcnea are dfi^rvrf lor >jm *.ih 52 to 75 
onm rmti-ruci ivt load*, ■nd* ire power r*E*rj ji TOGO w#l[* 

AM, 2(S0O w*tli SSB Conrwcton w* UHF tVF* liiMMion 
»DB i| negJig-tn* and V5W*< il teti man 1.7 1 up In 1B0 

COAXIAL SWITCH SELECTOR CHART 



•■jw. e* nrvi i^o-nt ^. arxj 
ftapi* rtdvrcuni*dl oonn*cior mod»H cm ti* ntlw ««ll 

Of pmil mount«3 at4l lb*lt[jl*1< moijrtt*dl EXlAOKItf 
mod»lt*r* iQf pan* I moi^nling only. i*v* pan*l v*o* 

Us* If** Mlecior cfiprl below 1p choaie (fie mod*<k ywj 



**ft*-WOA 






PRICE 


Output! 


Connector 
Plaotttwit 




Moumma 




Automaiic 


Dial 
Plate 


| 


aaew&*i 


Part*i 


Wall 


D«k 


Remarks 


376 


18.95 


a 


Axial 


X 






X 


Supplied 


PROTAX ikvnfh Grounds alF exceol falacted 
oulpur circuit 


376 


18,95 


5 


Radial 


V 


M 




« 


Suppi*sd 


PROTAX flitch. Groundi afl ff*:c*p! viected 
Outpv! Circuit. S'hl h fV^tcH pDSJlion grouncH 


SSOA 


14.00 


5 


Radial 


4 


R 






D^5 




G60A-2 


12.50 




Radial 


N 


X 






OP2 




SStA 


17.50 


2 


Radial 


X 


X 






OP 2 


Special 2-pQla r 2-posiiion iwirch uied to 

twilch any RF dr^c* IA Of OUT O' U>ti9L 

connpcuon in j cobkijI una Seefiflu^e IdhpI. 


ODD 


.95 


— 






■ 






— 


Br k kef o^iy. r<y w^n ims v ntirg ol rari**! 
COnnecto* i rt iT-m 


590 


17,95 


5 


**l#| 


X 








D**'5 




B«0G 


17.95 


S 


Axial 


X 






« 


Sypoiieo 


Cfoundaaii e*c«pi wheeled ompui c^clpi. 


592 


16.50 


2 


Axial 


X 








DP 2 




BBS 


IS. SO 


e 


In-line 




M 


K 


K 




Ground) all txcept selaciad output circuit . 



Ia*wi lm—i 



M » 



Duipiri L*«*f 


W n,dl.vprh 


Ouiptrl ItnpBdincfl 


$0A«a»iiM 


f'.".T-»- 


■ -MR CiniilBi totlry. 




BkFpa* Ju* t ■■qunfilBii 


■an 


2-i'a ■ X' ■ itT" 


hpq*^« 


aut**, 





^*: 



Uackl376 




BAudtt 560A J 




BiiVa 



The indispensable 
BIRD model 43 
THRULINE* Wattmeter 

Read RF Watts Directly. 

045-2300 MHz, 1-10,000 watts ±5%, Low Insertion 
VSWR-1.05. 

Unequalled economy and flexibility: Buy only the 
element(s) covering your present frequency and power 
needs, add extra ranges later if your requirements 
expand. 

Table 1 

STANDARD 
ELEMENTS 
(CATALOG 
NUMBERS) 









Fiequenci 


■ Band* (MHz) 




Range 


2„ 


25- 


50^ 


100- 


200- 


400- 


30 


60 


125 


250 


500 


1000 


5 watts 


^Hi 


5. A 


5B 


5C 


5D 


5E 


10 watts 


_* 


10A 


10B 


IOC 


10D 


10E 


25 watts 


— 


25A 


25B 


l r jC 


25 D 


25 E 


■ '.Wi 1 ;!^ 


50H 


50A 


SOB 


^)C 


SOD 


50E 


100 waits 


10()H 


100A 


100B 


100C 


100D 


100E 


250 watts 


250H 


250A 


250B 


250C 


2-OD 


250E 


500 watts 


50OH 


500A 


5G0B 


500c 


5O0D 


5O0E 


1000 watts 


1000H 


1000A 


1000B 


100OC 


1O00O 


1000£ 


2500 watts 


25O0H 












5000 watts 


5O00H 













Table 2 . 

LOW- 
POWER 
ELEMENTS 



1 wall 



Cat No, 



60 00 MHz 
80-95 MHz 
95-125 MHz 
110-160 MHz 
150-250 MHz 
200*300 MHz 
275-450 MHz 
425-650 MHz 
800-950 MHz 



060-1 

oao-1 

095-1 
110-1 

150-1 
200-1 
275-1 
425-1 
BOO-1 



2.5 walls 



Cat. No. 



•jO-Hd MHz 
80-95 MHz 
95-150 MHz 
150-250 MHz: 
200- K» MHz 
250450 MHz 
40CV650 MHz 
600-950 MHz 



060-2 
080-2 
095-2 
150-2 
200-2 
250-2 
400-2 
80O-2 





mounts -leads -accessories 



HUSTLER 

RESONATORS 



All rpv?n*liTf5 a** prpoi<pn *nund wild 
nptimtrtd design bar «k» kMnd Assemfeh 
mcludai il-t PH itn^itu itttl *d|us[jtif 
l«p ■«! *pr kPttM 5W* «n<J Ti*nC wJfjP 



STANDARD GAIN 
MOBILES 

T«olMn 

■ 5/1 mm W ^i — W 0* pn 

o«** 1/4 PM mop<i» 
* rfoqutnc, t o w mn M Id Hi 

MM; 

i Pcjwpf riNnf— 200 wftlli FM 
MOOfl IILT-W 

47" JfltiTini COiPOl*H "'IB MW 

10 ifltuil, no hOMi to driH tnjf* 



SUPER GAIN MOBILES 
Two Utters 



^ 



••I- 




BUT -T44 




ftm«nn* ismCNs&jp from meont 

Pr«*:t31SG 

HUSTLER 
"BUCK-BUSTER" 

MODEL lr -, 

91" ten mini. Sjrt Mwtangth. 
34 rfb i*>n ohw 1/4 mi* nwftii* 
tteHfiil -■«* V 4* tew 1 



1/4 1 



• FjSquencgr cp*t*tft— 14J-3 tl 
HHi 

■ Sttfi »f roiomni;*— ],||] typical 

■ Pnwtf rating— Wo wttti fm 

TWO AND HI METERS— 

JMUttK LlP MOUNT 
MODEL HPT 
Four ltclton Hi 



1** 



ca 




_ A pA t»v* 
if MIL 5PEE PG-»-U 
SL 

«2M 



HPT 



V4 



VHr.UHT AN7TH**- 
HOOT MQJhT 

MODEL UHT-1 

Fula tnmrntblt rtd ijtor hat 1/4 
«BMe cpenHlOfl on in> frdquont, 
tram (40 to SOD MHz. Cutilng chert 
included Wound an «ny mi jur- 
r«*. mar, docK fonder in fc" 
bolt tneludoi 15 BG-5HJ 
RrMMXi 



•f HihUv mobil* mbvATI 



DELUXE MOBILE MOUNTS 





■•ring c*p*tnlily irlth mit 



MODEL C 

Out Ml 

rior root? 

|l' cnllnur in-tanna EpIj n«t»l- 
ItElan on tide or edge of trunk dp 
■MftQMl drilling— comptttp wMPi 
I J Mil SPEC RG-ifl-U ind PL-S9 

Prico: 941.30 



=HF 






-5g7T 



PM '" 

mil 



^^ 



. * . 



»; —»'*-« 






w*m 



■ pg 



i-i ^ 



J21S. 



1UPIK "USTLfB B(iQh*,TOBl— 
Piwir P/tiihi L r|il iirti-l 110 

lUt*Tl K»H+ bhI<i1 tilil »l*th 



15' HMM Mtf c 
ciuAd Pno, SSJM 



Mw^.l 



TTT 



■*-# 



■■ 



lOlUH 

4 



TTT 



Tf: 



'n 



1 1 Xi 






as 






T5*7T 







X) 



REIDNATOR BPfllHG— 
ITiilHLESt 1TEEL 
MODEL PSI-I 




VHf/UMF AWTEHNA-- 
TRLTPfK tip H0UKT 

MODEL TUT 

Field in mumble radlitwr t»rm<li 
quarter win operation an jmy 
truqutncy Itom 14D to MXI MHi 
Cutlinf chirl inc'udwJ Complvti 
with truflb lie mount. IT BG -M-U 
ana PI Bl. s,^; ttiJt 



Cow* 10 * 15 - 20 44 tmm% 

Dnljp HiiHlvf G'm Out E*f1ln| for 
Wwli •■nd Ponrtfp 



MOOCL 44TV 




8 



5pm-pt.us 
•ttti 




(tPWiftn jiuminutii 
• 5f»inttu iwi climo* o«.nnrtiin| 
OdtutimMni vittHHit 4«M|t ca the 

Mbfctfj 

04 Mi 

*--H ttwO M Hf> 10 

«iV7S or M^7VS tfeott* 

15 -W*T" rOPTtwn 



for oplffwfi 4 









ST* IN LI H STEEL BALL MOUNT 
FOR DECK. FENDED OB AHT 
FLAT iUtFACE 
MOPEL SIM J 

H«*4f 1' >imtsPDMt l'»'>*.n*l 41*4- 
41 



• n 



17 * fr * u 

Pr.ct-tTT.2q 



MM 1 




. inttoMiMi 



PHwtTJU 



hvsJleb 





WICK Dl 

tTAJHUlS STEtL 
MODEL 00-t 




» Ertto PMMfiV dufi thumtnura mount- 
Inf bnchtt with low (on — h ia*i 

flrtnilh in*uiialQPi MoLinlinjr hira- 
wirt included 
- All 1*1 1 <vm \W httvy **u hlfb 



L«ffii 71 p i* 
MODEL *-BTV 



on^i< 

BTIB ntpW rtfllttlOfl 

Mfleifnty 

* Food iMm eny tonfth W ohm eau. 

• Powtr Mptbility— tuik 1*«|l limit 
On 13ft oi CW. 

■ Maunllif: Ground mount wUh or 
wiEhoul ridiili, or rool mount *lth 

WtifM LI ltr». 



f v t ■ n - ti - a 

m-n-m 



MODEL Titl- 1 



FEED LIHI MOOCL m-Ii# 

bl fcrii*h p«rta'*ninci nipplrnum 
IhifriiHi *\>* mmipfiym wu pit* uii 
it hm» Mil «PtC 14 iffltth ar N(; 44-U 

Lttbfl tdtllrh4hCl *|Hi c^-nFi»i.li*rfc #■ 
IICPli4J 1*f <**■ «t*i tk*H "* bii'n^ai 

Pnc« MAS 
HDDCl 00 |4#* — DtHMfP I -« 

* i« itrtnn fio*rjOw» 00 o*— 




11?" 

Ill V Ot*r*r 
w IO0DW>n»fM «M« 
tirfviwjii 1 00 MPH fnttth on Htm 
CM EX4M dp tn H,- Ofl tOJ3f 






MO-I 
MM 



FoM e*fjf milt tar quick «nd "*» 

in'e-1-hjn^p :.f i»biirulprt nr rh|tfin| ■ 

iJFtff* *»™m dpe+tt'rtt, mi*! i* i*o(d 

Wtrtictl Wiln Ihtheprfiof sltVP* C^UlCh. 
M~ mtit ■■to HFVti as 1/4 wtvtHngtti 
% melor inltfina. Stiinlei* itt«i bttt 
hot W4* trrnNPA H> ft motet* btH 



MOfttL MC- 
frMpTTM. 



MASTS 

Tho Mt^nfity Choke of 
AmMouri 

Throvfhflut the Woridt 



M V 
Pries tZZJDO 



r ;- 



4* 
MPS 11 



iminlrttj-FeMI is 



Super Amp 



front 





$499.50 



II the amplifier you re thinking oi buying doesn't derivm m toast 1000 to 1200 watts output, 

to the antenne,, uou'r* buying the wrong amplifier. 

Out New Super Amp is sweeping the country because horns have rnalired that the DenTroit 

Amplify will deliver to the antenna, foutpui power I , what other menufi*cniT*rs rata » mpui 

power. 

The Super Amp rum a full 2000 warn F.E.P, input on SSfi, entt 1000 warn DC on CW, ftTTY 

or SSTV 160 10 mtin, the maximum tegal power. 

The Super Amp it compact, tow profile, has a ujl*d ontpwei cabinet aasurwio. maximum TV! 

The haart crl ou* amplifier, the power supply, r» a eontmooui duty, tall contained supply built 

lor contest ptrformanoi 

Me mounted ma 4 311 A't, industrial wwadrarie tub**, n a cooling chamber featuring the 

ot demand variable cooling system. 

The ham* at DvnTron pod* themsah« on quatuy work, a/id we light ro keep pncai down. That! 

«hy the dynamic DanTrtm Lmear Amplifier beats them all at S499.50 

NOW AVAILABLE WITH 572 B* FOR $S74*SO 




The 80-10 Skymatcher 

Here's an antenna tuner For 80 through 10 maters, hnndle* 500 w PEP. and matches your 

B2 ohm tranicairei to a random wire antenna. 




* Continuous tuning 3.2 - 30 me 

* "L" network 

* Ceramic 12 positron rotary switch 

« SO- 239 reception SI to transmitter 

* Random wire tuner 

. 3000 *olt capacitor spacing 

* Tapped inductor 

■ Ceramic antenna feat! thru 

■ r W. S" H. B" D„ Weight: 5 ttft. 



$59.50 



Read forward 
and reflected 

watts at the 
same time 




* f 



■ 



Tired of constant twitching and guesswn. I 

Every sftrioui ham knows he must read both forward and reverse wattage simultaneously 

lor rhai nntleiM mptch So upgrade with tbf? DenTVon W 7 Dual in line Wattmeter. 



$99.50 



Denfion- 



Match everything front Ibo to 10 
with the new lboio MAT 



NEW: The Monitor Tuner was designed be 
eeu** of overwhelming demand. Hams told 
in they wanted a 3 kilowatt tunw with a 
huilt «i wattmeter, m front panef antenna 
selector for CU*», balanced line and rarutorn 
wife. So we engineered the 16Q-10m Monitor 
Tuner. It*» a lifetime investment at £29$ 50 



$299.50 





Meet the 
SuperTuner 



The DenTron Super Tuner tunes everything from lflO W meters. Whaler you h 
hgtar«Tl lm\ eoaa cable, random m long wwe, the Super Tuner win match the 
impedance to your transmute* AH QonTron nmers ewe you mjiimtrti power transfer 
from your transmitter to your antenna, and «sn"t that «*wre rt realty counts 7 




1KWMOOEL 



$129*50 a «w model $229-50 




The Shy 
Openers 




SKY MASTER 

A Fully 4eveloptd and laitad ZJ tool 
vm meal tnunni cowan tniir* 10 1& 20, 
»rvd *0 mpiwf bands uijnflonlv «jn»dfl**iiv 
applied wav* trip. A lull 1 /a wtiv* anianni 
on 20 flwttrj.. OfrmnjetmH of hawy »aam> 
lau aluminum wtfi i factory funad and 
taatad HO Trap. SKY MAST ER ii wttihat 
preo* mhI wmrandi windi up ip tD mpr* 
Hpradlrt 3 KW pmnr If nH arid h lot 
i. rg#f or b qwij n»oufrt"»^ ataaaaa 




t. 



■n «t Ipw tv*c» at 



tlCVMASTC(t 



$84.50 



fix top moufttlni ' 



$29.50 



TRIM TENNA 

Thp •ntiniu vow rvftgrilipii *1U tew* Tru 
niw D#fi1"rpn TfiinTanni wnh JO malar 
b>*rh tl dKtontfJ l» Ihl dilcr<mipi*TiftB 
■rnitfur who wwpti lpni»*Trc parfiHmane* 
m in Kmrir m imantaHy appaaMnf b*am. It'* 
tfiillv hedad! tie Irani thprt'i a 13 lavt 
fi *oe* diracfor wtdi ptactwan Hy C»4b 
And. T fart fedhmd * i 1» feet *><«** 
Tttmcrr fad difacttr w*tt 5? e*»m aeaa 
t>« Tmn-Tanma mnmi tan^ and **w1 
m dittaiiini in e» «•■■"■ parlD^manai b» 
Mm aha TrimTanna and thai 
lone «r« or ini a i l a d Vm voh'i* 

I A 6 Fomwnt Gmi Oitf IVpol* 



$129.50 



sicyclaw 

A 



>^ Z 



foe 40 ao i» 

SitVCLAW pm you 
itM lorflpannB mrrtnjm oo**noa 

HAND BAMDWIDtH 
(Matanl iNHi« 

ICO SO 

00 TOO 

40 wiiir* band 

Tuning ti eaiy and r«lnbl« R'U«o»d »n 
ntuctrwi liiursi thpt iTiii iall lupporiirm 
unit ii *B«th*rp"«j* and lufwlyai nlc»1y 
In 100 mph wrindi « H*ndt« lull Itgal 




> limit 



$79.50 



ALL BAND DOUBLET 

Thai All Band Doubhrt «r Kwarbad f *p» 

Antannt ww* 1110 thru 10 !"••«*! Ha« 
tauJ langth of *30 foal M4 «p iltindad 
eopoarl intioogh n may Ew m»d#*hnrlaf 
if nacauarv f hit runad Doua4«t u eintar 
f*d ihfoueh 100 fa-i of *B0 ohm l*VC 
«jw»r*d talancad trimimiiiion Ijna tht 
murnWy Ii camplm» Add i&po to lha 
indi and pull up *nl*i p*»nion. Tua» 
with ih« QsnTTun Supar Tim** ind 
yWr» r>n 10 Ihrnuflh 1*C rnnHiti wiln 
on* ■nT»nTt* 1 ! Wow joH tm Tbn PanTrnri 
All Bind Chgufaiti. 



EX-1 

Tht Dintrpn EX-T V«rnt«1 AnTtnn* n 
dtiigned lor ihe perform* n £* mindtd 
anttnru ucpanmBftitF Th» 6X-1 it » tuli 
40 mctat. % Wl¥«, V, »ll Hippnrlirtfl 
varlical The EX 1 n Ih* »dnl i*'l'«l 

I Of ptlHlTlf 



$24.50 



$59.50 




Ronald Perry V/A2C0A 
RD l r Glen Avenue 
Fishkill NY 12524 



The Agonies of 



Tower Raising 



- - Murphy strikes again... as usual 



For many years I de- 
bated, planned, and 
agonized over the purchase 
and installation of a decent- 
sized tower for tny home 
station. Though money was a 
definite factor in the project, 
other considerations such as 
location, base configuration, 
type and size of tower, and 
local building ordinances 
presented the main concerns. 
When using VHF/UHF (2 
meters, 220 and 450 MHz), 
tower location and height 



become very important 
factors* The tower must be 
high for good communica- 
tions and yet close to the rig 
since feedline losses mount 
with cable length. Based on 
this, I decided to use a 60 
foot tower located a wall 
away from my equipment. 
For ease of installation and 
maintenance, I decided to use 
Universalis Model 1 4-60 
self-standing aluminum tower 
with a hinged base. 1 This 
tower, according to the 



manufacturer, will support 14 
square feet of antenna in an 
80 mile an hour wind with a 
safety factor. The lack of the 
need of guy wires was a major 
consideration since guy 
anchors would mean more 
problems. 

Having decided on the 
tower height and location, 
the next task was designing 
the tower base configuration. 
Normally this would not be a 
big deal - get some idiot to 
dig you a big hole and fill it 




View showing the base with its four securing rods. 



with concrete — but what 
about a solid rock ledge of 
New York State granite for a 

backyard? 

To solve this matter, I 
thought about employing a 
Jackhammer to dig the hole. 
However, after consulting 
with a friend in the construc- 
tion business , I decided 
against this expensive back- 
breaking procedure, I then 
considered a few sticks of 
dynamite, but notwith- 
standing the damage to the 
QTH, blasting permits 
were hard to come by. 
Discussing the matter on the 
local repeater WR2AB8, a 
friend VYA2HSF advised using 
a core drill which bores a 
clean, round hole into rock. 
This matter being resolved, I 
finally checked out all local 
building and tower 
restrictions and ordinances to 
see that there were no laws 
forbidding my little project. 
Luckily, the laws were with 
me so out came the 
checkbook and the shovels 
and soon groundbreaking was 
at hand. 

The photo shows the base 
and the four securing rods* 
The right side of the base is 
about 3-4 inches below 
ground level while the left 
side is about 7-8 inches. The 
holes for the rods were drilled 
with an electric core drill and 
a diamond/carbide bit Both 
were rented from a local 
rental agency for $28/day. 
Each hole is V/i inches in 
diameter, about 8-9 inches 
deep, and each took about 
50-60 minutes to drill. The 

rods are 7/8 inch diameter 
steel and are threaded their 
entire length. 

To secure the rods in the 
rock, commercial rock 
anchors (threaded Ring 
Wedge Cinch Anchors) were 
used. 2 These anchors are a 
combination iron 
wedge/metal ring/lead alloy 
unit. They are threaded on 
and over the rods and 
expanded within the hole 
through the use of a separate 
pipe and sledge hammer 1 
used three units in each hole 
as specified by the 
manufacturer. With this 



126 



arrangement, each rod can 
take a maximum tension test 
load of 14,440 pounds 
(57,760 pounds total) and a 
maximum shear test load of 
36,130 pounds (144,520 
pounds total), See Fig. 1 . 

Once the rods were set in 
place, the concrete for 
leveling the base was poured. 
Approximately VA yards of 
concrete was required to 
make the base extend four 
inches above the ground [eveL 
The finished concrete had a 
comprehensive strength of 
approximately 3000 psL 

Leveling of the tower was 
straightforward once the 
concrete began to age. The 
flat-roof mount with hinged 
base was placed on the 
concrete and leveled. The 
bottom 1 foot section of the 
tower was put in place and 
leveled. Actually, this is a lie 
since it didn't work out that 
way. That is, two of the three 

legs were level while the third 
was way out of true. After a 
few minutes of puzzlement, 
the mystery was solved - the 
tower tapers inward from the 
bottom to the top to accept 
the next smaller section. A 
quick readjustment was made 
so that each leg of the tower 
was off perpendicular 
towards the center of the 
lower by the same amount. 
With this crisis passed, the 
concrete was allowed to age 
for seven days. 

Now the second phase of 
the project began. A crew was 
assembled consisting of 
W2BEV, WB2COY, 
WB2CTH, WB2HDS, and 
WA2QWP. The first step was 
to put the tower together, 1 
foot sections one at a time. 
Thanks to the hinged base, 
the tower could be con- 
structed on the ground. Most 
of the sections had to be 
"horsed" together with a bit 
of grunting, but this made for 
a tight fit. The next step was 
attaching the coaxial cables 
and rotor wire. The cables 
should be placed on the 



inside of the tower so that 

they are not damaged on 
future climbing of the tower. 
This fob was neatly accom- 
plished thanks to Phelps- 
Dodge "Straptite" cable 
clamps. 3 The antennas, a 
commercial 8 element 2 
meter yagi and an 1 1 element 
220 MHz beam, were pre* 
viously assembled on the 
mast and attached to the 
rotor at the top of the tower. 
A monitor-scanner antenna 
was side mounted on the 
tower completing the installa- 
tion. 

Ail of this work, however, 
was not without the curse of 
Murphy- In the process of 
making jumper cables 
between the antennas and 
feedlines, it was found that 
no one had had experience in 
attaching "N" connectors to 
RG/8 poly foam coax. Well, as 
it turned out, it is almost 
impossible to do. Regular 
RG/8, no problem; pofyfoam 
RG/8, forget it, A quick call 
to W2VAQ solved the jumper 
problem and saved the day. 
The third, and most 
crucial, phase was now to be 
done — erecting the tower. 
Though we did not really 
expect it, raising the tower 
proved to be the biggest task 
of the day. Mathematically, 
the tower was only supposed 
to weigh 844 pounds at its 
lowest level to the horizon. 
This was calculated using the 
formula shown below, 
where HI = Height from 
pivot point to rope 
attachment on tower, in feet; 
LI = Length from pivot to 
pulling point, along 
horizontal, in feet; Wa - 
Weight of antennas, rotor, 
etc., in pounds; Wt = Weight 
of tower including cabJes, in 
pounds; A = Angle tower 
makes with horizontal, in 
degrees; H = Height above 
pivot point of rope pulling 
tower, in feet; L = Length of 
tower, in feet; T = Tension in 
rope, in pounds; and the 
following are assumed: 1. 




Connectors were installed on cables at the base of the tower 
and attached to the outside bulkhead. 



L x [ (Wt / 2) * Wa) ] x Cos A 



HI x Sin A - Arc Tan [ (H1 x Sin A) - Hi ] I (Hi x Cos A + LU 



Weight of tower is uniform 
over entire length; 2, Weight 
of antennas, rotor, etc., is at 
top of tower; 3. No friction is 
involved any where- 
in actuality, the tower 
seemed to weigh a great deal 
more. Despite the distinct 
advantages offered by the 
formula parameters "L1 M and 
"H" — the rope being thrown 
over the house giving excel- 
lent elevation and fair 
distance from the tower base 

- the job proved to be a real 
doozy. Three robust amateurs 

- WB2COY, W82CTH, and 
WB2HDS - were on the 
ropes while two other hefties 

- W2BEV and WA2QWP - 
walked the tower up. A 



double strand of 1/2 inch 
hemp proved barely sufficient 
— discovered, of course, 
about half way through the 
raising. Nevertheless, after 
much pushing, pulling, and 
puffing, up she went — verti- 
cal at last. With a sigh of 
relief, all broke Into big 
smiles and exclamations of 
joy over a job well done. 

BUT ... but, all was not 
well. Murphy had other plans. 
Just a moment after the 
tower settled to the vertical 
position, a reflector element 
in one of the 2 meter beams 
slipped from its socket and 
fell to the ground. Luckily no 
one was injured, but after 
many hours of work this was 



127 



Fig, h Arrangement of rock anchors for securing rods. 



StIDGE AND PiPt 
*NO ANCHOR 
m HOLE- 



ONLY u« v* 

& THREAD! — 



NORMAL 
1ft t 






EAPANDED 
In UNIT 





3r4 unit 

EXPANDED 
2M UNIT 

EXPANDED 
fti UNIT 





ALL UNITS 
LXPANOf O 




The completed tower. 



a most discouraging end to an 
otherwise fruitful day. 

A few days later, upon 
recovering from the dropping 
reflector, WA2BXK climbed 
the tower and installed the 
offending rod. In the 
meantime, connectors were 
installed on the cables at the 
base of the tower and 
attached to the outside 
bulkhead. See photo. 

As can be seen from the 
photo, all coax lines are fed 
through the side of the house 
via the bulkhead. The 
bulkhead consists of a piece 
of 1/8 x 2 1/2 x 5 inch 
aluminum plate with four 
double female "UHF" 
connectors. Type "1ST would 
probably be better, but I 
could not find any locally. 
The interior surface of the 
outside bulkhead was coated 
with a cloth-like material 
similar to that which is used 
on water pipes to keep them 
from "sweating." There is a 
second such bulkhead on the 
inside wall. RG/8 jumpers 
between the wall connect the 
two bulkheads. The five-wire 
rotor cable is attached in a 
like manner, but standard 
male/female mike connectors 
are used. 

Though such an 
arrangement contains 
numerous connectors, it has 
its distinct advantages. 
Should the tower have to be 
lowered, the cables can be 



easily disconnected/con- 
nected. Also, all lines can be 
quickly disconnected during 
thunderstorms. To complete 
the installation, both the 
tower and outside bulkhead 
are bonded together with No. 
4 copper which is then run to 
ground - in my case, to a 
sixty-five foot well casing. 

Finally, with all of the 
connections made, power was 
applied to the 2 meter 
antenna. And as you might 
guess, Murphy struck again. 
The initial swr was a horrible 
2.25: 1 . To make a short story 
longer, the jumpers between 
the bulkheads proved to be 
the problem, Polyfoam RG/8 
struck once more. Though 
there was "meter" continuity 
between the jumpers, not so 
for rf. Soldering the 
connectors to the coax 
caused minute bubbling of 
the foam which negated 
proper connection. A few 
more jumpers of regular 
RG/8, skillfully constructed 
by WA2BXK, and the 
problem was solved. The new 
swr was a respectable 1 38: 1 
over more than 1 1/2 MHz of 
the band. In conclusion, 
the antenna/tower project has 
proved very satisfactory. A 
northerly blockage with the 
old arrangement has been 
eliminated with the new 
tower. Direct 2 meter 
contacts with nonopen 
(normal) band conditions 
have averaged more than 60 
miles with full quieting 
reports, And, I can work all 
of the repeaters within the 
area - a radius of about 75 
miles. Future plans call for a 
15 meter beam and an 80 
meter inverted "V". Many 
thanks to W2BEV, WZ2BXK, 
WB2COY, WB2CTH, 
WB2HDS, WA2HSF, 
WA2QWP, and W2VAQ as 
well as to WA1GFG/2 for the 
pictures. ■ 



Reference 

Amateur Electronic Supply, 
4828 W. Fond du Lac Ave.. 
Milwaukee Wl 53216, 
^Anchor Alloys, Inc., 966 Meeker 
Ave., Brooklyn NY 11222. 

Phelps- Dodge Communications 
Co., Route 79, Marlboro NJ 
07746. 



128 



Compatible with all sub-audible tone systems such as: Private Line, 
Channel Guard, Quiet Channel, etc. 

• Powered by 6-16vdc, unregulated 

• Microminiature in size to fit inside all mobile units 
and most portable units 

• Field replaceable, plug-in, frequency determining elements 

> Excellent frequency accuracy and temperature stability 

> Output level adjustment potentiometer 
Low distortion sinewave output 
Available in all ElA tone frequencies, 67.0 Hz-203.5 Hz 
Complete immunity to RF 
Reverse polarity protection built-in 






• * 





$29.95 each 

Wred and tested, complete with 
(-1 element 



master diartje 



communication/ spectctli/t/ 

P.O.BOX 153 
BREA, CALIFORNIA 92621 

(714) 998-3021 



K-1 FIELD REPLACEABLE, 
PLUG-IN, FREQUENCY 
DETERMINING ELEMENTS 

$3,00 each 



i 



I 

V 



CP$ (Xi] 




CP5 



[X o 



PER- {IQQK} 

PER tlW) 

PER (tOM) 

PER [IOOM) 



John C, Savage W4JYW 
31 J 5 Avenue U r N,W. 
Winter Haven FL 3388Q 



Fig, L Range switch scales. 




^ \ 



X^^&v 



>"V [EXISTING 
i ( 1 1 FUNCTION 



Fig. 2. Oblique view showing 
general outward appearance. 

The need for fast and 
accurate measurement 
of the low frequency tones in 
an electronic organ provided 
the basic drive to produce 
this counter. An earlier 
version was slightly less 
costly, but far too slow and 
lacked the needed resolution. 
This design works well, and 
should find acceptance with 
those wishing for precise 
measurements for most audio 
frequency applications. 

Most electronic organs 
contain a master oscillator 
board that uses 12 slug-tuned 
coils for generating the 
highest tones, or the top 
octave. These are followed by 
a divider chain that provides 
successively lower octaves. It 
was decided to measure one 
of the lower octave ranges 
that spans from C6 at 
1046.50 Hz to C5at 523,25 
Hz. With a conventional 
counter, a ten second gate 
would provide tenths of 
Hertz resolution at best, and 
a longer gate time is out of 
the question. The only rea- 
sonable approach is to count 
the number of higher fre- 





FREG 


PERIOD 


C 6 


1046.50 


.Domsasa 


B 5 


937.77 


.00JJU23S 


A#5 


932.33 


.00107258 


A 5 


8S0.G0 


.00113636 


GPb 


830.61 


00120393 


G 5 


783.99 


OQlimSl 


F#5 


739.99 


.00135136 


F 5 


689.46 


.00143172 


E 5 


659.26 


.00151685 


D#5 


622.25 


,00160707 


D 5 


587,33 


.00170262 


C#5 


554.37 


.00180384 


C 5 


523.25 


00191 1T3 



Table h A chart for organ 
tuning. 



The Speedy Audio Counter 



- - good resolution without a long wait 



quency pulses that occur 
during one or more cycles of 
the frequency being 
measured. For example, if the 
number of one microsecond 
pulses were counted during 
one cycle of A5 at 880.00 
Hz, you would get 1136, A 
ten cycle count gives 11363, 
and 100 cycles will read 
1 1 3636. The period of one 
cycle of A5 is ,00113636 
seconds, so 100 cycles re- 
quires just over ,1 second. 
You get the required resolu- 
tion and fast update to the 
counter. To calculate the 
required display reading, just 
divide the reference frequen- 
cy by the input frequency in 

Hertz, 

A look at Fig. 4 

shows that CMOS integrated 
circuits are used throughout. 
A four stage display counter 
consisting of 4026s count and 
decode to seven segments in 
decade fashion. These were 
used in preference to 4033s, 



FREQ 


PERIOD 


1200 


.00083333 


1275 


.00078431 


1445 


.00069204 


1500 


.00066666 


1700 


.00058823 


1900 


.00052631 


2100 


.00047619 


2125 


.0Op47Q^ 


2295 


.00043572 


2300 


.00043478 


2350 


.00042553 


2400 


.00041666 


2975 


,00033613 



Table 2 A chart for RTTY } 
SSTV, 



as they have a display enable 
input that permits us to blank 
the display while resetting or 
counting. No latches are used 
as it was found a ''blinking" 
display is actually easy to use, 
A new display means an 
updated count, 4049s are 
used with 680 Ohm resistors 
for segment drive to MAN-1 
readouts. Three 4518s are 
used for the timebase divider 
to provide 100 kHz pulses, or 
.1 second and 1 second time- 
bases. A 4518 is also used to 
divide the input to give xi, 
x10, and xlOO ranges* Two 
sections of a 4001 are used 
for the crystal oscillator and 
buffer, and two sections of 
another 4001 comprise the 
input amplifier. The input 
amplifier is biased slightly 
above or below the threshold 
point to prevent random trig- 
gering. A 4013 and three 
sections of 4001 are used to 
provide synchronization and 
division of the input, reset, 



display gating, and clock 
pulses to the counter chain. 
This gating system requires a 
minimum of parts, yet pro- 
vides a 50/50 gate and display 
cycle. The reset is one-half 
cycle of the reference fre- 
quency that immediately 
precedes the count. As the 
4026s require less than .5 
usee for reset, it may be 
possible to use a higher refer- 
ence frequency. 

A two section, 6 position 
switch permits switching 
between the two count 
modes, Position A gives a 
direct reading in Hertz per 
second. Position B gates for 
.1 second. These two scales 
give a positive reference for 
gross tuning adjustments or 
quick identification of an 
unknown frequency. 

Switch position C provides 
pulses at a 100k rate and Data 
1 microsecond rate. Positions 
E and F bring in the input 



CISC 



TIME BASE 



INPUT 



GATE 



+ 



Ut-AL | 



j 



4 


O 
I 



4 
5 
I 
& 



4 
5 
I 

a 



A 
5 

I 

e 



4 
I 



4 



O 

I 



A 





1 



A 


I 
3 



RANGE 

SWfTCH 



tNPUT 
JACK 




U 



4026 



4026 



4026 



4026 



4049 



4049 



4049 



4049 



4049 



\ / \/ \y f x». 



(8) 



R 



r~ 



MAN-1 
DISPLAYS 



o 



Fig. 3. Top view of component board. 



T30 



4049 





I 



SPACES 



COUNT £K 
IHPUT 

(I 



(SO -L 



m 



vcc 



t 



-j 

BIAS 
3m 



0C5 



JtOOK 



i i a >* 





/» 



vee *i C i 






4310 



*» " <» Q4 



(XI) 



9 
— C 





[RIO 9 



I I ^ 



CL IV? 

CE «' a 
Ql QJZ 03 04 



■*l 



(XiOOj 



fl F 



^Ji 



in 



, 



1/2 
*0U 



6 

■3rr 



I 



j- 



1/2 
4013 



Q 



T. 



/ft 



1 



M*N t 

CEP 
DISPLAYS 



> * 



-*WVto- 



*049 



?m 



404 i 



] 



-Wn J i 



VCC 



Zl 



r i 



4049 



5tT> 



J ** SI 

4<izs CL 
DC 



' 




1 



' 



6800(281 

i ^ " ^ — 



.= 



J " 



4 049 



!T> 



:o 40*e cl 

DC 



I 



J 



I 



i 



4044 



UT| 



CE IA*CI 

CO *OZ* C L 

0€ w 



ICT| 



A *GI 
QE » 



JT 



£ 



1/2 CL 

45LS CE 

o* ps oa oi 



J — 

JO 



1 1. I T ., ! T 

1 ris V 1 rr ls ni 



II SEO 



1/2 «L r 

4318 CEpS 

°f °-* ga P l 



Cl 3EC> 



43 1 a crP^ 

q* 05 qz pi 



'.', 



i/a cl 

43IB CE 
g* Oj q? qi 



I 






.■-. 



i/a CL 
4S ia CE 

Q4 Q3 P2 Qi 



10 



4 



vcc 



i/z a 

4518 CE 

en oa q£ q> 



& 



a* 



4~^ 



' ::>■-:. 



r 




F 



m 



4h — hi — ' [ _^*I 



llMHfl 



VCC 
•V 



K7AL 
220 lUHi 



I 




S^fiHES 




rJOVlC 



Fit THAU* 
S.J VAC 



Fig, 4. 



divider to give an effective 
xlO and xlOO in resolution. 
An example of expected read- 
ings of AS at 880.00 Hz would 
be: A - 0880, B - 0088, C - 
0113, D- 1136, E-1363and 
F — 3636. The more signifi- 
cant digits drop off on the 
higher resolution scales, but it 
was felt that an overflow indi- 
cation was not needed. 

Construction was on a 
piece of perfboard with holes 
spaced A inch, mounted 
under the top cover of an 



existing function generator. 
The cabinet measured 7" 
wide, 5" deep and 3" high. 
The perfboard was slightly 
smaller with a section 
removed to permit the switch 
and input jack to be mounted 
on the top. The LEDs, ICs, 
and resistors were mounted 
on the top of the board, and 
point-to-point wiring used for 
connecting the components. 
The power supply is mounted 
on one end of the box. The 
crystal, originally from a 



BC-221 frequency meter, was 
removed from the metal 
cover and mounted on the 
board. If you have enough 
room in your cabinet, it 
would be better to leave it as 
is, and mount it with a clip or 
octal socket, A slot was cut 
out to reveal the LEDs and 
covered with plastic laminate 
for protection. A switch posi- 
tion scale and a chart of 
frequencies and their respec- 
tive periods were typed up 
and pasted to the top, 



covered with more of the 
plastic laminate. 

Sketches showing the 
general construction of the 
unit, and general layout of 
the circuit board are shown. 
A much more compact unit 
could have been constructed 
using printed circuit tech- 
niques, a two piece double- 
deck board, and substituting 
MAN-3 readouts which are 
smaller and would not require 
the 4049 segment drivers and 
resistors." 



FAST SCAN AMATEUR TELEVISION EQUIPMENT 





■CQ4* »■ M 


■j- 














• 

uai 


1 

mi 

9VTPUT 

# 48b 
|*^_^^J 


1 

■ fW&Mtf 
EM 



AX-10 TRANSMITTER 



AMBH 




I INI 






*■* * 



** OH 



' ft|Ji|llllHlimi"l-. IIHill 




AM-1A RCVR MODEM 



BROADCAST 

QUALITY 

PERFORMANCE 




SOLID 

STATE 



131 



The HW-202 is a fine 
piece of 2 meter equip- 
ment, but six crystal pairs 
tend to limit the operation 
during travel periods. In any 
case, I could use a minimum 
of nine pairs. Six would be 
local repeaters and direct 
channels; three would be out 
of state or repeaters that are 
used during vacation, etc. I 
originally had the tone burst 
assembly installed in the 
HW-202, but the touch tone 
pad gives me all the inputs I 
need. Therefore, there is a 
nice space to put in a module 
the same size as the tone 
burst assembly, using the 
present mounting holes and 
front panel component holes. 
The switch module can also 
provide inputs for a synthe- 
sizer. 

Circuit Description 

Fig. 1 shows the circuit 
and it can be seen that it is a 
repetition of the circuits in 
the HW-202 except the 
inductive trimmers for the 
receive crystals have been left 
out, It was found that 90% 
of the receive crystals tuned 
at the same slug position. 

The circuit shows seven 
crystal pairs and one switch 
position for synthesizer 
inputs. It is possible that 
adottional crystals could be 
added because there is some 
space Id i >n the board. There 



Louis H, Schatl WlJLi 
60 Shlretown Road 
Dedham MA 02026 



Versatility Plus 



for the HW-202 



- - extra channel mod 



are three connections to be 
made to the transceiver 
circuits: receive crystal switch 
SI A to Y102 pin toward 
front of unit, transmit crystal 
switch SIB to Y202 pin 
toward left side of unit, and 
synthesizer key to pin 2 of 
mike jack. The circuit ground 
is accomplished by the 
mounting hardware in most 
cases. A wire ground can be 
made from bus shown on Fig. 
2 to the lug on the speaker of 
the HW-202. These 
connection points are shown 
on a schematic on page 1 33 
and circuit boards on pages 
128 and 130 in the Heath 
Assembly Manual. Although 
Fig. 1 shows a 2 pole switch, 
a 4 pole, 4 section switch was 




7 TAJihSWiT CMT3TAL5 
AND NtrtMfCt C*T5 



TR4N5 
SYNTH 

£MH± 



rate 
cmr-jTiLS 







JE* 1 



K> 



■O*— 



TK>2 



L 



4 — wfe- 

4* 



SlA 



-p 



SYNTH 
tHPUT 
4S MH* 



.. M 



1 



^ 



r 



J^V*>_ Pim9 ^ «_^ 5YKTH 



ttvtOl 
■EC C«T ftO*no 



■ IKK 
XftCK 



ft* 



KEY 



Fig. L Schematic of added crystal deck. 



installed so that if the crystals 
were excited during synthe- 
sizer operation, the extra two 
poles could be used to short 
out the crystal circuits. 

The synthesizer inputs 
were included to make the 
circuit more useful. The 
transmit synthesizer input (T) 
could be used for an 
outboard crystal and easily 
adjustable netting trimmer in 
a small box. The receive 
synthesizer input (R) could 
be used for a vco or vfo 
input, The synthesizer key 
(K) is to energize the transmit 
vco by way of a relay. 

Mechanical 

The module is built on 
1/16" thick perforated board 
with ,1 x .1 hole pattern. The 
mounting angle is made from 
1/32" thick aluminum andean 
be bent very easily in a vise. 
This can be attached to the 
perforated board with brass 
rivets, eyelets or screws. Fig. 
2 shows the assembly, The 
major dimensions are shown , 
as are general positions of 
components. All connections 
on the rear must be kept 
flush against the board or it 
will not fit in the HW-202. 
The miniature tube socket 
contacts or equivalent are 
pushed through the drilled 
holes and the tails bent flat 
against the board. Dummy 
crystals or substitutes must 
be plugged into the crystal 
contacts and all soldering 
done. The copper strip or bus 
ground will hold some of the 



components in place once it 

is soldered in place. Miniature 
crystal sockets could be used 
in place of the contacts 
shown, but must not 
protrude below the board 
more than 1/32 inch or make 
the height of the mounted 
crystal more than 5/8 " above 
the board- The trimmer 
capacitors arc also pushed 
through the drilled holes and 
the tails bent flush against the 
board. All wiring on the 
board was done with insu- 
lated no. 30 wire. The leads 
attached to the Heath circuit 
were no. 26. After all the 
soldering is done on the rear 
of the board, the component 
tabs, wire, and ground strip 
should be covered with Hysol 
Epoxy-Patch 0151 clear ur 
equivalent, which will hold 
everything fn place. 

The wiring from the 
switch is routed near the 
crystals 1 top side, and then 
down through a convenient 
hole to the proper tail on 
crystal connector. 

The front panel switch 
plate may be cut out and 
cemented to a 7/8" x 3*1 /8 ,P 
plate with 1/8" and 1/4" 
diameter hofes for the switch 
and connectors- A thin plastic 
film should be laid over this 
for protection. Another way 
of fabrication is to make a 
clear film negative of the 
photo and apply to the plate 
using double faced clear tape. 
The surface of the aluminum 
plate should be brushed 
horizontally with sandpaper 



132 



previous to putting the film 
on for good appearance. 

Installation 

The disassembly instruo 
tions for the HVVA-202-2 tone 
burst encoder on page 12 of 
the assembly manual should 
be accomplished. The crystal 
module can be attached in 
the same manner as the 
encoder, but use 4-40 flat 
head screws and standard 
lock washers and nuts. A thin 
piece of insulation should be 
placed between the crystal 
push-button assembly and the 
new module to prevent any 
shorts. 

Adjustments 

The receive crystal 
inductor LI 02 should be 
adjusted to average reception 
of all receive crystals in the 
new switch module. In my 
case, all crystals were very 
near, making an average 
setting easily accomplished. 
The transmit crystal trimmers 
will have to be adjusted using 
a counter or in the same 



Z &H& 



-BRASS EYELET 
OH N0.2 SCREW C3J 



51 



C£AAMiC 
rfilKHCR(T) 
3-£9pF 
CN04I DRILL! 
14 PLACES 
^ 



MICA 
CAP (7) 
t»pF 



SWA 

ADAPTER (3) 

OS* 205 



-: 



2 UZ 




MINIATURE TUBE 
SOCKET CONTACTS 
FOR CRYSTALS 12ft) 
M0-4I DRILL (2fl) 



OAK SWITCH 
NO 3SW&27- 

su in 



i 



i/4 DlA 
4 MOLES 



2 23/32 



NO 30 DRILL 
2 PLACES 



1/33 ALUM 



1/16 FEW BOARD 
J X I HOLE PATTERN 




WIRE ROUTED 
TOP" OF BOARD 
4 PLACES 



ETELET 
OR SCREW 

f 



• SELF LEAD 
SOLDCRCD CONN 




3 i/B 



BJKWHD 
LEAD 



♦Ox Oi Thick 
COPPER STRIP 



Fig. 2 Added crystal deck assembly for HW-2Q2. 



manner as the other transmit 
crystals were trimmed. 

Conclusions 

No trouble was 
encountered in the operation 
of the switch module. The 
additional crystal pairs made 
the Heath 202 much more 
useful as traveling equipment. 
Since the space on the front 
panel is limited, a switch 
knob that can be turned in 




+ 



Switch plate for front panel. 



the allocated space must be 
used. The knob must not be 
more than 1 /2 Inch diameter 



and at least 5/8 inch high. 
This allows a firm grip with 
two fingers. ■ 



ADVA 




KIT $11^ 

ASSEMBLED $17.95 

ADD $1.25 FOR 
POSTAGE/HANDLING 



VARIABLE POWER SUPPLY 

• Continuously Variable from 2 V to over 15V 

• Short-Circuit Proof 

i Typical Regulation of 0.1% 

• Electronic Current Limiting at 300mA 
» Very Low Output Ripple 

• Fiberglass PC Board Mounts All Components 
» Assemble in about One Hour 

» Makes a Great Bench or Lab Power Supply 

• Includes Alt Components except Case and Meters 



OTHER ADVA KITS: 



LOOK mOH *ll Lha «rcn CttM, TTL. OTL. NTL HT(.. Mthlll «n0 trym UQ4 tCi 

Fijuo MGuurto *om* &*p*r urn a wn w «*« 

*m tv » homl m » to** wt • ini n. in ««m hv * 





am l> 



f Sa- i! 



r«f C OATA JHEXTE uf»«d •*» Hpf MM n^ *»■ «1 FHfX OH 
HEQuttt^l 0* A*« «A BMrr i*** Of * ** "#rp-»» Dm* £fe Mta t»e EMM 

riti««Mr>v4FalV3iron,tdmrtdtnrn Ml ?> (W W.knvjvii^ 

OHDCW TDQAV -11 4*Mi ufaject to pfnw Ub ••* *Tl*M fcAnLI to a\m^. ■i t t ihi t nM4s 

Ml iwn ** Ma nimi »n - ion mimmamfTii mi 

WHiri WQm *R|| CATALOG *m vttwu-m mr JQ4 iHw i Hwon zirr»o Ip iroci 

5"r*J l^filKftp 

TEHfa- Sim* rNd a« ifitinv Enlv |U5. lunari wlJfl sHfe* Wt air Td Ooi |Udi|i tir U S , 

Cirtttl* iiW Miakfm I* "cunt nr* fcr&l. St. DO 'midling £ft*rQa on Drflnri undir ilQ. Qui' ml 

diflii n*J fl> uk-i ii> . Fiihi 5tt urij*f i fcjd savugf , COD srdiri- *dJ II .00 **t *ie# sl» arw» 



MORE SPECIALS: # 

RC4195DN :15V £ 50mA VOLTAGE REGULATOR IC. V*ty «iv to 

ua. MA*t« • neat Hijh^ R+guLat** 15V Supply lor Of AMP t «tc 

Rvqum only un™»jMii»d DC <TB-30VI Hid 2 bypcu CAptcmtTL 

Wptf» Data Short nd &rtwr*i*i>£i A pm> mOIP f I 25 

LM741 FREO COMPENSATED OP AMP . AT4I MCI 741. «t mOIP 5/*l 

MCMU DUAL 741 OP AMP mEHP »1 

RC456B DUAL 741 OP AMP mDlP 1»1 

2N3KM *JPN TH AVSIST03 AMPLI H£Pt SWITCH to 50 r^A ,100 ft/Si 

ZEKERS -S^ofy VqJtir 3 J. 3 9 * 3. S 1 6 8 6 2 AOOrrW 4 f 1 00 

» I. 10, 12. 15, if. IS, 20 22. 24 27, w UV l-f0%l f Win 3r*T 00 

• MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE 

• ALL TESTED AND GUARANTEED 

ADVA 

JT^ftpr ^r^k ELECTRONICS 

BOX 4181 K , WOODSIDE, CA 94062 
Tel (415) 351 0455 



FREE 



SS8. S10 ORDERS r 
DATA SHEETS 
WITH MANY ITEMS 






DIODES 

ZENERS fi 

RECTIFI1BS 

IHI4Btw 

IN4b( 

1*141* 

IN74£h 

lH75i 



t.'H 



It 

I 

1 



ljt| 

4fltl 
it 

tm 
\tm 
Mm 

1215 

Ittl 

ittl 

tliV 
IWV I Lit 



!5-n 
in 

«t1 



TRANSISTOR* THflNSISTOflS TflANShSrOflS LINEAR IC 1 ! 



.'N.'||l 

7PT1D3 
jmtii 

INZII2 
2UQ1A* 

M9Ht 



in 
1/11 

?f 
Jl 
31 
K 

w 

t-11 

'.I' 



Ml 
tut 
c-r 



IMISh 

i*im 

mini n 



VARACT0RS 
m immhj 

MVBJP in 

HVB1! 

MV1I2SIB 

MV163* 

MVIIBf eb 

MV1I72 

MVlZOlur 



Si 



."j-in-^i 

•'■■!■•. 

2*14127 

T<y4:*i 

7M414I 
7M4TT4 



n "5! 

3/tl 

DT.I1 
i.51 
== ■"=- ■ 

511 
i/Il 
5.11 

-a 

ji 

Jl 



MN 
tHtitA KJt 



JN5C3I 

IN5*flO 

tf$S0" 

Cf-ftaP 

F1M 

£191 

EIK 

El >f 

■K1W1-* 

MfMH 

«m 

tflHI 
SUB 



tfli 

xm 

H.M 
».N 

Jj/tl 

iTi 

4JE1 

4t1 
* > 

*n 

in 



LWW1T * 
|.M3J0T'I 

LMMH111 

LMMirN 
maHH" 

iWttH 
■IMtA 



SI ,'L 
I.JE. 
1. 71 
ITS 

1,11 

1.71 

ije 

tttl 






if 

ja 






avti 






LVMICAI1 J4 



noMt 

1NHM 

HUtl H 

1N34M 

H3J33 
2NIIZ1 
IlJlltl 

;«i»« it* 4 

INJIII 
1UII1 
IN34M 
IH1MI 

tuin 



if 

i 1 | 
1/D j 

LTt ;W«llii 

111 JMU* 
Mil II 
?»I1I1 

2HIIH 

INSlfll 
2NgJ«7 
3NE43Z 
,H',.1!,< 

mttAt 



j n 

U.4D 

l:i 
J'l 

t.'tl 



HM 

IN 

Ml 

ijdt 



3 13 

* :• 

tn 

•41 

Si' 
5 5' 
1 51 
SSH 
2.SD 

urn 

2,11 
si sn 

l.BD 

3/n 

Sfl.3l 
1/11 
2JH 

2.H 



TUTTlto 

ran 

D1CI7AI 



LMIflDH 
LNHtfcN 

LKUlPt 
LM30IN 

LKSllH 
LHJZlHl 

LM320K1J 
2D»4 TUtELMtHKtl 



UT74IM 



UUT3« 
U74HN 
» 71 111 

LINEAfl IC i 



17 

U 

It 

HI 

II 

131 

lib 

i Jjb 



M4C7-DV 

uniw 

Mtjill* 



on Ltnt.fCA 

Mi 



(Ci 

14 
It 
II 
It 
If 
34 
41 
11 
44 



Ci>02l* 
CAWt 

CAJOH* 
LMHtDA 

HC4IHD 
HL4I941I" ' 
RCU15DN' 

flc*tirrr 

LW42i0tN 
HC1B41P*! 
H1IHV 

miiiv 

jjUMIUC 
IC1I DIP* 
DH7H11 



Mi 

in 
iai 

ti.M 

IS 

■35 
r.f5 

14 
T*l 

£E 

H 
1.S.Q 
7-50 
1J& 
2 Tr . 
Z.DQ 

il 

•i 

5a 
1-Zi 
1H 



*SUP€R SPECIALS: * 






IPrtlt lOOV.lDntA Dfocta 20Vt1 

1TV4CCT IDOV.'IA H»ct 15 SI 

1IM1S4 30V 1 NA14 Z5 SI 

BR1 E4JV 9faA ^rid«A ft* 4V»> 

2M2222A NPN TfMnttr fi/tl 

2N2907 W TrintitDor WSI 

2M30G5 Pqmt Xifwr T0A JO 

7N3BCM NPN Ampl, .100 6 ST 

iHjdOG PFtf Amp/$* J1Q0 fWl 

CP0S0 Pmm FET )|Ainp SB 



WPF102 200WHJ ffF Amp 
40673 MO$F£T flF A** 
U^*Oja«I 741 Op Avnw 
IJMQTfi-Pai Vstl R«|fnOiF 
MES56 Timr mOIP 
LM723 2 3TV R«« DIP 
LM74t Cflmp Op A.Tfiip inOlP 
LM1454 Ou«l 74t mOIP 
CA3CS8 $ TrviA Arr*y OIP 
HC4195DF* ■ISV.'UmAmCliP 



3S' 
J1.T5 



4, : T1 
1S1 

1.25 



R F391 R F P«*v Amp Trimmilt 1 25V* 9 3 30MM f TO 3 SSjDO 

5G5X Timer l^t-lhr DifffFtnt pm«ut frc<Ti 55-5 (w'dtM? 3 "SI 

RC4 T94T K Du*l T rick mg R ifulitar : 0.2 to 30V 4} 200m A TO il€l S2 5 C 

RC4195TK D-Uftl TrMCMini Rngulilor -15V * lOOniA (TO WJ 52 25 

e03B W*v»lof m G*ruiriior ^n A W*v*i With D'tuJIl & 0*tl *3.76 



133 



73 Magazine Staff 



The 

Boomless 

Microbeam 



- - works better 



than it ought to 



Many methods have 
_ been tried to fold, 
load and twist the elements 
of 20, 1 5 and 1 meter beams 
to make them more compact 
while sttll retaining reason- 
able performance. No one can 
or should expect a compacted 
beam to work as well as a full 
size beam. Working "well" 
refers to forward jpin t front 
to back ratio, low loss and 
low swr over a reasonable 
bandwidth. Designs have been 
made which optimize one 



factor at the sacrifice of all 
others. For instance, a beam 
might be determined and 
loaded to produce a low swr 
over an entire band, but 
usable gain might occur over 
only a very narrow portion of 
the band. Such a beam design 
might look good in adver- 
tising literature - "broad- 
band, low swr t moderate 
gain 11 — but it really doesn't 
deliver much. On the other 
hand, not many amateurs 
would buy the beam if it 



i ■ ? •■ 



7M*tt 




9 1/ZfT WIRE 



stated "very low swr and high 
g#in over any selected 50 kHz 
portion of a band," 

Whether it is worthwhile 
to go after a compact beam 
(either commercial or home 
brew) for a few extra dB 
obviously revolves around the 
cost and effort involved. 
Sometimes the few extra dB 
aren't as important as adding 
some directivity to the 
antenna system to improve 
the reception side of things. 
This sort of evaluation has to 
be made for specific circum- 
stances. But, one can't make 
it without good details on 
what one is building or 



buying. 

The boomless 2 element 
beam described in this article 
is not a cure for all problems, 
although variations of this 
design have successfully been 
used for over 10 years by 
various amateurs. Rather than 
make sharp compromises in 
any one direction, the main 
advantage of the design is 
that it makes moderate, 
acceptable compromises in 
several directions. It has a 
gain of several dB across a 
given band, the swr is low 
(2:1 or less) across a band, 
and the front to back ratio is 
a usable 10-15 dB across a 
band. Also, and perhaps most 
importantly, it is simple to 
construct. The electrical 
layout of the beam is shown 
in Fig, 1, It consists of a 
driven element and a director 
element, A reflector element 
for the parasitic element 
might produce somewhat 
more gain. But at the close 
element spacing used, a direc- 
tor element has only about 1 
dB less gain and produces 
much better overall front-to- 
back ratio properties. The 
beam dimensions are as 
shown for 20 meters and can 
be scaled down or up for 
other bands. The dimensions 
have been arrived at empiri- 
cally by those who have built 
this type of beam and seem 
to yield the best overall 
average results. Because of 
the loading effect produced 
by folding back the elements, 
their overall lineal length is 
greater than that found in full 
size beams, although overall 
the beam is much more com* 
pact than a full size beam. 

The driven element is not 
shown separated for connec- 



7 1/4 ft WIRE 



PLAT! 



i 



MAXIMUM 
KADlATiOft 




Z " ELEMENTS 



PIPE FL*Nfc£ 
TO MAST 



Fig, L Basic beam dimensions for 20 meters. 



Fig. 2 Mast mounting plate. 



134 



Lion to a transmission line. It 
could be separated in the 
center and fed directly, 
preferably through a 1:1 
balun, with 50 Ohm coaxial 
line. The match should be a 
good one, producing a low 
swr without any matching 
devices. The director element 
is left as shown. 

Feeding the antenna in the 
preceding manner requires, 
however, that the two sides 
of the driven element coming 
towards the mast be insulated 
from the mast. Simplified 
plumber's delight construc- 
tion can be achieved by 
having all of the antenna 
elements coming towards the 
mast grounded to the mast 
and the driven element feed 
via a gamma match. Various 
construction techniques can 
be used for the purpose 
depending on the tools and 
equipment available- Fig. 2 
shows one simple method 
which does not require any 
special tools. An approximate 
12 by 12 inch aluminum or 
stee[ plate is used with a pipe 
flange which fits over the 



mast. Of course, it would be 
best if a steel threaded mast 
could be used. The antenna 
elements are nested alum- 
inum tubing starting with 8 
foot lengths of 1 ]4" OD alum- 
inum. These are secured to 
the square mast plate by 
means of two U bolts on each 
element. The total length of 
12 feet for each element is 
made by nesting 4 foot tub- 
ing into the 8 foot sections. 
Tubing clamps are used to 
secure the sections together. 
Alternatively; the 12 foot ele- 
ments of aluminum are 
locally available. The rest of 
the antenna is made of #12 
wire strung between the tips 
of the 12 foot sections. 
Nylon clothesline (the type 
without metal reinforcement) 
makes a good, simple insu- 
lator between the wire 
sections. 

There is no tuning to the 
antenna other than matching 
the transmission line to the 
driven element. One could 
experiment with tuning of 
the driven and director ele- 
ments by varying the length 



WASt MOUNTING PLATE 
(FIGURE 2} 



IS ft ELEMENT 

OF DRIVEN ELEMCNT 



SHORTING BAR 




/ 



/ 



jc: 



i 



PLASTIC 



GAMMA BAR.55in LONG 

1/2 in ALUM TUBING. SPACED 

3-6 In. FROM DRIVEN ELEMENT 



COAX TO TX 



Fig. 3. Gamma match to coaxial transmission line. The gamma 
bar can be placed on either of the two 12* driven element 
members shown in Fig, L 



of the wire sections of each 
element, but it is doubtful if 
any better performance would 

be achieved. Transmission 
line matching is done most 
easily with a gamma match as 
shown in Fig. 3. A 55" length 
of Vi* aluminum tubing Is run 
parallel to one 12 foot leg of 
the driven element at 3-6 inch 
spacing. It is supported at one 
end by a metal shorting 
clamp to the driven element, 
and at the other by the 
housing of a plastic box 
which contains a series 200 
pF variable, The plastic box is 
mounted on the bottom of 
the mast plate and can be 
supported by the U clamps 
which hold the 12 foot ele- 



ments down. A sturdy plastic 
kitchen food container can be 
used for the enclosure where 
severe weather is not a prob- 
lem. Otherwise, a solid piexi- 
glas housing is needed. The 
metal shorting clamp is 
moved along the driven 
element a few inches at a 
time and the variable capaci- 
tor tuned for each setting 
until the lowest swr is 
achieved on the line. The 
beam should be in its final 
operating position or as high 
off the ground as practical 
while making this adjustment. 
Any medium to heavy 
duty TV type rotator will 
suffice to handle the beam 
antenna, ■ 



MILLET 
ILECTBMHCS 



P.O. BOX 19442E 
DALLAS, TEXAS 75219 
{214) S23-3240 



• NO COD's 

•SEND CHECK OR M.O. 

• BAC or MC PHONE ORDERS 
•ADD 5% SHIPPING 



(FOREIGN ORDERS ADD 10% 

[20% for Airmail) 
iTX. Residents add 5% Sales Tax 
(ORDERS UNDER $10. Add 60c 



AUDIBLE CONTINUITY TESTER KIT 

Measures continuity and resistance to 
2K, Test LED's, diodes & transistors. 
Less Speaker, Requires 6 to 12 volts, 
(batteries not included). $1.95 



WrW alarm Ki 



Ernsts a piercing dual tone blast that 
is impossible to ignore. Great with 
our Sender Receiver Kit. All com- 
ponents and quality PC Board includ- 
ed. Speaker and power switch not 
included. (3-15V) $2.50 (kit) 



HIKI GHANDFATHEH CLOCK KIT 



THE MOST FASCINATING KIT WE HAVE EVER OFFERED FEATURES: 
Large %" LED Readout; LED simulated swinging pendulum matches tick- 
tock sound; Electronic tone chimes the hour (ie: 3 times for 3 o J cfockJ; 
Quality components and 2 PC boards measuring 4,5" x 6.5"; All CMOS 
IC construction; Transformer provided, no case included $44,00 postpaid. 



BULLET SUPER STAR PS-01 A S14.95 

A compact, well regulated triple output power supply, Gives +5VDC @ 
1.5A and +15 @ 150ma and -15 @ IBGma. Complete with PC Board, com- 
ponents, heatsinks & quality transformer. PS— 01B same as above but with 
+/— 12 output instead of +/— 15; Please specify model number when ordering. 








A complete transmitter/receiver kit that will flood an average sized room 
with 23KHZ sound and detect any movement 5n the area. The output is a 
DC level that can be used to trigger a relay, bell or alarm. Uses 2 quality 
transducers* All components & PC Board included. (Requires 9,15 VD€ @ 



60m a [not supplied 



)■ 



AUTOMATIC TIME OUT CIRCUIT for ultrasonic or mechanical switch 
alarms. Provides a ftve second entry delay, sounds a) arm for one minute, 
then re-arms itself. Requires 6- 15 VDC. $3,95 



PS-12 POWER SUPPLY KIT 

We Guarantee your Satisfaction! 
Not only is the PS— 12 able to 
supply a continuous 10AMPS 
(15 AMPS intermittent) of low 
ripple, regulated DC voltage, but 
it is also variable from 3 to 30 
volts! Use it as a building block 
for a fantastic bench supply. 



FEATURES: 

Output adjustable 
from 3 to 30 
Volts DC 

Adjust. Current 
limiting to 15 
amps. 

Special Pre -regu- 
lator circuit a- 
Ffmfnates need 
for massive heat 
sinks, 

Better than 1% 
Load & Line 

Regulation from 
to 15 am ps 

Low Ripple out- 
put 

Heavy duty 10 lb. 
Transformer 



KIT INCLUDES: 

Transformer 

Heatsink (drilled) 

Semiconductors 
(diodes, transis- 
tors, etc.( 

All Components 
(resistors, caps) 

Transistor mount- 
ing hardware St 
insulators 

Drilled & plated 
PC Board 

Wire 

$49.95 
add $3.70 for 
postage 



48 HOUR FAST SERVICE! 
You deserve and will get prompt shipment 
from Bullet Electronics. On orders not shipped 
within 48 hours of receipt a 10% refund will be 
issued. Money Back Guarantee on all items. 
Orders over $50.00 take automatic 10% 
discount. 



135 



— I 



FAST SET 
SLOW SET 
RESET 
ALM DIS 
SLP DIS 
ALM OFF 
SNOOZE 




Fig. I. Schematic diagram of the four digit dock used for illustration in this article, 



Charles F. Smith 
c/o 73 Magazine 



Making Your Own 

PC Boards 



- - part I 



There have been quite a 
few construction pro- 
jects in magazines lately, 
some without printed circuit 
board artwork. Oftentimes, 

136 



with a simple project, a PC 
board is unnecessary. How- 
ever, when a project starts 
using a lot of components 
and gets complex, it is usually 



much easier to use a board. 
This does not apply only to 
magazine projects. Home 
brew ideas will have a neater, 
more professional look if a 



circuit board is used. 

This is the first of a two 
part article dealing with the 
design and manufacture of 
printed circuit boards. It will 



* — i — - 





r ' 
I 

I 



4 **■* MM « «4H#r*IMf J<M* 



o i;n 



1*5 




6 cr> 



%^j; 






Bs 






i« 






. 







PterL. LUX v *•**!*-•■ n^*' tOU 

CI- J^taF I flTk H«MI «l*tUT*ijTi* <■ 

O -9*1* ■ IP Mi MtMAti llM "P<^ 

c*, 3i i»# • * *«i iih Hi «Lm iipftttr 

m^r- lMdl 

01- t«w» 

IB* JBSJTIW I It! I lira L l»p,l»nr^rtntnr| 

1411- »CT* |HMI1M*1IH 

f]4- UH *■ t<* ttrwi «*i r«iitw 

a >.i*.*n 4 .ru Jim 1- 1 

im JJ9 fr" i^i w 

*li.*t- t ■« A* 1' ■>*■ r«v mi-i=* 

t)»~ ia* |- IM Kit 

nj- IB I. !■«« 

fct- HJZt H-ft**MMl 

tei- il?» ito H Mlll 

lire- un miMi 

71- I" — *# •»■ <■!! 

W4« ^tmit > I H 
(p-Bl» •*-*•♦ 
4 P |J. P|l *MM1 



■^"^ 



AtfTf *-¥ 



_* 



— 







- ■ ■ I ■ 






f3^ !■ 



mil 







V- 








s 


F ■ 


^ 






s 










• ~ tW ^H 


* »— * ' 









+1* 









I- 






cover everything necessary 
for the home experimenter to 
produce high quality, profes- 
sional-looking boards. This 
part of the article wilt deal 
with documentation and 
production of artwork for a 
single-sided board. Next 
month we will cover double- 



sided boards and the manu- 
facturing process. 

While the use of a printed 
circuit board is generally a 
good idea, there are times 
when a second thought is 
advisable. As with any good 
thing, a PC board has its 
disadvantages. Some argu- 



ments for and against the use 
of printed circuit boards are 
as follows: 
PROS: 

1. Wei^it reduction as 
much as 10 to I. 

2. Designed in perfor- 
mance. 

3. Ease of inspection. 



4. Diagnostic analysis 
and troubl eshooti ng 
simplified. 

5. Positive and straight- 
forward parts identifi- 
cation. 

6. Space organization 
and control. 

CONS: 

1 . Volume inefficien- 
cy, space utilization 
poor (essentially two 
plane). 

2* Poor repairability. 
3. Conductors may be 
exposed, causing insula- 
tion degradation or 
even possible shorting. 
4- Thermal design com- 
plicated and limited. 

5 . D esi gn re gi me n ta- 
tion and restriction, 
with electrical and 
mechanical compro- 
mises. 

6, Circuit revision dif- 



137 




100 144 196 £56 324 400 464 576 676 
CROSS SECTION, SQ MILS 

Fig, 3. Use this chart to find minimum conductor widths for the circuit board, 



ficult and sometimes 
impossible. 

Single-Sided or Double- 
Sided? 

When you do decide to use 
a circuit board, you should be 
aware of what is available. 



Currently, there are four dif- 
ferent types of printed circuit 
boards you can use. These are 
single -sided, double-sided, 
multi-layer, and flexible. The 
single-sided board has all of 
the wiring on one side, with 
the components on the other 



0005" 
SOLDER 
PLATING 




NORMAL 
UNDER CUT 
FROM ETCHING 



Fig. 4, Conductor edge undercut 



side. The laminate serves as 
an insulator and support. The 
double-srded PC board has 
the bulk of the wiring on the 
bottom, with the remainder 
on the top side. Components 
are generally mounted on the 
side with the least amount of 
wiring, 

A multi-layer board is 
composed of many very thin 
boards laminated together. 
Sometimes as many as 19 
individual layers may be 
found in one multi-layer 
board. The home manufac- 
ture of this type of board will 
be discussed along with 
double-sided boards next 
month. 

The last type of board in 
common use today is the 
flexible circuit. Very simply, 
this is a single- or double- 



sided board using a paper thin 
laminate. An example of their 
common usage can be found 
in the dash of many newer 
automobiles. 

With a selection like that 
to choose from, which type 
of board do you pick for a 
particular application? Choos- 
ing is really very simple. 
Multi-layer ^nd flexible cir- 
cuits are the most difficult 
for the home experimenter to 
manufacture, so they are out. 
We are left with a choice 
between single-sided and 
double-sided boards. Single- 
sided is the least expensive, 
but can be a headache to 
design if the circuit is com- 
plicated. Double -sided boards 
offer more flexibility in de- 
sign, but are a bit more 
expensive. 

Look at the circuit you are 
going to design a board for. Is 
it complex? Does it use a lot 
of integrated circuits? If your 
answer is yes, you may want 
to use a double-sided board. 
If your circuitry is fairly 
simple and/or straightfor- 
ward, you may want to use a 
single-sided PC board. This 
month we are going to design 
a single-sided PC board for 
the digital clock in Fig. 1. 

Documentation 

When you have decided to 
make a printed circuit board, 
the first thing to check is 
whether you have adequate 
documentation* This would 
be a schematic or logic dia- 
gram, a parts list, and any 
other pertinent data. This 
step is important, whether 
you are going to make a 
one-of-a-kind prototype or a 
production run of a few 
hundred or more. Good docu- 
mentation helps prevent 
mistakes that may occur later 
in manufacturing. An exam- 
ple of documentation is 
shown in Fig. 2. 

When drawing your dia- 
grams, there are some points 
to remember. Signal flow 
should be drawn from the left 
to the right, with the inputs 
on the left, the outputs on 
the right. The highest voltage 
potentials are normally drawn 
toward the top, the lowest 



138 




HOBBY-WRAP 

Model BW-630 









TA 1 



WIRE WRAPPING TOOL 

For AWG 30, .025" (0,63mm) sq. post, 
"MODIFIED" wrap, positive indexing, 
anti-overwrapping device 



Battery 



wire 



wrapping 





ONLY 



i.batren-es 
not included) 



COMPLETE WITH BIT 
AND SLEEVE 




OK MACHINE & TOOL CORPORATION 

3455 Conner Si, Bronx, NY 10475 / (212) 994-6600 /Telex 125091 



HOBBY-WRAP 

Model BW-630 








%: 




wrapping 



WIRE WRAPPING TOOL 

For AWG 30, .025" (0,63mm) sq. post, 
"MODIFIED" wrap, positive indexing, 

anti-overwrapping device. 



. 



ONLY 



(baiter igs 
not included r 



COMPLETE WITH BIT 
AND SLEEVE 




OK MACHINE & TOOL CORPORATION 

3455 Conner St.. Bronx. NY. 104 75/ (212) 994-6600 / Telex 125091 





Voltage 

Between 

ConduciOfi 

DC or AC 

{Volte} 






2 1 


Unco a ted 
0-10.000 Ft Alt. 


< 


MIL-STD 
275C 


1PC-HL- 
910 


■ 

c 
U 

u 

z 

tn 
o 

T 




9 

10 

15 
16 
30 
31 
50 
51 


025- 
(G.64 mm) 


015" 
(0.3B mm) 


CL 


025 J1 
(0,64 mm) 


*4! 

u 


100 
101 
150 
151 
170 
171 
250 
251 
300 

301 
500 

500+ 




T 
if: 

CD 

C 

| 

ft 

> 


050" (1 27 mm) 


100" (2 54 mm) 


1 

— 

- 
o 

■- 

£ 


0002 m volt 
f 0,005 1 mm volt) 



Table L Conductor spacing. 



toward the bottom* Support 
circuitry is drawn on the 
lower half of the drawing. 
These are oscillators, power 
supplies, and other circuits 
not included in the main 
drawing. An exception to this 
rule is when it is easier to 
include a support circuit in 
the main diagram, 



It is not necessary to fol- 
low these rules. However, 
most drawings tend to follow 
them, and standardization 
helps reduce possible con- 
fusion and problems later on. 

When drawing a schematic 
diagram, it is a good idea to 
draw it in such a way as to 
keep crossovers to a mini- 



mum. This drawing is what 
you will be using to lay out 
your board. Crossovers on a 
PC board represent electrical 
connections. This will 
become more clearly under- 
stood when the layout has 
begun. A typical schematic 
diagram for a four digit digi- 
tal clock is shown in Fig. 1. 

Layout Design 

The printed circuit board 
layout is the necessary step 
between the schematic or 
logjc diagram and the master 
artwork. It should contain all 
of the circuit board design 
information. The component 
locations, interconnecting 
circuitry, and board outline 
should all be included, drawn 
to scale. The scale used, hole 
and conductor sizes, as well 
as alt measurements, should 
be noted external to the 
board area. 

The use of a grid system 
when doing a board layout is 
important. Most electronic 
parts are spaced on a 1/10" 
grid. 

A grid is a ^two-dimen- 
sional rectangular network 
consisting of a set of equidis- 











RECOMMENDED 


2X 


AWG 




FINISH HOLE 


TERMINAL AREA COMPONEN1 


34 


.0063 










33 


,0071 










32 


.0080 


.0145 








31 


.0089 


#79 drill 




.150 




30 


.0100 










29 


.0113 










28 


.0126 










27 


.0142 










26 


.0159 


.0260 








25 


.0179 


#71 drill 




.170 


1/8 Watt resistor. 


24 


.0201 








DIP, TO 5. TCM8 


23 


.0226 










22 


.0253 


.0360 








21 


.0258 


#64 drill 




.187 


1/4 Watt resistor, 


20 


.0320 








TO-220, TO-202 


19 


.0359 


.0520 








18 


.0403 


#55 drill 




.218 


1/2-2 Watt resistor. 


17 


.0435 








TO-3 


16 


,0508 


.0625 








15 


.0571 


1/16 r #52 drill 


.250 










MACHINE 


; SCREWS 
RECOMMENDED 


2 X TERMINAL 


SIZE 


CLEARANCE 


HOLE 


SCREW 


WASHER AREA 


2 


=44 




.086 


,312 


.468 


4 


#33 




.113 


,437 


.650 


6 


28 




.140 


,531 


300 


8 


#19 




.166 


.600 


1.000 


10 


#11 




.191 


,687 


1.000 



Table 2. Pod sizes. Note: Alt measurements shown in inches. 



tant parallel lines superim- 
posed upon another set of 
equidistant parallel lines with 
one set of lines perpendicular 
to the other/ 1 (Bishop Graph- 
ics) The most common grids, 
at actual board size, in use 
today are ,100 ,T , ,050' \ and 
.025" in order of preference. 
Ail board artwork and 
layouts should be done at an 

enlarged scale. Errors in pad 
and conductor alignment and 
imperfections in drafting aids 
will be reduced proportion- 
ately with the reduction of 
artwork to finished board 
size. 

The scales most often used 
for layouts are 2x, 4x, and 
1 x, in order of preference. Ix 
should always be avoided 
except in cases where reduc- 
ing facilities are not available. 

When designing a PC 
board, careful thought must 
be given to conductor width 
and spacing. If a conductor is 
too small, discontinuity may 
result. On the finished board, 
consideration must be given 
to possible heat problems. 
Narrow traces will lift off 
very easily. Their added dif- 
ficulty in manufacturing will 
result in an increased cost. 
Narrow spacing is also diffi- 
cult to manufacture and may 
cause short circuits. Widths 
and s pacings that are too 
large may result in wasted 
valuable board space. 

Conductors larger than 
500" should be avoided. If 
larger conductive areas are 
needed, as in the case of 
ground planes, they should be 
relieved to avoid blistering or 
warping during soldering. 
More information on ground 
planes will be discussed later. 

Conductor width should 
be determined by the re- 
quired current carrying capac- 
ity. Width may be selected by 
referring to Fig. 3. Spacing is 
determined by the voltage 
present, and whether the 
board has been coated or not. 
If narrow spacing is used 
around high voltage, arcing 
may result. Table 1 shows 
suggested conductor spacing 
determined by voltages pre- 
sent. Typical spacing of .031 " 
or ,Q50" is suggested for low 



140 




I 



ANNULAR 
RING 



T 



ID 



Fig, 5 t Annular ring in detail. 



voltage applications when 
space permits. Conductors 
should be placed no closer 
than J 00" to .250" to a 
board edge or mounting hard- 
ware. 

When the PC board is 
etched, a small amount of 
copper will be removed from 
underneath the resist or plat- 
ing. This should be taken into 
account when selecting a con- 
ductor width or pad size. 
With larger conductors, this 
undercutting can be con- 
sidered irrelevant. However, 
when using narrow conduc- 
tors (approximately .01 5 M 
and smaller), if great preci- 
sion is required, add one or 
two thousandths to allow for 
this. See Fig. 4. 

Pad Sizes 

Choosing pad sizes is much 
the same as choosing conduc- 
tor widths. Instead of width, 
however, we have what is 
called annular ring to think 
about. Annular ring is 
(OD-ID)/2, where OD is the 
pad outside diameter and ID 
is the hole size. See Fig. 5. 

There should be a separate 
pad and hole for each compo- 
nent lead or connecting wires. 
Hole exceptions are made for 
components in a "flat-pale 11 
configuration. 

Pads should be as large as 
practical while maintaining 
minimum spacing require- 
ments. Table 2 lists suggested 
pad sizes for common compo- 
nents. 

Oftentimes mounting 
holes as well as component 
leads will have pads. When 
using a pad for a mounting 
hole, make the pad as large or 
larger than the screws or 
washer that will contact the 



board. In this way, when tap- 
ing up the master artwork, 
you will have a better knowl- 
edge of where nearby conduc- 
tors may be placed. 

A ground plane is an area 
of the circuit board used as a 
common point between many 
connections* This is usually 
the ground of the power 
supply, hence its name. 
Rather than being a narrow 
conductor from one point to 
another, a ground plane is a 
large area of copper. These 
are often used as supply buses 
or shielding, especially in high 
frequency circuits. Ground 
planes are sometimes used for 
heat sinking, although their 
use for this application is 
somewhat limited* 

When laying out a ground 
plane, approximately Fifty 
percent should be relieved to 
prevent blistering and a heat 
sinking effect during solder- 
ing operations. Fig. 6 illus- 
trates two common methods 
of relieving the copper. An 
exception to this rule could 
be when the ground plane is 
designed to be a heat sink. 
Under these circumstances, 
the idea is to have as much 
copper exposed as possible. 

For connections to the 
ground plane, special pads are 
suggested. These are detailed 
in Fig. 7, A clearance is pro- 
vided between the terminal 
area and ground plane. Where 
continuity is desired between 
the pad and the ground plane, 
two to four connections are 
made. This helps prevent a 
poor solder connection result- 
ing from the heat sinking 
problems discussed earlier. 

Special Considerations 

Designing a circuit board is 




Fig. 6, Methods of relieving copper for ground planes. 



not always as easy as it may 
sound. Very often, a circuit 
will have many special prob- 
lems to consider. Feedback, 
noise popping up where it 
should not, and uneven 
propagation delays in digital 
circuits are only a few of the 
many unexpected problems 
that may occur in the fin- 
ished product if the board is 
not designed with thought. 
Conductor routing on a PC 
board is basically the same as 
wiring a circuit point to 
point. The same care must be 
taken when designing a PC 
board. 

When a board is designed 
and feedback could be a 
problem, you can run a 
ground fine between the sen- 
sitive section and the area 
most likely to cause interfer- 
ence. Fig. 8 illustrates this 
with a few typical problems. 
Some other problems to 
watch for are high voltages, 
currents, or frequencies. Heat 
distribution may also create a 
headache. Be sure thai heat 
sensitive parts are kept away 
from power devices, 

When drawing a layout, it 
should be drawn looking at 
the bottom of the board — 
that is, from the foil side. 
This can become confusing at 
times, but there is a good 
reason. The master artwork is 
copied directly from the lay- 
out. When the artwork is 



photographed, you will want 
a negative with the emulsion 
side facing the board. The 
exception is when the board 
is to be silk screened. 

As bad as this may sound, 
doing a layout in this manner 
is not really hard. All you 
have to remember is that 
everything is drawn upside 
down. After a while, drawing 
like this will become second 
nature. 

To do a layout, you are 
going to need the following 
materials: some tenth inch 
graph paper, black and red 
pencils, and an eraser. 

The graph paper should be 
a precision type, printed on 
stable material for accuracy. 
If the board you are going to 
make does not require ex- 
treme precision, any tenth 
inch graph paper will do. 

Layout Design Techniques 

Before beginning your lay- 
out, find an area in the 
schematic where a group of 
components share a common 
point. Draw these parts on 
the grid by drawing a dot 
where each lead will go. To 
avoid confusion later, the 
symbol or part number is 
drawn where the component 
will go. Once you have the 
parts drawn in, draw the 
interconnecting lines between 
the dots (pads)* If the sche- 
matic diagram has been 




i f amah. ! 



HOLE 






MOMFUKC T |Q## *l fEAMWAL *«r * 




OR 



• N 



V/ 



Repnnred By Permission BISHOP GRAPHICS INC 
Chaisworin CA 1976 

Fig. 7. Special pads for ground planes. 



141 



GROUND 




Repented By Permission 

BfSHOP GRAPHICS INC 

Chats wo rtri CA ■ 1976 



oooo 





BLOCKED ACCESS 
TO CONNECTOR 



OPEN ACCESS 
TO CONNECTOR 



Fig. 9. Arranging parts to provide maximum access to other 

components or edge connectors. 



noisy 
spikes 



GROUND 



NONCRITICAL 
AC 



Fig, 8, Typical layout problems and solutions. 

drawn with as few crossovers very easy. Places where cross- 
as possible, this step will be overs exist on the schematic 



may be remedied by remem- 
bering that conductors may 
be placed under parts and 
between pads. An alternate 
but very similar method is to 
lay out the board basically 
the same as the schematic has 
been drawn. 

Other methods of layout 
design include choosing one 
or more multi-lead compo- 
nents and radiating outward 
from them. This is what was 
done with the four digit clock 




&»r-~*^ 






4 



t »1- 




Oowfey ttoctfomci 






~ 



■ar 
A 



<&**? 



|V*4 ' J ** , 



Fig. 10. Finished * 6 main board*' layout for the clock. 



in Fig. 2. When using a con- 
nector, or pads for external 
wiring (inputs, outputs, or 
external parts), locate these 
pads first. Sometimes it is 
easier to do this and radiate 
components inward. 

When laying out a board, 
care should be taken to keep 
a neat and orderly appear- 
ance. Components should be 
positioned to provide maxi- 
mum access to other parts. 
See Fig. 9. 

On a single-sided board, it 
is possible, and very likely it 
the circuit is complex, that 
you will have a crossover or 
two. Maybe even a few more. 
However, crossovers on a cir- 
cuit board represent short 
circuits and so are not al- 
lowed. To remedy the cross- 
over situation, we use jump- 
ers. A jumper is a wire placed 
on the component side of the 
board to "jump 11 over con- 
ductors on the bottom. These 
should be treated as separate 
components. That is, they 
occupy space and need two 
holes. When a jumper is 
drawn on the layout, use a 
different color pencil to indi* 
cate placement. This helps 
prevent putting parts under 
or over a jumper wire. 

After the layout is fin- 
ished, carefully check it over 
for mistakes. Accuracy here is 
very important. The master 
artwork, and hence the 
board, will reflect everything 
on the layout. Unless you are 
in a hurry, it is sometimes 
best to let the layout sit 
overnight before checking it. 
It is surprising how many 
times you may overlook a 
mistake. 

To elaborate further on 
layout design, I will use Fig. 
10 as an example. This layout 



142 




PRESENTS THE 



MARK II 

FREQUENCY COUNTERS 



i it it in i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



HOOKUP IS A PIECE 0' CAKE 



with better than 50mv sensitivity, direct connec- 
tion to the circuit under test is unnecessary in 
most cases. 



FREQUENCIES JUMP OUT AT YOU from the giant Vz" readouts. 



GREATER FREQUENCY RANGE 



the 60 mHz typical frequency response gives 
you 80-10 meters plus 6 meters — 50mHz 
guaranteed. 



AND . . . 

YOU'LL FIND ENDLESS NEW 
APPLICATIONS FOR THE 
"BURNOUT PROOF" MARK II 



With the overload protected front end you can 
use this counter anywhere in a circuit without 
fear of burnout. Use the Mark II to test: receiver 
local oscillators, grid dip meters, RF signal 
generators, audio generators, touch tone pads 
(when extend installed), micro-processor 
timing signals, modems, function generators 
. . . YOU NAME IT!!! 



HUFCO QUALITY AS ALWAYS • SAME HI-QUALITY G-10 GLASS EPOXY 
DOUBLE-SIDED PC BOARDS • SAME TTL IC'S • MORE THAN EVER . . . 
AMERICA'S BEST BUY IN DIGITAL FREQUENCY COUNTERS! 



ie TWS MARK II is available in three 
*quency ranges: 

0-50 mHz - 0-250 mHz - 0-500 mHz 




USH THIS COUPON TODAY! 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiifiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

This is what Ive been looking for: A Goof-proof low cost 
Frequency Counter! Send me: 

D 500 mHz Frequency Counter -169,95 kit/ '199. 95 assembled 

250 mHz Frequency Counter - 1 29.95 kit/1 59.95 assembled 

D 50 mHz Frequency Counter - 79.95 kit/99.95 assembled 

□ Information on other handy Hufco Products. 

Enclosed is Check - Money Order - BAC/MC Bankcard OK! 

Card No. Exp, Date _/_/ 

Name . . 

Address . . 

City/ State/Zip . . 

Mat! to: Box 375, Dept 7. 
1603 W. 800 N. 



Provo, Utah 84601 
801/375-8566 



was drawn from the sche- 
matic diagram in Fig, 1. 

Briefly, here are the steps 
that were taken, IC1 is the 
main component and also the 
one wilh the most connec- 
tions. Very conveniently, the 
switch inputs are all on one 
side. This helped decide its 
position and placement. Pull 
down resistor packs SI PI and 
SIP2 were placed directly 
opposite the segment and 
digit enable outputs. {The 
guys who decided the IC pin- 
out sure did a nice job.) The 
next things to lay out were 
the segment enable transistors 
and limiting resistors. The 
distance the transistors were 
placed from SIP2 was calcu- 
lated figuring the use of 
.050 1 ' tape (.025" conductors 
on the finished board). Four 
conductors would have to be 
run parallel to the IC. I 
counted up two tenths from 
SIP2 and drew my first line. 
Using the tenth inch graph 
paper as my guide, I drew 
three more lines one tenth 
inch apart. This gave me 



,025 " conductors with .025" 
spaces on the finished board, 
Allowing two tenths again for 
spacing between conductors 
and pads, I now had the 
spacing needed between the 
SIP and the transistors- With 
this in mind, I centered the 
transistors above the SIP 
350'* away from it. Unless 
otherwise noted, by the way, 
these figures are layout size 
(2x) rather than actual board 
size. The rest of the segment 
enable parts should be self- 
explanatory, 

Digit enable was a bit 
more difficult- I knew ap- 
proximately where the board 
edge was going to be, so I 
worked backwards from 
there. The transistors were set 
up kind of funny because I 
did not want to cut or use 
narrow pads. This clock was 
designed for a kit, and large 
pads make it easier to assem- 
ble. I also did not want to use 
any jumpers here. Anyway, if 
you look closely at the lay- 
out, you can see basically 
what I did. I just worked 



Artwork Pattern Configurations 



RECOMMENDED 



NOT RECOMMENDED 



Avmij fhi'p •itatrur 
angies whiun ran c.iuie 



1>. ~P. ~y. 

Good flood OK 

Avtiid ii,:\\t> riTnuw ingles 



I— 



*•*«*» uta tab j ft orta n 




x*^r 



x 



/ 





T 






mwmm to4* ing pwzntirvt «nO 

(Mm »f mmatridri sotoe- i.ilefa 

WirniJUd uh'lOim patter jii t .,i,rl 

ftQtt lu product Sftrsrtnniicflt fcglCiei- tuigu 

A. i.ilj uung ooroAje&Hfi mo Bflinf 

ittt IftrnnnalS which will ir.nnqp M'.l.jni lu 
Hn-w «wjy frcim tp'rmnai 



mii **tm A bffond caanj 






V 




Fig. 1 L Dos and don 'is for taping artwork. 



downward, placing pull down 
resistors where needed as I 
went. After these, I put the 
series resistors in using the 
same method. 

The power supply was 
fairly straightforward, and 
should not need any explana- 
tion. Perhaps the most diffi- 
cult was the section with the 
optoisolator (IC2). Basically, 
I just put the parts where 
they would fit. The optoisola- 
tor fit conveniently in the 
corner. It also has four out- 
puts that I wanted at that 
edge. The rest of the circuitry 
in this section can be best 
explained by careful examina- 
tion of the layout. The read- 
out board will not be ex- 
plained here because of its 
relative simplicity. 

Artwork Design Techniques 

Before you begin taping 
the artwork, familiarize your- 
self with the different meth- 
ods available. These include 
pen and ink, "rub-ons," draft* 
ing tape and preprinted 
"stick-ons." 

With the pen and ink 
method, everything is drawn 
by hand on drafting vellum or 
directly on the blank board* 
This method is unreliable and 
produces inferior quality art- 
work. Therefore, its use is not 
recommended. 

Rub-ons are symbols with 
gummed backing preprinted 
on a plastic base material. 
These are used by positioning 
the symbol over the area 
desired and rubbing the back- 
ing with a blunt instrument 
until the symbol comes off. 
This method is usually used 
on a blank board. Results are 
sometimes impressive, but 
you end up with a one-of-a- 
kind board. A problem 
common to rub-ons, however, 
is cracking. This produces 
broken conductors, split 
pads, and the like. 

The last and by far the 
best method is using tape and 
preprinted stick-ons. This is 
the most common, and pro- 
duces the best looking boards 
in the end, Stick-ons may be 
purchased in a large variety of 
configurations, with patterns 
available for almost all types 



of electronic components. 

Using this method, die cut 
pads and stick-ons are posi- 
tioned on mylar in positions 
dictated by the layout. Con- 
nections between compo- 
nents are made with precision 
slit artwork tape. This tape 
comes in standard widths 
from .015" to 6" ±J002" in 
both metric and decimal 
sizes. Preprinted stick-ons are 
also manufactured to a toler- 
ance of ±.002* \ 

With everything else out of 
the way, it is time to tape up 
the artwork. You are going to 
need artwork materials; tape 
and stick-ons as mentioned 
earlier, a razor blade or 
X-acto knife to cut the tape, 
and some drafting film. The 
easiest to use is mylar with a 
matte finish on one side. All 
of these things are available 
from Bishop Graphics in 
Chatsworth CA. A light table 
will make it easier to lay out 
the artwork, but it is not 
absolutely necessary. 

There are two ways to do 
artwork. One Is with straight 
lines and sharp corners. The 
other way has curved lines 
and corners. The only prob- 
lem with this method is that 
the draftsman must be some- 
what artistic. If he is not, it is 
possible to end up with 
messy-looking artwork. Using 
the square corner method is 
preferred, but it does have a 
drawback. When etching, you 
have to watch out for under- 
cutting at the corners, though 
careful planning and design 
can take care of this. 

Now you are ready to 
start. Finish off that cup of 
coffee you have been drink- 
ing, and go wash your hands. 
Soft drinks and food are also 
forbidden while taping the 
artwork. Believe me, the last 
thing you want to do is acci- 
dentally spill something on 
half-finished artwork. The 
reason for clean hands should 
be obvious. Fingerprints and 
smudges can also help ruin 
otherwise good artwork, 

The easiest way to pro- 
duce artwork is to place the 
layout directly underneath 
the mylar and tape directly 
over it. Another way is to 



144 



place a piece of precision 
graph paper under the mylar 
and transfer the pattern from 
the layout to the mylar by 
way of the drafting aids This 
way takes considerably more 
time, but is the cheapest if 
you want or need precision. 
Doing layouts using Individ- 
ual pieces of precision graph 
paper could get expensive 
after awhile. 

To apply the stick-ons, slip 
the knife or razor Wade under 
one edge of the stick-on. Lift 
carefully until it is fully off. 
Position the pattern over the 
myfar and press down gently 
with a finger. For larger pat- 
terns (DIPs, connector strips), 
use the knife to hold one side 
of the pattern, and a finger to 
hold the other. Place the pat- 
tern in position and apply 
light pressure. Applying only 
light pressure to secure pat- 
terns in place allows you to 
easily remove and reposition 
them if needed. Die cut pads 
can also be applied in the 
same manner 

Tape is applied by placing 
the end of the roll over the 
center of a pad and applying 
pressure to hold il in place. 
Then take and run the tape 
down to the terminating area, 
applying light pressure all the 
way. Be careful not to stretch 
the tape as you go, to avoid 
"creeping" later on. When 
cutting off the ends of the 
lape, it is best not to "cut" 
the tape, as this may cause a 
scratch or a blemish the 
camera will pick up later. 
Instead, hold the knife, edge 
firmly against the width of 
the tape. Using the other 
hand, pull the tape up at an 
angle away from the blade. 
This method assures a clean 
cut without mangling the rest 
of the artwork. When cutting 
tape at a corner, be sure to 
get it all. Do not let any 
excess hang over, preventing a 
nice sharp corner. Fig, 11 
illustrates some dos and 
don "is for artwork pattern 
configurations. Fig* 12 shows 
the finished artwork for the 
clock. 

To mark off the edges of 
the board, delineation marks 
are available, or you can use 




*** 



k £"f 



-' -r ■ 



$#! 



B»M 



■m 



>-j~- 



fowiw e#ctromc> 



tit - ■ 4 

- . v; . " BLM T ■- - 



V ■ ■ I 



a f 



Mi L*U* *■■ *--■ 



'*ffly 



•' 



Fig. 12. Finished "main board" artwork for the dock. 



two pieces of tape placed 
perpendicular to each other. 

When you are all finished 
with the artwork, check it 
and compare it with the lay- 
out. This is the most impor- 
tant step of all. Bad artwork 
will cause bad boards, which 
in turn will cause a product 
that does not work. Now is 
the time to double check and 
make sure this does not hap- 
pen. 

So now you have finished 
artwork and want to make a 
board? You are going to have 
to have a negative made of 
your artwork. Do not use a 
35mm or similar type camera. 
Results are poor and it is not 
worth it, Find someone with 
a camera designed for copy- 
ing line or halftone material. 
{Line material is straight 
black and white with no 
shades of gray in between. 
Halftones are used for photo- 
graphs, A magazine photo is a 



halftone,) The type of camera 
you are after is a graphic arts 
process camera, and may be 
found in companies asso- 
ciated with the printing 
industry. Some people are in 
business exclusively for the 
purpose of making negatives 
for the printed circuit board 
industry. The camera used 
must be dimensional! y stable 
and have distortion-free 
optics. Otherwise, your fin- 
ished board may be accurate 
in one corner but not the 
other. 

When making a negative of 
PC board artwork, a stable 
based film must be used. The 
best would be a glass plate, if 
you could find one. Glass is 
very stable under most con- 
ditions, but is hard to find 
and would be quite expen- 
sive. A good film for this 
purpose is 7 mil polyester 
base safety film. 

When exposing the film, 



backlight the copyboard. This 
will increase the contrast 
ratio from about 50 to 1 to 
1000 to 1. Needless to say, a 
backlit negative will have 
sharper edges and wilt pro- 
duce a much finer board. See 
Fig, 13. 

Finished artwork and 
negatives should be stored 
flat in a closed container. 
Temperature should be kept 
within 35 to 120 degrees F. 

Conclusion 

This month you have been 
provided with enough infor- 
mation to be able to go out 
and design a single-sided 
board. Next month, we will 
discuss double-sided and 
multilayer boards, as welt as 
the manufacturing process. In 
the meantime, I suggest you 
find a simple circuit and try 
your hand at designing a 
board. This will make it a 
little easier to follow next 



145 



CAMERA 

WITH 
CORRECT 

FILTER 
AND FILM 




BACK 

LIGHTING IS 
ESSENTIAL! 



BACKLIGHT 
Repnnled By Permission BISHOP GRAPHICS INC Chatsworlh CA, * 1976 



ARTWORK IN 
VACUUM FRAME 



Fig. 13. Backlighting the copy board. 



month *s conclusion to this 
article, 

As a final note to part one 



of this articie f I would like to 
thank Bill Godbout of God- 
bout Electronics, Box 2355, 



land Airport CA 94614, 
for allowing me to use 
"Kevin's Clock 101 A" for 



illustrative purposes. More 
information about this clock 
kit may be obtained from 
Silk 

I would also like to thank 
Bishop Graphics, 20450 
Plummer St., Chats worth CA 
91311, for letting me use 
some diagrams from their 
catalog. All drafting aids 
mentioned in these pages are 
available from them. If you 
would like to receive a cata- 
log, you can write to them at 
the above address. Ask for 
catalog No, 106." 



.#«£ 



Adirondack 
has 



Amateur Headquarters for the Northeast 

185-191 West Main Street • PO Box 88 
Amsterdam, N,Y. 12010 Tel (518)842-8350 
Just 5 minutes from N.Y. Thru way — Exit 27 



DOUBLE BAZOOKA 
DIPOLE 

GTO 

Ready to us.?* broadband dipulr com- 
pleii- w] ch central Insula tur mfhI $0239 
cminticLnr unrl Uihulntor mmplt'tely 
wiit^r Prtmf cup, 1 0WO wiilH, specify 
n-ntir frequency. 80 meter — $28.50. 
40/15 iiuMct S*J7.&0, 20 tMfter — 

S2&.50 

5 bund trap dipaie KIT ft* tuple! r 
includes &O-40 imp L-emrji *nd ^nd 
iiuuijtur j)B4«nrui wire, 10« f**d of 
RG59. L^piaaS 1 eonncttoi jnd iminic- 
tfon shert . . .$35.'Ht 
Ftb**rrlajs crniral insulator unnUr to 
photo ibow. ItHKJ lb* teat . . . *5.9& 

PPd JACTENNA ELECTRONIC 
13850 Victor in 
Tracy Quebec, Canada 






SEND 



CT7001 CLOCK CAL. KIT 


S27.75 


BOARD ONLY 


10.95 


MOT (ON DETECTOR (ULTRA- 




SONIC), ASSEMBLED 


16.95 


COM 2502 U,A,R.T, 


6.95 


MM553Q, 47, DIG, DVM CHIP 


7.95 


LHQ070CH-1 


4.50 


MM5616 


.95 


NSL 4944 AC/DC UNIV. LED 


.75 


DL704, 3" DISPLAY LED 


1.40 


DL707, ,3" DISPLAY LED 


1.50 


DL747, .65" DISPLAY LED 


1 .95 


MOR IDA .12" DISPLAY LED 


.70 


MAN-3A, .12" DISPLAY LED 


.40 


"NIXIE" .5" DISPLAY 


.85 


LIQ.XTAL.3% DIG. F .4" DlSP 


6.95 


19SK-15 FLEX CALC.KYBD 


2.95 


4P0S, DIP SWITCH 


1.50 


6 POS. DIP SWITCH 


1,85 


6 POS. ROTARY SWITCH 


.75 


SPDTCTR-OFF^MOM. 


1.45 


2N5591 RF.25W 


9,50 


.15 MFD, 100V EPOXY 


.10 


.0022 MFD.2KV CERAMIC 


1 5/1 .00 



£(3**'STRLJ5 



a 




COMPUTER 
SURPLUS 




Right 
on 

with 

Jan 

Crystals 

for 

* General Communication & Industry 

• Citizens Band 
(Standard & Synthesized) 

• Two-Meter - Monitor - Scanners 

* Marine VHP • Amateur Bands 

Depend on Jan Crystals 
made m U. S, A, for 

* Fr#quervcy Control * Frsquftfiey Stability 

• High Performance 

Send 10* tor our latest catalog 
Write or phone for more details 



2400 Crystal Drive 

FL Myers. Florida 33901 

all phones (613) 936-2397 





5 VDC 4 AMP ADJUS' ABLE 
CURRENT LIMITED POWER SUPPLY. 
5 1 /* X 4 X 14". SH. WT. 15 LBS. 
REMOVED FROM EQUIPMENT. NO, 
95-4326 $14J5 



■^^ ^40* a^'^s^F^^Vi . ,' •Tiaajaa^nBTfcL3(^™*aBH^^r d^^^fc f * 




JJj'ilh'lIIIi^iiiiniHuhi 



TRANSISTOR CONTROL ASSEMBLY 
WITH EIGHT NFS 100 V TO-3 AND 
EIGHT NPN 60 V TQ-66 TRAN- 
SISTORS, ASSOCIATED EMITTER 
RESISTORS AND DTODE3* 5 LBS. 
ORDER NO. 345-OQ25575 S5.D0 

PRICES ARE F.Q.B., LIMA, OHIO 
Allow For Shipping Charges. 

Include your Inter- 
bank number, and 
expiration date on 
Credit Card Orders. 



FAIR RADIO SALES 

1016 E EUREKA ♦ Bo* 1105 • LIMA, OHIO * 4580? 




146 





THE NEW RTTY HANDBOOK 

This is a brand new 1977 edition book . . . the only 

up-to-date RTTY book available. The state of the art has 
been changing radically and this has made all previous RTTY 

books obsolete. This book has the latest circuits . . - great for 
the newcomer and the expert alike , > , something (a whole 
lot, actually) for everyone, IT'S ALL THERE . . . Only 

3 D *yO • 






VOL, I 

COMPONENT TESTERS 

Just out is Volume I of the 73 Test 
Equipment Library . - , how to build transis- 
tor testers (eieht of 'cm), diode testers (3i. 
IC testers (3), voltmeters and TVTMs <9), 
ohmmeters (8 different kinds), inductance 
(3), capacity (9), Q measurement, crystal 
checking (6), temperature (2), aural meters 
for the blind (3) and ail sorts of miscel- 
laneous data on meters . . * using them, 
making them more versatile, makim? stan- 
dards, things like that. Invaluable book, 
ridiculously low priced. 
Test Equipment Library, Vol. I, Component 
Testers. $4.95 



VOL II 

AUDIO FREQUENCY TESTERS 

HOW'S YOUR SPELCH POWER? 
YOUR SHIFT? YOUR SYNC? 

You can find out easily with a little time 
and a junk box full of parts. It's all right 
there in the new Volume II of the 73 test 
Equipment Library . . . Audio Frequency 
Testers , . . jam packed full o( all kinds of 
audio frequency test equipment. So If 
you're into SSB, RTTY, SSTV, etc., this 
book is a must for you . ■ . good book for 
hi-fi addicts and experimenters too* 
Test Equipment Library* Vol. II, Audio 
Frequency Testers. $4.95 



VOL III 

RADIO FREQUENCY TESTERS 

Radio frequency waves are the common 
denominator of Amateur Radio so here is a 
book for all hams. No matter what your 
specific interest, such items as SWR, anten- 
na impedance, line impedance, rf output 
and field strength should interest you. This 
book not only gives detailed instructions on 
testing these items but includes sections on 
signal generators, crystal calibrators, grid dip 
oscillators, noise generators, dummy loads 
and much more. It's a must for all up-to- 
date shack s. 

Test Equipment Library, Vol HI, Radio 
Frequency Testers. $4.95 



How To Make Better QSLs - $4,95 (Pre publication Announcement) Ready for Shipping April, T977, 




i 



Send me: 

D Vol. I . , .Component Testers ® $4.95 

D Vol. U ..... Audio Frequency Testers <§? $4,95 

□ Vol. Ill .... Radio Frequency Testers @ $4.95 
D RTTY Handbook - . <? 55.95 

□ How To Make Better QSLs , . @S4 95 

Card^ 



$ enclosed. DCash □ Check □ Money Order 

Bill my: □ BankAmericard D Master Charge D American Express 



Interbank ~_ 



Expiration date 



Name 



.Signature 



L 



Address 
Oty 



State 



zip 



*fy magazine 



Dept: N.B. Peterborough NH 03458 



j/ttJ 



147 



Jon J. Gallo WA6PTM 

1 900 Avenue of the Stars, Suite 2000 

Los Angeles CA 90067 



Announcing the PCF 



- - legal aid for ham problems 



In Los Angeles County, an 
amateur is charged with 4 
criminal violations for owning 
a tower in excess of the local 
35 foot limit and causing 
interference to his neighbor's 
television and stereo re- 
ceivers. After 18 months of 
litigation, his legal fees 
exceed $18,000. 

In Oklahoma, 6 licensed 
CBers running legal power 
agree to pay $100 fines each 
after being told by their 
lawyers that it will cost each 
of them at least $1,000 to 
challenge a newly enacted 
TVl-RFl ordinance. 

In Arizona, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Colorado and 
Florida, amateurs go to court 
to fight denials of building 
permits for towers. Their 
average legal fees amount to 
$3,500. 

These are not nightmares 
caused by too much beer and 
pizza during Field Day. They 
are merely a few of several 
hundred legal matters in- 
volving the Amateur Radio 
and Citizens Radio Services 
which have occurred during 
the last two years. The newly 
formed Personal Communica- 
tions Foundation may be able 
to reduce the cost of legal 



services to other amateurs 
and CBers who encounter 
simitar problems in the 
future, 

Amateur radio was 
founded on the concept of 
service, both to the com- 
munity and to fellow ama- 
teurs. Over the years, though 
noted in only a few amateur 
publications, numerous 
attorney-amateurs have 
literally donated hundreds of 
thousands of dollars of legal 
services to fellow hams 
involved in amateur radio- 
related legal problems. The 
rapid growth of amateur 
radio, coupled with the 
explosion in the Citizens 
Radio Service of recent years, 
has greatly increased the 
number of legal problems 
confronting both amateurs 
and CBers alike and has made 
necessary some form of 
organized assistance to the 
lawyers and licensees in- 
volved* 

In early 1976, Wayne 
Green, the editor of 73 t and I 
exchanged a number of 
letters concerning a possible 
series of articles on amateur 
radio and the law. After 
working out the ground rules 
for such a series, Daniel L 
Simon WA6EJW, another Los 
Angeles attorney, and I 



started preparation of the 
series. In order to make the 

articles as interesting as 
possible, we decided to 
contact a number of 
attorney-amateurs through- 
out the country to gain the 
benefit of their experience. 
Among the attorneys we 
spoke to was Frederick J. 
Lawson K6j AN, who was and 
still is involved in a major 
amateur radio case in Los 
Angeles County. 

Shortly after our initial 
discussions with Fred, Robert 
M Booth, Jr. W3PS, ARRL 
General Counsel, invited us to 
attend an informal meeting of 
attorney-amateurs to be 
hosted by Marshal Quiat 
WB0HWQ, a Colorado attor- 
ney, which was to be held 
during the 1976 ARRL 
National Convention in 

Denver. 

In preparation for the 

meeting, Dan, Fred, and I 
prepared a written proposal 
suggesting the creation of a 
nonprofit foundation which 
would serve as a central clear- 
inghouse of legal information 
for lawyers involved in ama- 
teur radio legal matters. This 
recommendation was sub- 
mitted to the Lawyer's Com- 
mittee at a luncheon meeting 
on July 17, 1976. In addition 



to Marshal, Bob, Fred, and 
myself, the meeting was also 
attended by B. Robert 
Benson VE2VW, ARRL 
Assistant General Counsel, 
Don K. Johnson W5PYA, 
Carl Markov K6RLP, Donald 
L. Royer WA6PIR, Chester B. 
(Barney) Scholl, Jr. K3ZFP, 
and Larry Perry K4EFV. 

The basic concept of a 
clearinghouse for legal infor- 
mation was endorsed by the 
attorneys, even though we 
recognized that there were 
substantial legal, practical, 
and monetary difficulties 
with the draft recommenda- 
tion* In order to give us time 
to work on the problems, a 
follow-up meeting was 
scheduled in Los Angeles in 
early September. 

During the ensuing 6 
weeks, substantial legal re- 
search was undertaken and on 
September 4th the group met 
at my offices, this time aug- 
mented by Richard 5. Arnold 
W6RNP, the Honorable 
Maurice J. Hindtn W6EUV, 
and Mark Weiss K6FG. Basic 
plans were formulated, addi- 
tional research undertaken, 
and the decision was made to 
expand the organization to 
include the legal problems of 
all aspects of non-com- 
mercial, personal communica- 
tions. 

On November 5, 1976, 
Articles of Incorporation of 
the Personal Communications 
Foundation, a nonprofit 
corporation, were filed with 
the California Secretary of 
State. By the time you read 
this article, applications for 
tax exempt, tax deductible 
status will have been filed 
with the Internal Revenue 
Service and the California 
Franchise Tax Board. 

The Foundation's prin- 
cipal goat is to serve as a 
central clearinghouse of legal 
information concerning all 
aspects of nonprofit, personal 
communications by radio, 
including amateur radio, 
non-commercial use of 
citizens radio, and shortwave 
listening. To avoid any 
misunderstanding at the 
outset, the Foundation is not 
a law firm and cannot, itself, 



148 



represent amateurs or CBers 

who encounter nonprofit 
communication related legai 
problems, although compiling 
a comprehensive list of ex- 
perienced attorneys in this 
area is being considered. 

Years ago, relatively few 
amateurs encountered legal 
problems directly related to 
the operation of their 
stations. When problems did 
arise, attorney -amateurs 
throughout the country were 
able to assist them with little 
difficulty. Today, however, 
literally hundreds of amateurs 
and CBers are encountering 
legal problems yearly and fre- 
quently have to turn to attor- 
neys with little or no 
familiarity with either FCC 
rules and regulations, prior 
cases involving personal com- 
munications, or the technical 
aspects of radio. As a result, a 
substantial portion of the 
legal fees they are incurring 
relate to time which the 
attorney must devote to 
familiarizing himself with the 
law in this area and preparing 
the necessary legal docu- 
ments. In a few unfortunate 
situations, the attorney has 
been unable to locate appli- 
cable cases and local courts, 
without the benefit of such 
cases, have rendered decisions 
highly unfavorable to ama- 
teur radio, 

A number of cases today 
involve the Citizens Radio 
Service and some persons 
have questioned why ama- 
teurs should be concerned. 
The reason relates to how our 
legal system operates. Our 
courts follow precedents: i.e., 
the decisions of other courts 
In identical or closely related 
areas. If a court determines 
that a local municipality can 
fine CBers for causing TV! or 
can prohibit CB antennas 
because they are considered 
unsightly, other courts are 
likely to extend such rulings 
to amateur radio. Moreover, 
there are more than 
15,000,000 licensed users of 
the Citizens Radio Service- 
When compared with 
250,000 licensed amateurs, it 
is obvious that CBers out- 
number amateurs by close to 




Seated, left to right: Hon Maurice J. Hindin W6EUV t /on J. Gaflo WA6PTM, Car! Markov 
K6RLP. Standing, left to right: Donald R. Royer WA6P/R, Richard S. Arnold W6RNP, Robert 
M. Booth, Jr. W3PS, Mark Weiss K6FG. Photo by Robert /?, Jensen W6VGQ. 



40 to 1 and are statiscally 
more likely to encounter legal 
problems, particularly those 
related to zoning and 
RF1-TVL It is important to 
the future of amateur radio 
that CB-related legal prob- 
lems receive the same coor- 
dination and attention as 
those confronting amateurs* 
The Personal Communica- 
tions Foundation hopes to 
assist all licensed amateurs 
and CBers who encounter 
legal problems by developing 
a comprehensive library of 
court decisions, legal briefs 
and related documents, as 
well as articles and studies 
relevant to each of these 
issues. To accomplish these 
goals, the Foundation is in 
the process of establishing a 
number of liaison and work- 
ing committees. The Govern- 
mental Liaison Committee 
will establish lines of com- 
munication with the Federal 
Communi cations Com- 
mission, Department of 
Justice, and other appropriate 
governmental agencies. The 
Industry Liaison Committee 
will similarly establish liaison 
with the Electronic Industry 



Association (EIA) and other 
industry groups. Similarly, 
the Amateur Radio, Citizens 
Radio and Shortwave Lis- 
teners Committees will estab* 
lish communications with 
appropriate users, groups, and 
publications, such as 73 
Magazine. 

The Foundation has tenta- 
tively divided its areas of 
primary interest into the 
following sub-groups: 

1. Land use regulation, 
including all aspects of 
zoning, variances and 
conditional use permitSj 
building code require- 
ments, and private deed 
restriction; 

2. Radio frequency 
interference and tele- 
vision interference 
(RFI-TVI); 

3. The law of nuisance 
as it applies to personal 
communications; 

4. The role of the 
Fede ral Government, 
the Federal Communi- 
cations Commission, 
and the States in the 
regulation of personal 
communicati ons i n- 
cluding the subject of 



Federal preemption; 

5. Illegal operating 
practices and proce- 
dures; and 

6. Miscellaneous areas. 
To accomplish these goals, 

the Foundation plans to 
establish Amateur Radio, CB 
and Shortwave Listener 
liaison committees as well as 
working committees in each 
state and Canadian province. 
It will be the function of the 
working committees, in con- 
junction with the liaison com- 
mittees, to contact both users 
and attorneys in their area 
and to secure for the Founda- 
tion copies of all relevant 
court decisions, legal docu- 
ments, articles, and studies 
related to personal communi- 
cations law, as well as 
publicizing the existence of 
the Foundation to both users 
and the legal community. 
Documents submitted to the 
Foundation will be reviewed 
by the Executive Director, 
Trustees, and other volunteer 
legal advisers, and will be 
indexed by both subject 
matter and state. 

Upon completion of the 
Foundation's legal files, law- 



149 



yers, users, governmental 
agencies, or other individuals 
with an interest in persona! 
communications law will be 
able to secure from the Foun- 
dation complete information 
with respect to all relevant 
decisions and legal documents 
in any area affecting personal 
communications. Such a 
library will greatly decrease 
the cost of legal services for 
individual users as well as 
assisting in the development 
of a uniform nationwide 
body of law, 

The Foundation is headed 
by a 24 person Board of 
Trustees, all of whom are 
lawyers or judges, five 
Officers and an Executive 
Director. 

Chairman of the Board of 
Trustees is Jon ). Galto 
WA6PTM, and Vice Chairman 
is Richard S, Arnold W6RNP, 
both of Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia. Other Trustees include 
Professor Jerome J, Curtis, Jr. 
WA6jKQj Sacramento, Cali- 
fornia; Joel R, Kirschbaum 
WB7ESZ, Phoenix, Arizona; 
Charles Perelman WA60GW, 
Beverly Hilts, California; 
Daniel 1. Simon WA6EJW, 
Los Angeles, California; 
Donald L, Royer WA6PIR, 
Fountain Valley, California- 
Chester B. Scholl, Jr. K3ZFP, 
Sharon, Pennsylvania; Mervyn 
L. Hecht WB6LEN, Pacific 
Palisades, California; Richard 
Bennett K8EHU, Reynolds- 
burg, Ohio; the Honorable 
Maurice J. Hindrn W6EUV, 
Los Angeles, California; 
Harry L. Styron K6MFV, 
Walnut Creek, California; 
John A. Dundas II WA6ZCO, 



Los Angeles, California; Pro- 
fessor Stanley Siegel K8KGU, 
Los Angeles, California; John 
C Hendricks WB9FCB, 
Chicago, Illinois; Howard F, 
Shepard W6US, Del Mar, Cali- 
fornia; Mark A. Weiss K6FG, 
Encino, California; Fredrick 
J. Lawson K6JAN, Sherman 
Oaks, California; the Honor- 
able Williams L. Ritizi 
W60NC, Beverly Hills, Cali- 
fornia; Robert M. Booth, Jr. 
K3PS, Washington, B.C.; B. 
Robert Benson, QX, 
VE2VW, Montreal, Quebec; 
G. M. Howard W5KM, Dallas, 
Texas; Monroe Y. Mann 
WA2MAJ, Port Chester, New 
York; and Robert H, Hajek 
K9LTN, Chicago, Illinois. 

Officers of the Foundation 
are Jon J, Gallo WA6PTM, 
President; Richard 5« Arnold 
W6RNP, Vice President; Carl 
Markov K6RLP, Secretary; 
William S. Finklestein 
W B 6 J A O , Assistant Vice 
President, Security Pacific 
National Bank, Treasurer; and 
Ronald Ruby WB6MEB, 
C, P-A., Controller-Accoun- 
tant 

Day to day operation of 
the Foundation is carried out 
under the direction of Carl 
Markov K6RLP, Executive 
Director* 

Although the majority of 
services are being donated 
without charge to the Foun- 
dation, the Foundation 
anticipates heavy expenses in 
terms of mailing, telephone 
costs, printing and reproduc- 
tion of documents, and 
salaries for a limited number 
of part-time employees of the 
Foundation who handle the 



day-to-day administrative 
tasks. Contributions in any 
amount to offset our costs 
are welcome. 

In addition, interested 
individuals or clubs may 
become members of the 
Foundation. Four classes of 
membership are available: 
associate membership for a 
yearly contribution of $10, 
full membership for a yearly 
contribution of $25, sup- 
porting membership for a 
yearly contribution of $100, 
and life sustaining member- 
ship for a single contribution 
of $250 or more. The Foun- 
dation anticipates publication 
of a quarterly newsletter sum- 
marizing relevant legal 
developments, and all classes 
of members will receive the 
newsletter. 

Full, supporting, and life 
sustaining members will also 
have full voting rights for the 
selection of trustees, 

The Foundation has 
applied for tax exempt status, 
and a favorable ruling is 
anticipated within the next 
60 days or so. 

Membership applications 
have not yet been printed due 
to lack of funds. However, 
memberships are available at 
this time and requests for 
membership, accompanied by 
your check payable to the 
Personal Communications 
Foundation, may be mailed 
to the Executive Director, 
Carl Markov, 915 West Lan- 
caster Boulevard, Lancaster, 
California 93534, The request 
for membership should 
include your name, address, 
telephone number and FCC 



Amateur or Citizens Radio 
Service callsign, if any. 

Although legal and tax 
considerations require that 
the Board of Trustees be 
composed of lawyers and 
judges, membership in the 
various liaison and working 
committees is not similarly 
restricted , Anyone having or 
willing to develop the neces- 
sary background and devote 
sufficient time is welcome to 
serve on the committees. 
Membership applications sent 
to the Executive Director 
may also request committee 
membership. Requests should 
specify the committee desired 
and set forth any special 
expertise which will assist the 
Executive Director In evalu- 
ating such requests. Com- 
mittee membership is open to 
all, but persons holding any 
class of membership in the 
Foundation will receive 
priority in committee assign- 
ments. 

Contributions, requests for 
membership, and requests for 
com m it tee assignments 
should be sent directly to the 
Executive Director. Requests 
for other information, com- 
ments or suggestions may be 
sent either to the Executive 
Director or to Jon J. Gallo 
WA6PTM, President and 
Chairman of the Board, Per- 
sonal Communications Foun- 
dation, 1900 Avenue of the 
Stars, Suite 2000, Los 
Angeles, California 90067. 

The Personal Communica- 
tions Foundation has been 
formed for you. It can only 
function with your assis- 
tance. ■ 



TO: Personal Communications Foundation 

c/o Mr. Carl Markov, Executive Director 
915 West Lancaster Boulevard 
Lancaster CA 93534 

□ Please send more information. 
D I would like to be a member. 

Enclosed is my contribution: 

D Associate (S1 0) □ Supporting (SI 00) 

D Full (S25) □ Life (S250 or more) 



Name 
Street 
City_ 



State 



Zip 



Personal 

Communications 
Foundation 



150 



DIGITAL AUTO CLOCK 




6 DIGIT LED CLOCK KIT 



The heart of this, chronometer is a hiqh frequency crystal oscilla- 
tor which provides an accuracy of t I minute per month even 
in changing temperature or electrical M noise h ' conditions Easy 
to assemble kit with complete step-by-step instructions. Or, for 
those who would rather not, a ready-buiJt and tested unit is 
also available, 

FEATURES INCLUDE: 

12 or 24 hour time format — Displays time in hours, minutes, 
and seconds on G large, .4" fed LED digits — Operates from 
9-14 volts AC Of DC power — Simple, non-polarized power 
input — Display blanks when ignition off — Internal 9 V battery 
assures timekeeping (without display) when external power is 
removed — Special circuitry surpresses voltage spikes — Recessed 
switches in front of case for quick and easy time setting. 




* 12/24 HOUR 

* 50/60H2 

* BRIGHT LEOS 



This kit uses the MM 5 31 4 clock chip and is available with a 
choice of display sizes. Features 12 or 2 4 hour time format, 50 
or 66 Hz input, fast and slow time setting with a hold function 
for precise time 'syncroni^ing. Kit includes all components, 
etched and drilled epoxy boards and complete step-by-step 
assembly instructions* {Case and transformer not included], 

sn.50 



Complete kit; Includes all components, 
epoxy boards, case^ mounting bracket 
assembly instructions, (Less 9 V Battery). 

Kit ^SI-204 Assembled ^SI-204W 
S27.95 $37,95 



etched and drilled 
and comprehensive 



110 V AC Adapter 
S2.50 



CLOCK CHIPS 

MM5314 - 6 -digit, 12/24 Hf, 50/50* Hi 

Multiplexed, 24-pin . . * .$3-75 

MMS316 - 4 -digit, 12/24 Hr, 50/60 H* t 

Alarm, Snz, Tinier, 40-pin < .$4.50 

5 0252 ■ 6 -digit, 1 2Hr/60Hz t 24 Hr/50Hz, 

Alarm, Snz, Mpx,, 28 -pin , 
CT7 001 -6 -digit, OocK, calendar, Radio 

Timer, 1 2/24 Hr, 28-Pin 
MK5Q381 - 4 -digit direct drive LED, 1 2 Hr, 

50 Hz, Radio Timer, 4 -pin 




' * 



S4,95 
56.95 

se.95 




as 

Cornmoo 



9-DIGIT DISPLAY 

Ideal for a mini clock, calculator 
or stopwatch, ,1 1 lf digit height* 

Cat^ odq Special - $0.99 ea. , - 3/S2.50 




FND-359 
FND-503 

FND-SiO 

MAN-74 

DL747 

XAN-664 

XAN-654 



LED DISPLAYS 

. .3S"CC 

. .5D"CC 

* .5 0"CA 

. .3 0"CC 

. .$0"CA 

, .6 0"CCred 

, .6Q"CCgm 



$0.95 
SI .29 
S1.29 
f 1 -39 
$2.25 
$2.75 
S2-95 



* Denotes no decimal point. 



*P 



LED DRIVERS 

Quad segment driver, , .$0,49 
Hex digit driver . . „ .$0,59 



Kit =SM0 with ,27" Red LED** . . . 
Kit srSI-14 with A" Red LEO'S . . . . 
Kit sSS-15 with .5" Red LEO'S . - , . 
Transformer to suit, ipc lug mount type) 
Transformer to suit, (molded with line cord) 



SI 3. 95 

S16.95 

S 1,25 
S 230 




TIME BASE 



This kit enables any* AC powered clock to t>e operated on DC. 
Compact size — only 1" x 2", Power requirement: 5-15 VDC @ 
3 mA, Kit includes aJ( components, PC Board and easy to foiiow 
hookup instructions for interfacing with MOS clock chips. 



Kit #61-62 



.S4.95 



FIVI W 
MIKE 

Kit #SI-36 . - 



KIT 






only $3.95 "^ 



Kit S1*36 is completely new design in FM wireless transmitters. 
Unique PC layout eliminates the need for wire-wound coils 
which other units use. Can be used with any dynamic type 
microphone to broadcast on the FM band. Frequency range 
SO -I 50 MHz. Output; 100 mW with a 9 V battery, Size: I ,£ " x 
1 .8 M . Kit includes all components, PC board and assembly 
instructions. (Less battery and mic.) 



i 



LINEAR IC's 

308 Precision Op Amp . . 0,99 

380 2 Watt Audio Amp . 0.99 

5 j 5 Timer . . t r 0«&5 

565 Phase Locked Loop . 1.19 

56 7 Tone Decoder . . - 1.75 

709 Op Amp . . . . 0*25 

741 Op Amp . . , . 0.2 5 

748 Op Amp .... 0.29 



f 



DISCRETE LED 

Submini red . , . .8/11,00 
Submini green . , . 6/S1.Q0 

Mini red . 7 /Si. 00 

Mini green .... 6/S1-0Q 

Jumbo red ♦ . . , 6 /SI. 

Jumbo green ■ « 5/$ 1,0 






VOLTAGE REGULATORS 

LM309K 5v, 1 amp, TO-3 . 1J0 

7805 5*. 1 amp, TQ-220 . 0.95 

7812 I2v, I amp, TO -2 20 . 0.9 5 

7815 15v, 1 amp, TO-3 . . 1.2 5 

7S18 18v, 1 amp. TO-3. . 1.25 

7824 24v, 1 amp, T0-3 - .1,25 



l|r"' 



MEMORY 

2102-1 1 K Static RAM . 1,69 
21L02B Low pwr, version , 1,95 



TRANSISTORS 

2N2222 NPN .... 
2N3906 PNP House = . . 
2N4 400 NPN . . . , 

2N4403 PNP 

2N3Q55 NPN . , . , 



. S/SK00 
. 10/SK00 
. B/S1.00 
. 6 /SI. 00 
$0.69 ea. 






p 



V 



SWITCHES 

SPOT Heavy duty 

Rocker . 6/$J .00 

SPST Momentary Push 

Button , . 3 /SI. 00 

SPOT Miniature slide . 6/11.00 






IC SOCKETS 

16 -pin Lo-profile . 
IS -pin Lo-profile , 
24-pin Std. profile . 



0.25 
0.29 
0.49 



/ 



/, 



N4 1 4 8 

LN4 00L 

I N4 05 
1 N4 D 7 



DIODES 

switch 

1 A/50 V 

J A/400 V 
1 A/iOOOV 



20/Sl.OO 

2O/SI.O0 
15A1-00 
10/51.00 



I 



MJE 3055 

90 Watt NPN Pwr. transistor 
mounted on heatsmk plate. 
Special - S0.69 , . . 3/S1.95 




SPEAKER /MIC. 

4 ohm s i m pedance — 1 -1 /8 '* d *a. 
Special - S0.79 ea. . . 3/S2.00 




ELECTROLYTIC CAPS, 

2000uF/i&V AKial 3/S1-00 

100 UF/2&V PC leads 4/$1.00 

220 UF/26V PC leads 5/SU00 

100 uF/25 V PC leads 6/Sl .00 

10 UF/2&V PC leads S/$ 1.00 




RESISTORS 

100 assorted, mostly 5% & 10% 
some 20%. Full leads 



1O0/S1.29 



2OQ/S2.10 



TERMS 

Satisfaction guaranteed. We pay shipping in Continental USA. 
Others add 5%. Overseas add 10% (20% for Airmail}. U^S, 
Funds onty. Orders under $15.00 add 75$ handling, Texas 
residents add 5% SaJes Tax. Sorry - INto COD or charge cards. 
Cftecfc or Money orders only. 



Prices good thru M;irch. 




INTEiqtSiAriDrslAL 
P.O. BOX 64683-E, DALLAS, TEXAS 7S206, U.S.A. 






Circuits 



Want a free copy of any 73 publication? Sure you do. Just send in your 
favorite circuit, or even one that you don't especially like. If we print it, you 
take home the book of your choice. 



f to 



r 
I 




1 



Cfll 
INZ75. ETC 



. CZ 
J 05 



A relative signal strength meter for the GENAVE GTX-200 andGTXW. This 
circuit is for a 25 uA meter movement, any style, which may be mounted 
external to the rig, or internally with a shoehorn fif. CAUTION ... do not 
short pins 1 or 2 of IC-107 to ground or ZAP! Parts are mounted on the foil 
side of the board by short leads and a dab of glue. The meter lead goes to a 
phono socket on the rear panel under the power feed (for external meterh Be 
sure to use a shielded feed from the socket to the meter If you have a meter 
with a less sensitive movement, say from 200 uA to 1 mA, the following 
amplifier circuit, wired in the meter case, wilt give you more than ample meter 
deflection with good dynamic range. R x + ft meter should equal 5000 Ohms. 
Add tOk offset null pot to 741 op amp if you want the meter to go to zero 
with no signaL Thanks to Larry Chrisman KBOXX {from Stale of the Arts, 
Alien County ARTS, Ft. Wayne INK 



I MEG 
3EK5ITIV1TY 




Ff7 






i 



*i£G 



*S 



IO0K 

-A*A 



l MEG 




1 



tElLOW 



-=- 9v 



r®- 



in 



EN 



^9V 



Here is a clever device to test those surplus 74 J and 307 operational amps 
available from 73 advertisers. The two LEDs provide the necessary information 
when the op amp is inserted into the test circuit, if the op amp is OK, the two 
LEDs will flash alternately with a one second period. No flashing or 
illumination indicates an output fault If one of the LEDs glows continuously, 
one of the inputs is faulty, and asymmetric blinking indicates a leakage 
problem The circuit uses standard components throughout and no power 
switch is required, as the circuit draws current only when an op amp is being 
tested. Thanks to J, Lawrence GW6JGA (from CG TV, Journal of the British 
Amateur TV Club J. 




Need a simple regulated supply for your 2m rig? Try this one. The transistor 
may be heat sinked directly on the side of a minibox, and the transformer is 
any unit rated at five Amps and 24 V. Standard components are used 
throughout. This supply is hum free, and regulation is good — the output 
voltage varies only .2 V between transmit and receive. This supply is especially 
for smaller transceivers such as the TR-22C, used by many during relaxation 
TV sessions in the evening. Thanks to W8D YF. 




Speech amplifier and logarithmic clipper for use with $$B transmitters. The 
circuit reduces the speech bandwidth to about 500-3,000 Hz 4 thereby creating 
very little distort ton. Power can come from the transmitter or a separate 
battery. Thanks to P. Burnett G4BLL {from The Shon Wave Magazine, August, 
19761 







.4 


--"J 

7490 


It 




ax 

Q3G 
3.000 K Hi 












^^M 






MOO 






A/ 


(417490 IN 






-tO CONFi&JRATlOU 




















— 6 
7490 







A selectable 50/80 Hz source for 12 or 24 hours with a 50250 clock chip. To 
have both in the same clock requires a source of selectable 50 Hz or GO Hz 
frequency. A 3 meg xtaf was picked l>eceuse it seemed like a good choice, but a 
30 kHz or 300 kHz would do as well (because when divided by 5 you get a 6 in 
the answer and when divided by $ you get a Sin the answer}. Thanks to Frank 
W. Knottingham K7QCM. 



SHORT PlCCC OF COAX WITH PICKUP LOOP 



XIM34A 
jfclOpF 



BEPSO? 



m 



kvf 

-it— 



!;4TH 



m 



[tMCfi 



®=^ 



<+(4VDC 



■♦TO SCOPE 



•eon 



(7J 



Here's a quick y for ATV operators. This "air monitor'* allows the monitoring 
of transmitted ATV signals with a scope, it is particularly handy in checking 
sync levels and shape. The pickup and detector can be mounted on a tiny PC 
board and installed in a mlnibox along the transmission fine. The circuit can 
then be used to monitor the outgoing signal while adjustments to the 
modulator are made. Thanks to W3DID (from THE MILLIWATT, a publication 
of the Baltimore Radio Amateur TV Society, vol. 1, no. 3k 



l£VDC *- 



IHDUCT0#*SEC TPCT 






-P-TO TRANSCEIVER 



OQO*iF 



Bugged by alternator whine in your ham or CB transceiver? if so, try this super 
simple, bur effective, whine filter. The LC circuit is a low pass filter which 
shunts the high frequency "whine" component on the dc to ground. The 
inductor consists of a 7 inch ferrite rod, % inch in diameter, wound with a 
single bifilar layer of No. 14 Formvar copper wine. The bifilar winding is 
formed by holding two wires side by side and winding the length of the rod. 
The two ends on each side are soldered together, resulting In an inductor 
capable of handling 10 Amps* The capacitor is a 4000 uF electrolytic. The 
negative end must be well grounded to the frame of the vehicle in order for the 
filter to be effective. Thanks to WB4EXW (from CVBA Repeater, Journal of 
Carolinas-Virginia Repeater Association r Burlington NCh 



2N3Q99 



# U WREGUL^T£L 




-*IZ«V 

REGULATED 



I 



13V 

1 EWER 



This simple mobile voltage regulator may save your two meter or CB 
transceiver if the voltage regulator fails. The 2N3055 should be heat sinked if 
current drawn by the rig is in excess of 2 A on Transmit This circuit will do 
little under normal operating conditions, but could save your rig if the vehicle's 
electrical system loses regulation. Thanks to WA2LPB. 



152 



Advanced Communications Equipment from 
the World's Leader in Amateur Communications 



- 




Left to right - FRG-7, Softd State Synthesized Communications Receiver * FR-101 Digital, Solid State Receiver * SP-101B, 
Speaker • FR-101, Digital Solid State Receiver • FL-101. 100 W Transmitter • FL-2100B, 1200 W PEP Input Linear Amplifier 




Left to right - FT-62QB, 6 Meter Transceiver • YP-150. Dummy Load Wattmeter • YD- 100, Monitor Scope • FTV-250. 
2 Meter Transverter • FTV-650, 6 Meter Transverter * FV*101B T External VFO • FT-T01E 1 60^1 M Transceiver 




Left to right - YC-601, Digital Frequency Display * YC-355D, Frequency Counter * FP-301, AC Power Supply • FT-301S 
Digital, All SolW State Transceiver • FV-301, External VFO • FT-221, 144-148 All Sold State All Mode Transceiver 




YD-844 
Dynamic Mike 



Over 150 licensed radio amateurs employed at Yaesu 
proudly offer you the most diversified communications 
product line available: SSB, CW, AM, RTTY, and FM 
equipment - all designed for today's active amateur. 




QTR-24 
World Clock 



ILLION DOLLAR INVENTORY OF NEW & USED HAM GEAR ♦ ALL MAJOR BRANDS • 
GENEROUS TRADE-IN ALLOWANCES • LOWEST PRICES • FREE DELIVERY ANYWHERE ON 
ALL ORDERS • Call or write for prices and information before you buy elsewhere. 

(Telephone us FREE from anywhere in U.S.A. Send copy of phone bill and we'll send you a check!) 



DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa. 19047 
(215) 357-1400/(215) 757-5300 



k 



M 




k 



why waste watts t 



V 







SWR-l guards against power loss 

for 521 95 

If you're not pumping out all the 
power you're paying for. our little 
SWR-l combination power meter 
and SWR bridge will tell you so. You 
read forward and reflected power 
simultaneously, up to 1000 watts RF 
and 1:1 to infinity VSWRat 3.5 to 150 
MHz. 

Got it all tuned up? Keep it that 
way with SWR-l. You can leave it 
right in your antenna circuit. 






ELECTRONICS 

A i*rM'rfr#T of Cubic Ca?BQf*t-tf" 





DELUXE 

741 TRI BAND 
MOBILE 

ANTENNA 

• Automatical!) jiljuvti lo 
proper fcioruncr for ,!Q, 40 
■nd 75 meter* 

• Powei raitd *1 S00 Watts 
PEP 

• Include* hut lection, aulo- 
maNcoU and whip l up sdc- 
lion 742 Antrnna S7 [ J, l >S 



EXCLUSIVE 
DELUXE 

S-BAND MOBILE 
45 ANTENNA 

• All band manual sw sighing 
antenna lor 1(1, 15. 20. 40 
and 75 mctm 

• Power mud til I 000 Waits 

• Includes Ms* section with 

mohilecoii and mix Toot whip 
top section. 45 Antenna SI 14.95 




322-001 



SSKI 





Modal 310-001: 
Standard Key, 
nickel plated hard- 
ware, no switch — 
$6*65* 

Modal 310-003: 
Standard Key. 
nickel plated hafd- 
ware, with switch 
— $8.25- 

Model 320001 
Standard Heavy 
Duty Key with 
nickel plated hard- 
ware, no switch — 
$8,20. 

Model 320003: 
Same as -001 ex- 
cept with switch — 
$9.35. 

SSK-1 Chrome 
Plated - $29.95; 
Black Wrinkle 
Finish - $23.95. 
Code Practice Set 
with Key — 
$18.50, 



mounts- leads -accessories 



STANDARD GAIN 
MOBILES 







■ < 1 



-M* 




ft&LT-IU 



Iff 

* Pau l f mint— W ^*t* fm 
MODEL MV.T 1« 

a 7" *tUmna cofnp'ptr •itf e-«5> 
to innUII t%|j hql»» fO Q>lll. mink 
lip mount, Unowrt *pt\ag jixi 17 
Milk 5PfC RGMU *rt3 Pt-259 
Anton h» romiwabli Iran rrmunt 
Pft»l S3 J 75 
MODEL BiL 141 

47" anHnni mount* on an* ruji 
sttr+flc*. not, d«fc df Mnd*r In 
V tali ineluda* irnwi spring. 
\T MIL SPEC RO- Si-U rid PL-aS 
Anttnna mmcwabli TtWIr Wflunt 

Pnc*. $3i.fi$ 
HUSTLER 

-euCK-ausTEf?" 



MODEL ft 

11' iw nvti*. iff 
3lApmw;< 
Qnvwd «i|m 1T4I 

T&* atevfd of * wA 



BBl-14* 



SUPER GAIN MOeiLES 



1*» 



IH 



NtT 



to (ft 



i 



: . ■- : i 



DELUXE MOBILE MOUNTS 





u 



SWRxtnaonsncft-n l 
Pati ra)jftf— jgp v«ttt FM 

tWO MO iff METE 11- 
TBUNK LIP MOUNT 

model nrt 

Four srrhnn trteKamf jnlefll'.a 
penTHl* irii4r#(e adluthwnr f<H 
Eimul1nnrr.nl rnonaflCo on two 
and six mrlmii DpirH ionAl 
hfljehi; vr Complin «Hh ifun* 
lip rnounl. \? M1L SPEC ftO-M-U 
and fizWi attached PLJW. 

Pr*. ttlBE. 

VHF/UHF antenna— 

ROOF MOUNT 
MODEL UHT-1 

Field trunmBbl* rta>m'.af #q* L 4 
km ooenlian en jrif rptBuajncy 
fmjfii IrtHifm MHj ftjfliru chart 
incluM M OMfttt onjMif fMi w^ 
PQO'i Oka. RjAdur in % 

IS 1 rg-»u 



CG 

1*1 



QMb« ttfPWi 



rss 



LiHTi 




Jj 



RESONATOR SPRING- 
STAJNLESS STt IL 
MODEL RSS-E 




MODEL TLM 
tr^nh l ib mourn Tot no 
ruin, injulaban on Udr 
9 «aii[t d' trunk lid. In- 
. »ud« 17 R&58-U oorv 
nDcCDn iCtKhed. 



MODEL HIM 

Whin Vvnk, lib fflOUnl 
vitfi I DO d«JC* i*iMtl 
bah Inr povl+Dmng in* 
tfnnp to mfkvl, EMy — 
rm fttita* - in»t»HJHson. 
Ini-lij<fa-i [I 1 FfG 5&-U 
Citrfi fend tofln*iirorf 
MtKtWt Pnc* $l?JrO 



MOD^L QCM I 

^^■" gult»r mouni IM« 
•II IhfOMv B«gl»t intfen 
latr%t iHm lint luttlHL 

inciuen* 119' i^ktf*i 
Nil Prici. SB 00 



tiniki ii"hkt «»»»*w^Bini otttTtic 

UM Su^lfilvn >4Mtt a tH IH| I refill* 

Ham I IB 




II a DEL 
DMrf 



Priea tTJW 



<®sT*>m 



or «ift at in»* up- 

•lUuul tfrrJu™ — CMtpMBt ■*P* 

tr Ull. SPtC HG *U and Fl »* 

Pi.t» S41 JO 



MODEL Ctu* 

Same chii*ct*fl»Ki as CCT-]M 
Kjpo^nrtl with H H tmht Ut t\; * 1 1 
mobJle hall nv^.■'l.lrli^ I engiti 14 
Hh Mmnl ri'Hl rnblp nti! m 

rluded hid: B2B-S0 



VKF/UHF ANTENNA— 
TRUtfK LIP MOUNT 
MODEL THf 

fi«U trmmalii* r»dki(or pnmb 
guarti" *i*it op*rifl»r> or any 
PrequwKY ftin td 1b S00 MHz. 
Cuflinf cfwt oicnudwl Compteie 
tin bvnh 1* mm 17 RC-U-U 




STAINLESS ITEEL IAU MOUNT 
FOR DCCR. fENDEN OH ANT 
fUT SURf ACE 
M0(JE I I EM 2 




ISO' •d|IMWW« UP »«y"« 
WIVD^I llf •">Pt«i' m»*ll» t rrtpnn« 
llOU*1H I*' !'"►■■ t«M >1»*l lip* ^ (rfi 
fiiphfl MFKi mn-^inl ir^ ti*ii!rffeta 

Ni S19J0 
QUICK Di ICON NEC T- 
1H% SfAINLESt STEEL 
MODEL 00 1 

R»Mior* *i'liiti» Irvm mount wHti 
■■11 ii"*** «".i i#lil '<-t*»i Cam 

M'4-ka.oi'i i|i-i<<ri tiv.l til pirn LtXIS 
lEJ-h'Itt iIhI kt J ■' A ■"-Hill PiniAl* 
an* •■■i3. ■"■!< tit* -J(h*r 

FVka 118.95 
FCEO LINE i*Mwi ■»*!** 



HUS7LEP 
BESOM ATOHS 



UM'mute dripfin tw occn AorM Asmnb'f 
.ftCAAm LM #M •£»««>« « 
l<0 "3d fv gum 5W* and 



STI 



Till 



■gif 



bii 



-l_; 



r^ 



i^jfe 1 



- — Hr 



S*^T» Hlftllll DHMTDIfr, 

l i l^i iT l **•* k It f It »+ f>* - ft 













»H|I 


*•- ■ 


P>»«« 




Ih rb« 


1!" ■*'■■( 


1 - 




HU Hi 


, i"iaifl« l 


L ' >■ T-. 




PU 7" . - 


F'r - 






ri v 4 .1 ■- 


I! Ml" l 


■31 » 




nii Ji ■- 


r l rnpkpFf 


■m m 




•rtimn 


lit ir-iri'l 


fti* 



I 



■ MS 



RM 



Ortri 10 15 20 40 Mtttn 

Only Hvitlw 0<**i Dno Safliiif farf 

WTmM Raid C tmnii 




i-BTV 



MODEL *RTT* 



SW»~RIU5 

It Ml 
Lt ft> 1 •* tafav ft band 

Huinti a«C4iftif« 
-Sjonijr liitr MNn ** 
cJM 



SW4 





I MM ***■« HdRfll 

BM-Ti or RM>7^S HuatMf 

hif n 




aiii ireiiivt life* hapvy ■■>!, titgti 

LMfttli ft' I* 
MODEL 4-BTV 



CJOM>irty_fu<i M«aii 
pn SSB or Cw 
■ MwnTu* filrnnd rtiovr^ mfri flr 

I out THtiiit. d* NX* fnownt nith 
nd^tli 

W*tfh( V- 'trt 

Pric*. SVBJKi 



I 




Rmc* *fiJ5S 

mooajl M-i-ui - o*f»i* <*« 




• « < 



r «ai*NI I 000 *afl» P M w*»i 
«■ t. M»* 00 BD?» 



♦or I - IB • IS - » - 

IB TS » W.Un 

fold enwr mail tor quick and uiy HUSTLER 

mitfchanfi- ol (vunatnri ur *tilii-m| « MASTS 

t^ftp Mm ovvrttmg, matt 1 n«U 

«*rtiCII mlt* in«avfift»f sJc«ai clufdl 

M rum a)w inn is 1/4 •**)#*(«<. Th« Mjpxrtr Choic* o-t 

1 nwla* inatnmi Stauilm uaj*d bn* 

Nh N> - JA B it — M i l to I* nvbilf BaaU 




DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd * Trevose, Pa, 19047 
(215) 357-1400/(215) 757-5300 



GET THE BIRD FROM HAMTRONICS 

We have a complete stock of all Bird wattmeters 

and slugs on hand immediate delivery. Order a 

new BIRD Ham-mate wattmeter for only $79, but 
please specify if you want the 200/1000 watt model 
or the 200/2000 watt model. 






I i » H i \ 



THE HAMTRONICS EXCHANGE PROGRAM 

We will exchange Bird wattmeter slugs On good 
shape) bought from Hamtronics for any other slug 
that you may need in the future — no charge! 
Your wattmeter can never be outdated. 



Oh no you don't! 
Get your own BIRD! 

Come to HAMTRONICS 
and see the largest 
stock of new and 
used ham gear on 
the East Coast. 



P.S. - We 

will trade any 

kind of electronic gear 

Credit cards honored — 
Masterrharjje, Bank Americard, 
PNB. GECeic, 
We ship anywhere in USA 
via UPS - NO CHARGE 
TO YOU 




2 METER 

ANTENNAS 

Complete stock of FM 
Antennss for base or 
mobile 

Large drive-in on the 
premises for immediate 
installation or service 
Complete line of Motor- 
ola HE. P. transistors at 
ail times 




CORPORATION 



(DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose. Pa. 19047 
{215) 357-1400/(215) 757-5300 




ARGONAUT 
^09 



AMPLIFIER 
=405 



ARGONAUT. MODEL 509 

Covets all Amaieu* band* 10-80 meters. 
9 MHr cf yital filter. 2.5 kH? bandwidth. 1,7 
iltape facta* @ 6 &0 dB points. Power 
required T 2-1 5 VDC ^ 1 50 mA receive, 800 
mA transmit si rated 1 output. Construction, 
jiummum chassis, top and from panel, 
molded piastre end pa nets Cream front 
panel, walnut vinyl top and end trim. Sue: 
HWD 4 V x 13" * T\ Weighi 6 lbs 

LINEAR AMPLIFIER, MODEL 405 

Covers all Amateur hundk 10-80 meters. 
&0 watts output power, conimunus sine 



RF wattmeter SWR meter. Power 
required 12-15 VDC @ 8 A. max Construc- 
tion aluminum chassis, top and Iront panel, 
molded plastic side panels. Cream front 
panel, walnut vinyl top and end trim. S<?e 
HWD 4V/' x 7" x 8" Weight 7% lbs 

Argonaut, Model 509 $329.00 

Linear Amplifier, Model 405 . . . 199,00 

Power Supply, Model 251 

(Wilt power both units) , . • , 7900 

Power Supply, Model 210 

(Will power Argonaut only! 27.50 



liar 

TEN -TEC 



receiver sensitivity. And it has features such as full CW break- in, pre- 
selectable ALC, offset tuning* separate AC power supply, 12 VDC operatioiv 
perfectly shaped CW wave form built-in SWR bridge and on and on. 



Model 245 CW Filter 



The new ultra-modern fully solid-state TR [TON makes operating easier 
and a lot more fun, without the limitations of vacuum tubes. 

For one thing, you can change bands with the (lick of a switch and no danger 
of off-resonance damage And no deterioration of performance with age 

But thaf s not all A superlative 8-poIe i-f filter and less than 2% 
audio distortion, transmitting and receiving, makes it the smoothest 
and cleanest signal on the air. 

The TRITON IV specifications are impeccable. For selectivity, stability and 



ACCESSORIES, 

Mode] 240 One-Siity Converter I 97.00 

Model 244 DifiUl Readout 1*7 DO 



J25J00 

2&J9Q 

99.00 
Model 262G Poro Supply/VOX. 129.00 



Model 249 None Bknkar . 
Mood £53G Power Supply 




TRITON IV 1899.00 



KR20-A ELECTRONIC KEYER 

A fine instrument for all-around high per for-' 
mance electronic keying. Paddle actuation 
force is factory adjusted for rythmic smooth 
keying. Contact adjustments on front. 
Weighting factor factory set for optimum 
smoothness and articulation. Over-ride 
"straight key* conveniently located for 
emphasis, QRS sending or tune-up. Reed 
relay output. Side-tone generator with 
adjustable level. Self -completing characters. 
Plug-in circuit board, For 117 VAC. 50-G0 
Hz or 6-14 VDC. Finished in cream and 
walnut vinyl. Price $67.50 

KR5-A ELECTRONIC KEYER 

Similar to KR20-A but without side- tone 
oscillator or AC power supply. Ideal for 
portable, mobile or fixed station, A great 
value that will give years of trouble free 
service. Housed in an attractive case with 
cream front, walnut vinyl top* For 6-14 
VDC operation. Price $38.50 

KR1-A DELUXE DUAL PADDLE 

Paddle assembly la that used in the KR50, 
housed in an attractive formed aluminum 
case. Price $25.00 

KR2-A SINGLE LEVER PADDLE 
For keying conventional "TO** or discrete 



character keyers, as used in the KR20-A. 
Price $15.00 

KR50 ELECTRONIC KEYER 

A completely automatic electronic keyer 
fully adjustable to your operating style and 
preference, speed, touch and we tinting, the 
ratio of the length of dits and dabs to the 
space between them. Self-controlled keyer 
to transmit your thoughts clearly, articu- 
lately and almost effortless. The jambie 
(squeeze) feature allows the insertion of dits 
and dans with perfect timing. 

An automatic weighting system provides 
increased character to space ratio at slower 
speeds, decreasing as the speed is increased* 
keeping the balance between smoothness at 
low speeds and easy to copy higher speed. 
High intelligibility and rythmic transmission 
is maintained at all speeds, automatically. 

Memories provided for both riits and 
dahs but either may be defeated by switches 
on the rear panel. Thus, the RR50 may be 
operated as a full iambic (squeeze) keyer, 
with a single memory or as a conventional 
type keyer. All characters are self-complet- 
ing. Price $110.00 

SPECIFICATIONS 

Speed Ranee: 6-50 w.p.m. 
Weighttng Ratio Range: 50% to 150% of 
classical dit length. 



Memories: Dit and dah. individual defeat 

switches. 
Paddle Actuation Force: 5-50 gms. 
Power Source: 117V AC, 50-60 Hz. 6-14 

VDC, 
Finish: Cream front, walnut vinyl top and 

side panel trim- 
Output: Reed relay. Contact rating 15 VA, 

400 V. ma*. 
Paddles: Torque drive with ball bearing 

pivot. 
Side -tone: 500 Hz tone. 
Adjustable output to 1 volt. 
Size HWD: %W % X bW T * 8<4" 
Weight: IK lbs. 



nisir 




KR50A 





TRY THE 





SSB TWINS 



Take these low cost twins anywhere I Two portable watts 
PEP on 2 meters or 6. HELLO DXI No need for 
converters or low band rigs to get started in SSB-VHF. 
Just add your linear amp, connect to the antenna and OX. 
With the 202, you can talk through OSCAR VI and VII - 
even transceive with an "up" converter! 

IC 202 2 Meter SSB 

144.0, 144.2 + 2 morel True if noise blanker, switched 
dial tights. 200 kHz VSO tuning. RIT only $269,00. 
IC-502 6 Meter SSB 

True if noise blanker, switched dial lights. 800 kHz VFO. 
RIT only S259.00. 






Ill 



TS700A 2 METER 
TRANSCEIVER 



MORE CHANNELS 4 MHz BAND COVERAGE (144 
to 14S MHzr INSTEAD OF USUAL 2. 
ALL MODES: SSB (upper & lower), FM, AM & Ch 
TUNABLE FETVFO 

AC & DC. OPERATES FROM CAR, BOAT OR AS 
BASE STATION 

TRANSMIT/RECEIVE CAPABILITY ON 22 CHAN- 
NELS WITH 11 CRYSTALS only S69900- 



MILLION DOLLAR INVENTORY OF NEW & USED HAM GEAR • 
ALLOWANCES • LOWEST PRICES • FREE DELIVERY ANYWHERE 

information before you buy elsewhere, (Telephone us FREE from anywhere 
check!) 



ALL MAJOR BRANDS • GENEROUS TRADE-IN 

ON ALL ORDERS • Call or write for prices end 

in U.S.A. Send copy of phone bill and we'll send you a 



DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa. 19047 
(215) 357-1400/(215) 757-5300 



6 METER BEAMS 




3 -5 -6-10 ELEMENTS 

Prom performance from rugged, full die, fi meter beams. 
Element apacinga and tangflisiam bcon carefully engineered Id 
beat pattern, bsj;b to ran id gam. food front to back ratio 
mud broad frequency rcspcxlse. 

Booms are ,OM amtt and elements Mr* 374 ,+ - */»" .049 will 
sfimlew cbrcfnr finine aluminum tubing. The 1 and 5 element 
beama lute I 3/8 . *" boottu. The* and 10 element beams 

have I S^" - I j/2" booms. All bracket* are tatayr gauge 
fiarnedituminmn^ Bright finish cad ptaidtfiaholtn are adjustable 
far up tea I S/nP nuat on 3 and & element and 2" on 5 and 10 
fitment bnqii. A*l model* may be mounted for horizontal or 
vertical polarization. 

St* ftaiurei include adjustable length el omenta, kilowatt Reddi 
HMcfc Ud <uiii-i:i i nag ttttUaj bn dhati •■.' dta feed, rbese 
lien ma a j* factory marked and supplied *|th Instructions for 
quick uMcnibly* 



Deu* ijiN.ii. 
MikIi'1 Nti 
HtKHll l,figlti 
Langcir E i 
TjIM RjHili4 

F*wi Gato 
F 9 R«tto 



3 element 

e 

117 

7 6 0S 
TQdft 



5 G k'UlffFll 

A5D-6 
$2' 
117 
7 o 
9 5 CJB 
2* effl 
11 itH 



S element 

A5D0 

20' 

n 

11 5d8 

76 dS 

19 tot 



tD eiempnT 

A50 10 

24 

117 

*3 

1308 

78 dB 

TSttn 



R1NG0 
RANGER 

for FM 



4.5 dB" - 6 dB" 

Omnidirectional 

GAIN 

BASE STATION 

ANTENNAS 

FOR 

MAXIMUM 

PERFORMANCE 

AND 

VALUE 



I 




I 

- 




Cush Craft ha* created another first by making the 
world's most popular 2 meter antenna twice as good. 
The new Rtngo Ranger is developed from the bask 
AR-2 with three half waves in phase and a one eighth 
wave matching stub. Ringo Ranger give* an extremely 
low angle of radiation for better nlgna! coverage. It ia 
tunable over a broad frequency range and perfectly 
matched to 52 ohm coax. 

ARX-2. 137-180 MHz, A lbs.. 112" 
ARX-220. 230-225 MHz, 3 Ebl., ftf" 
ARX-450. 435-450 MHr, 3 lbs,, 39 

* Hrfrrrnce "i wave dipote. 

■■ F:t Terence *a wane whip unad aa fain etandard by many 
maxndartunm 
Work full quieting into more repeaters and extend the 
radius of jour direct contacts with the new Ringo 
Ranger 

You can up date your present AR-2 Ringo with the 
simple addition of this extend*, kit. The kit included 
the phasing network and necessary element extensions. 
The only modifications required are easy to make saw 
shts in the top section of your antenna. 



2 METER 

ANTENNAS 




A rv RiNGO * <S dfi Gain if*f#rnc» \, «m «rtup> K«|f mi kuitfui mn 
nnnu wvia 4iirct oc frgumL St okm teed Uka FL-K». low ufk af — fr* 
Uoa "HUH l-l SW"R FMtory pfMM*fnhl*d did raaiij to uuUI 4 m«tar 
partly prwuvembtaL all tat 4M Jffli Ink* IV, mui Th*r» in nwrt Rlnvu* 

ir. u ■- ')i.ir all ilfijar FN IBllI— I I "" ir.«l 



Mrn[pi| Niin;lv*r 


Aft-2 


a a -25 


AR*fl 


AA-Z20 


AIUM 


Tr*HU*nry MHi 


13B-17B 


tSB-lTEk 


•lrt_r» S4 


Zttl-235 


140 4<Ul> 


Jhiwer— KdJjj Wall* 


100 


.•MM) 


1(H) 


1QO 


aau 


Wind a ran sq ft 


ar 


,ir 


ST r 


20- 


10' 



Bi POLE I'p il> 9 4B q»Lfi p^vr a H **** ill pole. OveinlL utentu Jm^ul 
117 WHi 23' 220 MHt 1ft. iin HHi r, P ptl*mM0' ~ * dB aaln. 
1 W • » 4B r«m. CJ nhm fwi lakv* hL 22>9 connector. Packdct tnrlud« 4 
«atnfirle ai|m)e uastnhlwi on muLinnnn fewmi luxaau and all tiardw«rv 
V*rtlcH iwpport Tnirt nu( MupplMd. 

AFMiD m . l» HH*. 1MB ma wind area 1SB aq It 
AFM-14D ZK - 223 MHj. 1000 HlU wtftd un I S3 aq O. 
AFM up f» ■ «» KHi iHtt ■rmtla «tn4 im uliq fl 




D B-OWCa HACK Thr fa^ t|r»J '* 

in AIC-IJ TUP* *TUl ft 1 

ill aafawar* F=r*».Ti fu ;ldfl r 
u rllTniatinBi llti ir" r if tan 



AM7-n 144 - Sit KHa 1040 WoUa «1ad araa X*2 a« ft 

Drtfii St ACKHiC hits vrat iarl^»*» a o # fj o at *l awtmtinf aoa 
hardwatir sn4 Liuirwrtmna br two vn-ttcatly pvUncfd 3^fi* P*t« 3 dS aalA 

AH-\t*K. complftt t #l*m«n( Alackiitf kit 

a:i-6K a Btrm«nt C4»ui hirnm» gnly 

A147-VFK complrl* 11 ilimont *uckicie; hit 

A14T-SK. II el»m«nt cow tiartwu ntlljf 

AIIB-3K, I* U iLvrntnt »u lamnf only 

I-J-I.1T ELEMENT VAGIS Th,B nt uiHJn rd of <*tmp*ri#m In VHF^UHF i 

iMiiitteiitirina, imrn" i'ut fnr FM hiiiI vi§rltL'«J poLai-iuUian. 'Che' r^ui- rniJ t|a 4l«- 
Ihthl n")d»l» can b* Itwtr "udm nmunctJ All |ir* ™icd »t 1000 w#l(» wiUi 
ffllHJLl B2 ohm Feed and PL-2SU rohnKton, 

ModtiL Number AHT-U A lit 4 A14B-1L At4ft-» AIW-ll 

noum UnxfSL rt« 144 id *■* 10 aO 11" 35' M" Ifll-^T 

Wrhl -funi tedtiu a lb&. IT 1 lt» U I ll». 80' 3 itw. 1« » T*p. Sr 

Qaiti F ft nttO dB I111S V » 132 M 11 23 111 Z« 

h Psfw beam xV *i 41" W *■' 

Wlad >r** ^ n 1 Jl il Jt 30 3* 

FT Uj i — ftiij MH« 144-114 144-144 4KHW 440-UO .. M 

r m TWtST 12.4 *B Caia 

■ad rvvraffi *od *■ 

vard ^a r* U 4 dfi F B mini 22 




A141-37T 143 - lit MUa 10» Villa. 



araa 1 12 *q JT. 



HIGH PERFORMANCE 
VHF YAGIS 

3/4 , 1-1/4, 2 MITER REAMS 

The ulan-dnrJ &f com pari aim In umaleur VHF/l r HF cummunlt'ii' 
Ihona Cuah Craft yugJa combine all out pcrFormanc« and r?Nn 
hilily with optiniujTv alio \ot craae ol laacntbLy and mount Itif a I 
your Hlle. 

L 1 1; hi weight yet ru^cd, Uk> antenna* have 3/16" Ct, D. aolhd 
aluminum e]ecn?irt± with S tfl"" renter irecliona moantodoai aaavy 
duty fanned bracket*. Boonaa are I" and 7/&* 1 O. D, aluminum 
tabiag. Maat mounts of l/l" formed aluminum have adjuaublr 
U'twlta far up to I -I '2" O.D. masts. The? ran be mouRtrd 
for hortiontal or irerllral polaruation. Complete matrnt'ttoiia 
inc Lim*p data caa 2 meter FM repealer npention- 

Mpi features lnciiide a kilowatt Redd» Match for direct S3 <»hm 
coaaial teed *<th a standard PL- 25* filling. All elemeata artr 
•paced at .2 WLvelenf^h swi tapered for improved bandaridUjl, 



Model No 


A144 ? 


AT44 11 


A220 11 


A430 TT 


D**cri|Hi<jr. 


3rn 


7m 


1 4 rri 


am 


Elirrwinli 


7 


11 


11 


ii 


Boom Lngth 


96" 


144 


102 


57" 


^.ii.|in 


4 


e 


4 


3 


b'vM, Qain 


11 dB 


IJJB 


1 i. oB 


13 dB 


FtB Kino 


?6rlB 


.'H'JM 


?ttdB 


ZftdH 


F Ad. Lobe IP 










''wpwr [)[ 


4f 


4? 


42 


47 


! 5WR SFrpij 


1 to 1 


1 (0 1 


1 io1 


1 te i 





VHF/UHF BEAMS 

ABO -3 $ 27,50 
A50-5 39.50 

A50-6 59.50 

A50-10 89.50 

AMATEUR FM ANT 
A147-4 S 1535 
A1 47-11 24S5 
A147-20T 47.50 



A 147-22 

A220^7 

A220^1 1 

A449-6 

A449-1 1 

AFM-4D 

AFM-24D 



69.50 
1855 
2255 

15S5 
21.95 
53.50 
49.50 



A144-7 
A144-11 
A430-1 1 

EWNAS 
AFM-44D 
AR-2 
AR-6 
AR 25 
AR-220 
AR-450 
ARX-2 
ARX-2K 
ARX-220 
ARX^50 



19.95 
24.95 
19.95 



47. SO 

18,50 
24.50 
21.50 
18.50 
18,50 
26.50 
11.95 
28.50 
28.50 




ASTATIC 
MICROPHONES 



T^UG8-D104, transistorized , . $48.60 

T-UG9~D104< "Golden Eagle," tta notorized $95.40 
T-UG9-D104, **Siiver Eagle," trans istorb.ed . $69.95 
UG-D104, cefamic or crystal $42.60 



DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa, 19047 
(215) 357^1400/(215) 757-5300 



The radio, 




Accessories: 
FC-6 

FC-2 
FM-1 



FT 301 
FP301 DIG 
FP301 
FP301 ClD 

FRG-7 
QTR-24 
FT 101-E 
160-1 OM 
FT-101EE 
160-TOM 
FT-101EX 
160-10M 

FL 2100B 

FTV-650B 

FTV-250 

FV-101 B 

SP-101B 

SP-101PB 

YO-100 

YD-344 

FA-9 

MMB-1 

RFP-102 

XF-30C 

XF-32A 

FR-101S 
SOLID STATE 
FR 101 DIG 
SOLID STATE 



160M-10M Transceiver— 200 W PEP 
160M-1QM Transceiver - 200 WPEP 
AC Power Supply 
AC P.S. w/Clock and CW ID 
General Cov t Synthesized Receiver 
Yaesu Wortd Clock 

XCVR W/Processor 

XCVR W/O Processor 

XCVR W/O Processor 
AC Only, Less Mike 
Linear Amplifier 
6M Transverter 
2M Transverter 
Externa! VFO 
Speaker 
Speaker/Patch 
Monitor Scope 
Dynamic Base Mike 
Cooling Fan 
Mobile Mount 
RF Speech Processor 
600 Hz CW Filter 
8 PoleSSB Filter 
for FT 101 

160-2M/SW RCVR 

160-2M/SW RCVR 



$769 
935 
125 
199 
299 
30 

749 
659 



599 

399 

189 

219 

99 

19 

59 

199 

29 

19 

19 

89 

45 

49 

489 

629 





w 

all Crystals, ffW f ffC 

HAMTR0NICS 
CRYSTAL 8ANK! 



530,000 worth of crystals are in the crystal bank. 

Buy a crystal now. If you need To change frequencies later 
we'll swap 

Now there is no chance of you ever having outdated crystals. 
Make a deposit in The Hamtronics Crystal Bank Today. 



6M Converter 
2M Converter 
FM Detector 
Aux/SW Crystals 
AM-Wide Filter 
600 Hz CW Filter 
FM Filter 
Speaker 



XF-3QB 
XF-30C 
XF-30D 
SP-101B 
FL 101 

SOLID STATE 160-10M 
TRANSMITTER 
Accessories: 

RFP-101 RF Speech Processor 

MONITOR/TEST EQUIPMENT 
YC-355D 200 MHz Counter 

YO-100 Monitor Scope 

YP-150 Dummy Load/ Watt Meter 

YC-601 Digital Readout 

f 101/401 series) 
VHF FM & SSB TRANSCEIVERS 



FT 224 

FT-G20B 
FT-221 
Accessories: 
MMS-4 



24CH r 2M FM 
6M AM/CW/SSB 
2M AM/FM/CW/SSB 

Mobile Mount 
(FT-620B, FT-221) 



30 
40 
20 
5 
45 
45 
49 
19 



545 

39 

229 

199 

74 

179 

249 
449 
629 

19 




FT- 101 E TRANSCEIVER 



noo 





Reward 



WANTED DEAD OR ALIVE! 

$100,00 will be paid to anyone in 
the U.S.A. showing that he can get 
a BETTER DEAL than Hamtronics. 

See Press for the LOWEST PRICES 
anywhere in the U.S.A. 



• WE WILL TRADE ANY KIND OF 
ELECTRONIC GEAR* $1,000,000 HAM 
INVENTORY • FREE DELIVERY • 
LOWEST PRICES •MASTER CHARGE 
& BANKAMERICARD ACCEPTED 



DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd * Trevose, Pa. 19047 
(215) 357-1400/(215) 757-5300 




new 







MACHINED ELEMENT 
BRACKET 

new 



JS**-* 




HEAVY DUTY 
MAST MOUNT 

new 




cushcraft 



CORPORATION 



10-15-20 

METER 

4 ELEMENT TRI BAND 

BEAM 







LOW LOSS 

HIGH Q TRAPS 

new 




FERRITE BALUN 

new 



This all new 4 element tri-band amateur band incorporates the same design and 
manufacturing expertise which has made CushCraft the undisputed leader in VHF/UHF 
co mmu nicat io ns« 

Our new coaxial traps are very high Q resulting in extremely low ohmie losses and longer 
full performance beam elements. They are rated for 2 kilowatt powei handling. Feed is 
direct 52 ohm through the 1-1 balun supplies at no extra cost. The published gain figures are 
actually measured in reference to a half wave dipole on each band. 

This beam gives far better performance than three element beams and it takes only slightly 
more space. It is easier to install and keep in the air than larger more awkward beams. Enjoy 
a new world of DX communication with the ail new CushCraft ATB-34 Td-band beam. 



SPECIFICATIONS 





Frequency 


10-15-20 meters 




Forward gain 


7.5 dB all bands 




F/b ratio 


18-24 dB 


HEAVY WALL 


VSWR 


1.5-1 or less 


ALUMINUM TUBING 


Feed 


52 ohm coaxial 



Boom 2-l/2 >, -2" x IS* 

Elements 1-1/4 "-5/8" x 30*8" max. 
Turn Radius 17W 

Wind Surface area 5.4 sq. ft. 

Assembled weight 42 lbs 



MODEL ATB-34 10-15-20 METERS 



M 




DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa. 19047 
(215> 357-1400/(215) 757-5300 



Many car owners, at one 
time or another, 

experience electrical system 
problems usually resulting 
from a dead battery. In many 
instances, the battery is 
blamed for the malfunction 
when, in actuality, the elec- 
tromechanical type voltage 
regulator is the real cause of 
the problem, This is usually 
the case f even though the 
voltage regulator may appear 
to be functioning properly. 

To understand why this 
happens, consider the fact 
that a properly charged and 
maintained lead-acid storage 
battery should last the life of 
your automobile. When an 
early failure occurs, it's 
usually due to the voltage 
regulator consistently under- 
charging or overcharging the 
battery in the system. In fact, 
more battery failures result 
from improper voltage regula- 
tion in automotive electrical 
systems than for any other 

reason. 

E x c essive un derchargi ng 
will cause the bdttery plates 
to become covered with lead 
sulfate, commonly referred to 
as "sulfating/ 1 On the other 
hand, overcharging a storage 
battery raises the temperature 
of the electrolyte, resulting in 
extreme oxidation of the 
plates, which eventually crack 
or buckle. The end result of 
both of these improper 
charging conditions is the 
same . . . a dead battery. 



W. J. Prudhomme WB5DEP 
1 405 Richland Ave. 
Metairie LA 7QQ01 



Build Your Own 



Car 



Electronic Voltage Regula- 
tion 

To overcome the above 
problems, it's necessary to 
regulate the charging voltage 
at the proper level. It's up to 
the voltage regulator to main- 
tain the proper system 
voltage and, for many years, 
this task has been accom- 
plished with an electro- 
mechanical device. The main 



TO IGNITION 

SWITCH 



15SV 




ALTERNATOR 

FtELT 
WltlQIUG 



ft* GNO 



Fig. I. Schematic. Dl — 18 volt zener diode, 1 Watt; D2 - 
1N4007\ J 00 piv t I Amp rectifier; ICJ - LM723 voltage 
regulator (14 pin, DSP); QJ - 2N2Q63A (SK3009) 10 Amp 
PNP transistor; R1 t R3-470 Ohm, % Watt, 10% resistor; R2 
- 500 Ohm f 10 turn trimpot; R4 - 51 Ohm r 14 Watt, 10% 
resistor; Miscellaneous — TO-3 transistor socket f 14 pin DIP 
socket, barrier terminal strip, TO-3 mica washer kit, PC board t 
minibox, optional relay (see text). 




ulator 



- - solid state 



disadvantages of these devices 
are voltage variations due to 
temperature changes, un* 
adjustable voltage settings, 
and mechanical type failures. 
Many auto manufacturers 
have recognized these prob- 
lem areas and as a result are 
switching over to solid state 
designs* In fact, if you own a 
late model car, it may already 
have an electronic voltage 
regulator. However; there are 
still many cars in existence 
today with the old style elec- 
tromechanical regulator. If 
yours happens to be one, you 
can easily update it with a 



precision, electronic voltage 
regulator. 

For less than $10 in elec- 
tronic components, you can 
build your own solid stale 
voltage regulator that should 
outperform any electro- 
mechanical regulator on the 
market today. 

How It Works 

As indicated in the sche- 
matic diagram (Fig, 1), this 
solid state automotive regu- 
lator uses a minimum of com- 
ponents to achieve high per- 
formance without sacrificing 
reliability. The heart of the 




S/Stn 



Fig. 2. Construction details. 



160 



unit is ihc LM723. precision 
voltage regulator tC, which is 
internally temperature com- 
pensated. This integrated 
circuit is connected as a 
switching type regulator to 
control current flow to the 
field of the alternator; Re- 
sistor R2 is adjusted to main- 
tain a system voltage of 13,8 
volts, the fully charged 
voltage of most standard car 
batteries. 

If the alternator tries to 
produce a voltage above the 
set level, the LM723 turns off 
the pass transistor, Q1 P 
thereby cutting off field 
excitation in the alternator. 
When this happens, the 
output voltage from the alter- 
nator begins to drop. As soon 
as the output level drops 
bciuw 13.8 volts, the regu- 
lator turns the field current 
back on to raise the output 
voltage. This cycie is repeated 
hundreds of times a second to 
maintain the alternator's 
output voltage precisely at 
the set level. 

The external pass tran- 
sistor, 01, is required to 
handle the large field current 
of most alternators (approxi- 
mately 3 Amps), since the 
LM723 has a maximum 
output current capability of 
150 mA. 

Construction Details 

The solid state voltage 
regulator may be built in a 
small minibox {2-3/4" x 
2-1 /8 M x 1-5/8") as shown in 
Fig, 2. Transistor Ql is 
mounted on top of the mini- 
box, which is used as a 
heat sink. Insulate the tran- 
sistor from the metal case 
using a TO-3 transistor socket 
and mica washer kit. This is 
necessary to prevent the tran- 




LMTta 





1 


tzt 


14 






2 




O 






3 




12 


V* 


<NV 


4 




II 


vc 


N 1 


3 




10 




VHEF 


• 




9 


vz 


V- 


7 




8 






2M2063A 
i BOTTOM ) 




Fig. 3. PC board layout. 



sistor's case (collector) from 
shorting to ground, 

A barrier type terminal 
strip (3 terminal) is used to 
bring the BATT, GND and 
FIELD connections out. If a 
relay is required (see installa- 
tion details), you may elect 
to construct the unit in a 
larger minibox to house the 
relay. Also, a six terminal 
barrier strip will then be 
required to make external 
connections to the relay. 

In some installations, 
depending on the mounting 
location of the regulator, you 
may want to seal the en- 
closure for moisture protec- 
tion. However, if the 
mounting location under the 
hood is carefully chosen, this 
should not be a problem. 

The external pass tran- 
sistor is not critical, and 



almost any 10 Amp, PNP 
transistor will be adequate. 
However, plan to use only a 
DIP version of the LM723 
and not the T0-5 version. The 
reason for this is that the DIP 
version has an internal refer- 
ence zener diode (W) and the 
T0-5 version does not. The 
TO-5 may be used, but you 
will have to add an extcrnaf 
zener reference diode. Also, 
the printed circuit board 
layout (Fig. 3) has been de- 
signed for the DIP version. 

How to Install Your Elec- 
tronic Regulator 

First, try to obtain a copy 
of the schematic diagram for 
your automotive electrical 



system, Most local libraries 
will have automotive manuals 
containing this type of infor- 
mation. You should become 
thoroughly familiar with this 
diagram before proceeding 

with the installation* 

Referring to Fig. 4, deter- 
mine which system best fits 
yuur own car. Four basic 
types of alternator systems 
arc illustrated: Ford/Autolhc, 
Delcotron/GM, Motorola/ 
AMC, and the Chrysler/Ply- 
mouth system with an am- 
meter. With the exception of 
Chrysler/ Ply mouth, most 
systems will require an 
external relay to maintain the 
alternator charge indicator 
light function. However, if 



ATI f.L OSt AS PDS5IBLL fCl FUttUlVI 



riNWINJiL 



ALTERNATOR 



ALTERNATOR 
LIGHT 



IGNITION 
SWITCH 




"* 



Electronic 

REGULATOR 



FIELD 




~X 



ELEC TRONIC 

VOLTAGE 

REGULATOR 



' £_1. 



Fig. 4(a)* Simplified diagram for a typical electrical system 
containing an ammeter in lieu of the alternator indicator light 
This type of system does not require an external relay to 
convert to an electronic voltage regulator. 



Fig. 4{b) w Simplified diagram for a typical Ford electrical 
system with a charge indicator light. This type of system 

requires an external relay to maintain the function of the 
indicator light. RLYl — any 6 volt relay with 3 Amp SPOT 
contacts. 



161 



JT 



EfeE NDTt 

riG.iiw. IGNITION 
\. SWITCH 




^I2V 



HELD 



I 



m 



ALT 
GHT 



ALTERNATOR 



1 5*1 



1 



$* 



g7V 

RUVI 



^ ' 



^ 



ELECTRONIC 
VOLTAGE 
REGULATOR 



FIELD 




SG&hprE 
FIG. -*ifaJ 



IGNITION 
SWITCH 



i 



ALT. 
LIGHT 



isa 



h i Y 



^™X 




ELECTRONIC 

VOLTAGE 
REGULATOR 



1 



FLELD 



F/#, 4(c). Simplified diagram for a typical De/cotron (GM) 
electrical system with a charge indicator fight. This system also 
requires an external relay if you want to maintain the function 
of the indicator light. RLY1 - any 6 volt relay with 3 Amp 
SPOT contacts. 



Fig. 4(d). Simplified diagram for a typical Motorola (AMC) 
electrical system with an internal isolation diode. An external 
relay will be required to maintain the function of the indicator 
light RLY1 -any 12 volt relay with 3 Amp SPOT contacts. 



you install an external am- 
meter, you can eliminate the 
requirement of the relay. 
Simply connect the regulator 
as shown in Fig, 4(a). 

The next step is to find a 
suitable location under the 
hood to mount the electronic 
regulator. Preferably, this 
location should be near the 
battery and away from areas 
subject to moisture or exces- 
sive heat. 

Disconnect the old regu- 
lator and mark each of the 
connecting wires for future 
reference, and use crimp-on 
connectors to connect the 



new regulator to the system. 
This will maintain the 
integrity of the original 
system connections should 
you ever want to convert 
back to the original con- 
figuration. If an external 
relay is required, mount it in 
a protected space, preferably 
with a dust cover or within 
the regulator enclosure. 

After the unit is installed, 
recheck all wiring to insure 
that the system is properly 
connected. Before starting 
the engine, turn off all loads 
until the system voltage is 
properly adjusted and stable. 



After the engine is started, 
adjust the system voltage 
{with trimpot R2) for 13.8 
volts at the positive terminal 
of the battery. 

Check to see if the regu- 
lator is functioning properly 
by increasing the engine 
speed and adding loads to the 
system. The voltage should 
remain constant. Note: At 
slow idle, with loads turned 
on, the voltage may drop 
slightly, since the alternator is 
not producing at its rated 
output. At cruising speed, 
however, the correct voltage 
should be maintained if the 
system is operating properly. 



Conclusion 

This completes the in- 
stallation and check-out of 
your electronic voltage regu- 
lator. It should provide many 
years of troublefree operation 
in addition to extending the 
life of your lead-acid battery. 

As a final suggestion, you 
may want to monitor the 
system voltage on a con- 
tinuous basis for the first few 
weeks after installation. If no 
problems are experienced 
during this initial trial period, 
it can be safely assumed that 
the voltage regulator Is com- 
patible with your particular 
electrical system. ■ 



j Bearcafc'/u Scanner 

• • Crystal-less — Without ever buying a crystal you can 
select from all local frequencies by simply pushing a few 
buttons. 

• Decimal Display — See frequency and channel 
number — no guessing whos on the air 

• 5-Band Coverage — Includes Low, High, UHF and UHF 
"T" public service bands, the 2-meter amateur (Ham) 
band, plus other UHF frequencies. 

• Del uxe Ke y b oa rd — Ma ke s f re que nc y sele c ti on as ea sy 
as using a push-button phone Lets you enter and 
change frequencies easily try everything there is to 
hear 

■ Patented Track Tuning — Receive frequencies across the 
full band without adjustment Circuitry is automatically 
aligned to each frequency monitored. 

• Automatic Search — Seek and find new, exciting 
frequencies, 

• Selective Scan Delay — Adds a two second delay to 
prevent missing transmissions when "calls" and 
'answers" are on the same frequency. 

» Rolling Zeros — This Bearcat exclusive tells you which 

channels your scanner is monitoring. 

• Tone By-Pass — Scanning is not interrupted by mobile 
telephone tone signal. 

■ Manual Scan Control — Scan all 10 channels at your 
own pace 

• 3-lnch Speaker — Front mounted speaker for more 
sound with less distortion. 

• Squelch— Allows user to effectively block out unwanted 

noise 

• AC/DC — Operates at home or in the car. 



.® T I i-j 




• 



Our Bearcat 210 covers 32-50. 146-174 and 416-512 MHz. Sensitivity is 0.6 uv on low 
and high bands, selectivity better than -60dB (g>25 KHz, It scans 20 channels per 
second and has AC and DC power connections. 

The Communications Electronics Bearcat 210 is mait order priced at $319. 95< and 
CE still offers their unique "guaranteed lowest price" sales policy. You can place a 
telephone order on their toll-free USA 24 hour order line 800-521-4414 and charge it 
to a BankAmericard or Mastercharge. In Michigan and outside the U.S. A, dial 
313-994-4441. To order by mail, or for a free catalog including a four page full color 
brochure describing the Bearcat 210 as well as CE's other electronic products, write: 
Communications Electronics, P.O. Box I002 h Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 U.S.A. 
Foreign orders invited. 




TM 



COMMUNICATIONS ELECTRONICS 

P.O. BOX 1002 DEPT. fri 

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48106 



master charge 

T*E i«!t«fiiNH CARD 



jt'Mi 



BamkAmericmd 



tt * /ft'Jitt /ft it 



CALL TOLL FREE 
800-521-4414 



or 
313-994-4441 



J 



162 





♦ 





ELECTRONICS COMPANY, INC. 



"One of the finest names In the Industry 



ft 



SPECIALISTS IN 

High-Power RF transistor components, CMOS integrated 
circuits & associated components. 



WISHES TO ANNOUNCE 



A complete line of amateur H.F. and V.H.F. equipment including the best 
names in the business. 

Liberal discounts to licensed amateurs, has been, and still is, our policy — 
trade-ins accepted. 

For your amateur needs from $1 to $????? 

Write or Call 






BLUE GRASS PLAZA 
2417 WELSH ROAD 
PHILADELPHIA PA 19114 
PHONE: (215)464-1880 



BULK ORDERS ACCEPTED BIDS SUPPLIED 



Hart Posthihwaite WB6CQW 
1811 Hillman Ave, 
Belmont CA 94002 



The HAPPY FLYERS 



- - fun and public service 



Few hams have ope rated 
any length of time with* 
out observing interference of 
some type. Whether acci- 
dental or intentional, it still 
has the same effect on a QSO 
(and our blood pressure). The 
need for devices and proce- 
dures to locate interference — 
and its interrelationship with 
finding downed aircraft — has 
revealed an unexpected 
opportunity for hams. About 
5,000 volunteers are needed, 
plus the cooperation of many 
repeater groups across the 
nation. 

Many stories have been 
passed from father to son and 
mother to daughter regarding 
the subtle sounds of oppor- 
tunity knocking. With each 
story comes an imaginative 
narration of the consequences 
and/or blessings that occurred 
as a result of someone's reac- 
tion to the particular oppor- 
tunity. Many of us have 
dreamed of that special 
opportunity that would open 
the door and make a dream 
come true. 

In 1979, the International 
Telegraphic Union (ITU) will 
convene a general World 
Administrative Conference in 
Geneva, Switzerland. During 
the conference all the ITU 
rules, regulations, and fre- 



quency allocations applicable 
to the orderly use of the 
spectrum from 10 kHz to 
over 300 GHz will be 
examined in detail - and this 
includes the amateur radio 
service. In light of their 
voting structure, many 
knowledgeable hams are con- 
cerned about the outcome of 
this conference. The per- 
formance of some U.S. ama- 
teurs during emergencies (the 
Guatemala quake) and their 
daily operating practices leave 
something to be desired if we 
wish to make a good impres- 
sion on our valuable voting 
friends in the ITU. On the list 
of attributes most likely to 
influence friends and votes: 
bad manners, poor operating 
practices, excessive power, 
and intentional interference. 

It was the increasing prob- 
lem of intentional and acci- 
dental interference that led 
the HAPPY FLYERS to the 
door of opportunity that now 
awaits opening by all U.S, 
amateurs everywhere 
(HAPPY stands for "Hams 
And Pilots Piloting & Yak- 
king.*' - Ed.). 

Our first two years were 
spent in or ^ni zing, re- 
cruiting, bimonthly fly-ins, 
our annual fund-raising 



"Flying Poker Party" (pick 
up a playing card at five 
airports - best hands win 
numerous donated prizes), 
public service flights, trans- 
porting hams and families in 
emergencies, and flying in 
Civil Defense drills* The num- 
ber in Squadron #1 had 
nearly reached 200 when jam- 
ming became j severe prob- 
lem on our local repeaters. 
Somewhere around the same 
time, Congress passed the 
E LT (Emergency Locator 
Transmitter) law for all U.S, 
aircraft* They failed, how- 
ever, to make proper pro- 
vision for finding downed air- 
craft fortunate enough to 
have a squawking ELT and a 
survivable crash. 

It was the culmination of 
all these events and facts that 
caused me to accept an invita- 
tion to attend a meeting of 
the San Mateo County 
Sheriffs Air Squadron. Word 
was out that they had a 
state-issued RDF unit to issue 
to the proper pilot for instal- 
lation in his plane. He would 
be the official search pilot for 
the county* I was greatJy 
interested in the possibilities 
of adapting this special equip- 
ment to the 2 meter FM 
band, in order to locate jam- 
mers. 



The long and short of it is 
that I acquired the job and 
the unit. Jim Williams K6HIO 
and I took it apart before 
installing it in our plane. We 
made numerous test flights 
on the amateur and aircraft 
frequencies. To our amaze- 
ment, no modification of the 
state unit was necessary, pro- 
vided we kept the FM rig out 
of saturation with a step* 
attenuator. We found all 
signals we looked for in the 
experimentation. The First 
real test was the Western 
States Sheriffs ELT search 
competition. Deputy Don 
Short and I located the signal 
in 6 minutes. I won 1st prize 
— and then was barred from 
all future electronic search 
competition (due to our ex- 
cessively rapid find compared 
to the competition). Our fir*t 
real plane wreck took 16 
minutes from signal contact. 
Later, we believe we located 
the first jammer by airborne 
RDF — 22 minutes flying 
time straight over his house 
(Don Smith W6NKF, Vice 
Commander, Squadron #1, 
Dick Smith WB6WPZ, and 
Art Sinclair W6FKQ were at 
his door within the hour). 

We soon developed our 
own inexpensive RDF printed 
circuit boards — one for 
simple AM and one with an 
automatic attenuator for 
FM/AM. We were alt set to 
end jamming in our area- 
Soon many units were being 
built, and the jamming was 
shortly cut about in half 
(apprehension capability has 
a decided effect on jammers). 

Then we began to see the 
problems in the ELT pro- 
gram. Poor construction stan- 
dards of the first ELT units 
caused so many false alarms 
that the program went into 
almost immediate disrespect. 
Real accidents often failed to 
trigger the ELT, and those 
that did were not found 
easier. Few people had RDF 
equipment, and many who 
did were unable to find the 
signals due to their lack of 
understanding reflections, 
multipath, and the operating 
characteristics of the new 



164 



equipment. Experienced 
hams had little trouble, but 
seasoned pilots trained to fly 
low and look could not make 
the fool things work properly 
(but then that's another story 
we usually cover in our free 
RDF seminars). 

As time passed, more and 
more problems began to sur- 
face. The HAPPY FLYERS 
had already begyn their free 
RDF seminars for pilots and 
hams. Then a plane crashed, 
two miles from at least 5 ham 
repeaters and within VHF 
range of at least 5 FA A 
facilities that should have 
heard the ELT. Twelve hours 
elapsed before they were 
found. The Oakland Tribune 
reported that they were 
found by teenagers by acci- 
dent — not by modem RDF 
or search personnel. Subse- 
quent investigation turned up 
the fact that the FAA has 
officially ceased monitoring 
the 121,5 emergency fre- 
quency in many metropolitan 
areas, due to the numerous 
falses and tests. 

We had been working on 
remote RDF for our repeaters 
to quickly locate jammers. 
When I read how one survivor 
was pinned, bleeding in the 
wreckage, with his brother 
thrown clear and uncon- 
scious, I thought about what 
a shame it was that we didn't 
have the remote RDF 
finished and a command at 
the repeater to switch to 
121.5 for DF, This incident 
began a fabulous series of 
events. 

Members of Squadron #1 
turned their efforts from the 
jammers to an analysis of 
ELT problems. We sought 
input from other hams and 
HAPPY FLYERS through 
our regular column in World- 
radio News. What we came up 
with is the outline and 
nucleus of a proposal that 

could save the future of the 
ELT program, save untold 
lives, and give amateur radio 
operators, their equipment, 
and their ingenuity a needed 
boost in the eyes of the 
general public (and the 
WARC for the 79 confer- 
ence). 




Opportunity knocks 
loudly at your door. We can 
save lives, save a worthwhile 
ELT program, save billions of 
dollars in search and satellite 
funds, restore 121,5 to its 
useful emergency value, 
impress the public, and prove 
beyond the shadow of a 
doubt thai we are capable of 
providing services for free 
that are not presently avail- 
able by any other means, In 
addition, the equipment is 
usable on the ham bands and 
will give instant readout to 
buttonpushers and jammers. 
Interested? Read on. 

The artist's conception 
drawn by our International 
Vice Commander Paul Hower 
WA6GDC shows a broad inte- 
grated ham monitoring 
proposal. It is a simple and 
logical approach originally 
envisioned as an areawide, 
interclub plan to obtain 
instant bearing information 
on jammers through the use 
of our HAPPY FLYERS 
remote RDF and an organ- 
ized intergroup coordinator. 
Due to the design of our DF 
device, we can get instant 
readout to even a "button- 
pusher " 

Wc presented a general 
outline of our plan to Rick 
Goodman, Vice President of 
the National Association of 



Search and Rescue Coordina- 
tors, at their 76 convention 
in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Rick, 
an active Albuquerque ham, 
informed me that his repeater 
club had already installed a 
121,5 receiver at their re- 
peater. He was greatly en- 
thused about the comprehen- 
siveness of our plan. They 
had no time-lockout and were 
rebroadcasting the ELT tones 
as the alert. They are now 
incorporating our ideas ini<> 
their system. His ham group 
had made a terrific sound/ 
slide show on amateur partici- 
pation in search and rescue. 
We purchased a copy, added 
slides and sound covering our 
proposal, and are showing it 
in our RDF seminars and at 
civic groups — Rotary, 
Jaycees, Lions, etc. — a tre- 
mendous PR boost for ama< 
teur radio. Our group has the 
motto, "There is no limit to 
what you can do if you don't 
care who gets the credit/ 1 tt 
is a great pleasure to work 
with people like Rick, Ray 
Andrews K9DUR, Bruce 
Gordon of CAP, Bob 
Kolsters, Commander, 
Western States Sheriffs, and 
our international squadrons 
of hams and pilots, the 
HAPPY FLYERS. Everyone 
will have to work together on 
a local scale, but within a 



national set of standards and 
guidelines for the program- 
Due to the construction 
delays expected, we plan to 
set up the ELT Monitor Pro- 
gram in two basic stages. The 
first stage might be described 
as the "Alert and Elimina- 
tion" stage, as shown in the 
drawing. Used commercial 
lube receivers are being made 
available to hams by a nation- 
wide aircraft radio company 
through the HAPPY 
FLYERS. These receivers will 
be distributed to repeaters 
and to volunteer low band 
hams who live in remote 
wilderness areas not covered 
by repeaters, FAA, or mili- 
tary facilities. 

Wc then hope to secure 

volunteers who live near the 
nearly 5,000 U.S. airports, to 
gel inexpensive 1 21*5 re* 
ceivers. Repeater and in- 
dividual receivers will be 
equipped with a lime-lockout 
decoder (such as the one 
designed for the HAPPY 
FLYERS by Jim Williams 
K6HIO), to prevent false 
alarms by voice communica- 
tions or ELT tests. ELT tests 
are authorized by law, the 
first five minutes of every 
hour. The lockout decoder 
(parts cost under $5) will be 
set for about six minutes to 
eliminate additive individual 



165 



Nation-wide E.L.T. Program 

VOLUNTEER MONITOR PLAN $»•«•>•< n ikt HAPPY FLTERS m imn.iit.ii o.n.iz»ti.» it HAW S anil PILOTS- i.r p»iiti»ni» > t E»ERT0NE 



STAGE! 

-111 * tftfNf* 

nrw of. 

- AUDIO ALlAt 
* LOtATf '»«*' 

of ei-T, 

-TfLtMfTRY 
FKOW ffPlAlf R 
4tVfS MATT4& 

f© CCMfuTf * 



-UNO- UN t 

Sivhifuaht 

iN^OKMATlOrt 

-fa «mkh 

C 00*01 UATo* 



MOBILE 




U 



* LU UAM3 

Ffc£eX 4ft EHCOGC 
MKOOEl mr* ItT 



& wiTm 6a%€ 
J*g*iTO*S TO 



j STAK 1 jrSTWHj 

MULTIPLE MONITORS 



STAGE 1 - AREA WIDE MONITOR PROGRAM 

1. Exsistlng Ham & CAP repeaters install 121 .5 receivers with special time Jock-out 
decoder Id by-pass ELT lest period and voice communication for 6 minutes. This 
provides high level, wide area coverage, thru thousands of exsi sling repeater*. 

2. Law -"bono" Homs and inter c$ted citizens would Install law cos* monitors in homtt in 
remote wilderness areai not covered by repeaters, FAA, or military facilities 

3* Every airport Fn the Country to have on Individual volunteer monitor with some 
lock ~out decoder. Receiving range cut to hoar only one Airport. Purpose of these 
monitors to immejiotJy localize fa lie Airport triggering of ELTs. 

4, When 6 minute test foclc-ouf exceeded, repeater* "o generate emergency tone 
[2000 orKi/or 200 cps] to "Silent Monitor" decoders and paging receiver* alerting 
Search and Rescue personnel and Coordinator* alike. 

5, Proper coordinator will assemble information from repeater and individual monitor 
report^ . Airport folses, would be immediatfy identified by Airport volunteer. 

6, Individual alert of all SAR personnel via wide coverage repeater tooe-alert will 
cause pilots and ground crews to remain available while validity of emergency it 
verified by coordinators* Coll-up can be accomplished thru repeaters or phone. 
Acquiring crews at odd hours will be great fy umpti fieri. 

7, SAR persorsneJ con be reached al social functions, wort. In cor, or during sleep 
hours via extensive coverage of repeaters and use of its tone olerf. Arroorne 
March piloh, would also be able to be contacted. TIME SAVED, SAVES UVE5. 



ELT 






- NLfleit-t 

-ft>«TA*i.f 



Mji1I*> IT,il'.1h W |.|| |V WMCQI 
ill! MlNmiin B.hl*riU» 



___ 



'■"R" - .!;, l *"• 



STAGE 2 - ELECTRONIC DiRFCTION FrNDI NG 

1. Remote RDF capability will be added to repeaters and be a variable on command of 
coordinator! . Bearings From two or more repeaters will be plotted for probable area 
of trouble. Low cost tone telemetry has been developed For this* 

2. Remote individual wilderness monitors will odd low eoit ft OF to supply bearing 
information with reports via radio or telephone. 

3. Airport monitor* will odd portable RDF capability & assist in locating offender. 

4. Hams to assist in equipping more planes with low cost RDF capabilities, 

5. Computer equipped Hom repeater* will inter-link For rapid calculation of more 
precise intersections of multiple bearings. 

6. Continue free educational Seminars for Hams, pilots and other interested people. 

7. Encourage pilars to report their awn accidental triggering* fto cancel searches j 
8- Encourage more pilots to monitor 12 I + 5, in flight t and at shut-down, 

9. Continue conducting free check rides for pilots L observers in RQF techniques. 
10. Issue gold embossed DF rat i ng cores for passing writer & flight /ground checks. 
ADDITIONAL PROPOSED GOALS 

1. Visit with Congressional TeaoWs, FAA, FCC officials to effect necessary changes. 

2. Establish a legal proceedure to silence illegal ELT transmit ions. 

3. Provide Scott AFB with current lists of volunteers, capabilities, and locations . 
4 + Continue to seek donors o* used commercial equipment, receivers, pagers, etc . 

to minimize over all costs to SAR volunteers In the program . 



tests which would be possible 
with monitors who may have 
many airports in their re- 
ceiving area, 

ELT signals exceeding six 
minutes will trigger a tone 
oscillator (suggested fre- 
quencies arc 2,000 and/or 
200 Hz) which can be 
decoded by silent monitor 
tone decoders and belt paging 
receivers of participating 
search and rescue personnel - 
hams, volunteers, FAA, CAP, 
and Official Area Coordina- 
tors, 

The elimination process 
will be automatically started 
by the tone alert. Partici- 
pating airport volunteers 
could report to the coor- 
dinator an **ali clear" or "I 
hear it," In less than 30 
minutes, all airports would be 
checked. 100% "all clear" 
would signify a possible valid 
emergency, Repeater coor- 
dinators from various high 
location repeaters would then 
be polled and a second elim- 
ination process would give 
the general location by 
absence or presence of the 
ELT alert tone. 

Little imagination is neces- 
sary to see the many benefits 



of stage 1 — high level mon- 
itors, airport monitors, 
wilderness monitors, per- 
sonnel notification, general 
search area probabilities, 24 
hour reliability by the silent 
monitor and lockout timer, 
rapid response, multigroup 
participation, favorable ham 
PR with the community, 
further evidence of the value 
of the amateur bands and the 
technology that has histori- 
cally shown that hams can 
often fill design gaps. 

Stage 2 will add RDF 
(Radio Direction Finding) 
capability to repeater and 
individual monitor stations. 
Computer-equipped repeaters 
will link for automatic pro- 
cessing of bearings. Hams will 
help train non-electronical I y 
oriented pilots and search 
personnel in the techniques 
of transmitter hunting 
(present airborne RDF equip- 
ment is now accurate to a 
couple of feet at crossover). 
Hams will continue designing 
the special electronic devices 
needed (like the VOX audio 
repeaters designed by the 
HAPPY FLYERS and Rick's 
New Mexico group). 

As you remember, I men* 



lioned earlier that this all ties 
in with our jammer problem. 
The same DF equipment will 
work on ham, aircraft, and 
marine frequencies. We will 
have an established inlerclub 
group, with equipment, pro* 
cedures, and skills sharpened 
by experience. We will have 
assistance from other groups 
(members of Western States 
Sheriffs Air Squadrons have 
volunteered to assist in air* 
borne jammer hunting with 
their ELT RDF units). Jam- 
mers think twice before 
pushing the button when the 
chances of being caught are 
high- You don't park in the 
same illegal parking space if 
you get a ticket every time* 
Where do you fit in? Each 
area will need to set up its 
own program* This means 
leaders, workers, builders, 
listeners, donors, and equip- 
ment. You have the choice as 
to how much you can or will 
do to further this program. 
The HAPPY FLYERS is an 
international volunteer organ- 
ization of hams, pilots, and 
flyers (those interested in 
flying but not necessarily 
hams or pilots). We are a no 
dues, no fees organisation, 



with no paid employees* 
Due to our nonprofit 

structure and our no staff 
operation, we hope to see as 
much accomplished al the 
local levels as possible. We 
will provide information and 
all other help possible. A 
self-addressed stamped 
envelope on all correspon- 
dence will be greatly appre- 
ciated — both from the time 
and money standpoint. As 
you begin to organise, we will 
need to know who is in 
charge of the operation in 
your area. As we receive word 
that used commercial equip- 
ment becomes available either 
through donors or at drasti- 
cally reduced prices, we will 
need to know whom to pass 
the information on to. Many 
companies would rather not 
be bothered by calls from 
individuals, but will make 
master arrangements with 
groups like ours. Our thanks 
to those who have already 
called, 

As you can see, we are 
really "into" this. I think you 
have the main ideas. Your 
suggestions arc also solicited. 
You've got the ball - do 
something with it, ■ 



tee 



SLEP IS PgLit 

ELECTRON/CS sffllPlMSW 



r* 



ATLAS 

350 XL TRANSCEIVER 1QT6QM, 350 

WATTS PEP . , . , S993.00 

DD6XL PLUG-IN DIGITAL DIAL 

350 XL .,.....,., , 105,00 

350PS MATCHING AC POWER SUPPLY 

CONSOLE 195,00 

305 AUXILIARY VFO PLUG-IN , . . 155.00 
311 AUXILIARY CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR 

PLUG-IN ■, 135.00 

DMK-XL PLUG-IN MOBILE MOUNTING 
KIT .. ..........* + .., * ,, 4 _*..,. . . G&.DG 

21 OX SS6 TRANSCEIVER 1 Q-SOM 200W 
PEP WITHOUT NOISE BLANKER ..679.00 

, . . WITH NOISE BLANKER 719.00 

215X SSB TRANSCEIVER 15-160M . 679.00 

. . . WITH NOISE BLANKER 719.00 

220CS AC CONSOLE POWER 

. ..WITH VOX/SeMI-OREAK-IN CW 195.00 

20,0-PS PORTABLE AC POWER 

SUPPLY 

DMK DELUXE MOBILE MOUNT 

DC BATTERY CABLE, USED IF 

UohU . , + _ * _ .._,. 



, . 100,00 
.... 46.00 
DMK NOT 
1 2,00 



MBK MOBILE BRACKET KIT . , 6.00 

DD-6C DIGITAL DIAL USED WITH 5645 

KHZ IF MODELS . . . , 229.00 

DD-5B DIGITAL DIAL USED WITH 5520 IF 

MODELS 229.00 

MT-1 MOBJLE AWTENNNA MATCHING 

TRANSFORMER 27.00 

1 OX CR YSTA L OSCI LLATOR ...... 59,00 

PC 120 NOISE BLANKER KIT ...... 52.00 

VX-S VOX/SEMI BREAK IN CW ACCES- 
SORY FOR INSTALLATION IN MODEL 

. . . 220CS AC CONSOLE . . , 49.00 

206 AUXILIARY VFO WITH EXTENDED 
FREQUENCY COVERAGE FOR ALL 

ATLAS TRANSCEIVERS - 28900 

DL-200 DUMMY LOAD 200 WATT, 52 
OHM , 9.00 



COLLINS 

KWM-2A TRANSCEIVER $3 

75S-3C RECEIVER . .2 

32S-3A TRANSMITTER . 2 

30L-1 LINEAR AMPLIFIER 1 

312B-3 SPE AKE R . . , 

312B-4 CONSOLE . 

312B-5 console;vfo * 

5T6F-2 POWER SUPPLY 

MM-1 MOBJLE MICROPHONE 

3M-3 DESK MICROPHONE 

51S-1 GENERAL COVERAGE 

. ,, RECEIVER 4 

55G-1 PRESELECTOR 200KHZ 

. . . TO 2MHZ USED WITH 51S-1 . . . 



,533,00 

,504.00 

,957.00 

,536.00 

. 30,00 

546.00 

,212,00 

440.00 

. 60.00 

152.00 

,770.00 

560,00 



DRAKE 

R^4C RECEIVER 160-10M . 599.00 

4NB NOISE BLANKER R-4C ....... 70.00 

FILTERS FL250, 500, 1500,4000, 

EACH 52.00 

T-4XC TRANSMITTER 160-10M * . . 599.00 
FS-4 FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER .250.00 
L-4B LINEAR AMPLIFIER WITH POWER 

SUPPLY, 3 500Z TUBES 895.00 

TR^CW TRANSCEIVER 80-1 0M WITH 

500HZ CW F I LTE H 649.00 

34PNB PLUG IN NOISE BLANKER , 100.00 

MMK-3 MOBILE MOUNT 7.00 

RV4C REMOTE VFO TR-4C 120,00 

AM POWER SUPPLY 110/22OV FOR ALL 
DRAKE TRANSCEIVERS AND TRANS- 
MITS RS . - 120.00 

DC-4 POWER SUPPLY 1 2VDC FOR 

MOBILE USE ........... 135.00 

TR-33C FM TRANSCEIVER 2 METER 

12 CHANNEL - - , 229.95 

1525EM ENCODING MIKE 49,95 

AA 10 AMPLIFIER 10 WATT . 49.96 

MMK-33 MOBILE MOUNT 12.95 

AC 10 POWER SUPPLY, 120 VAC INPUT 
138 VDC AT 3AMPS , . 49.95 



MN-4 ANTENNA MATCH BOX 400VW 

* Cr titfiitiiiii ■ ■ a a j j l t. . j _ a - - II Uj UU 

MN 2000 ANTENNA MATCH BOX 2KW/ 

PEP 220.00 

MS4 MATCHING SPEAKER FOR ALL 

RECEIVERS, TRANSCEIVERS 24.95 

W^4 RF WATTMETER 1 .8 TO 54 

■" ¥* -fa ■■■■!■■■■■ ■■•■j. 4T+MlB +-r-rairf W **rVV 

WV 4 RF WATTMETER 20-200MHZ . B4.0O 
RCS-4 REMOTE CONTROL ANTENNA 

SWITCH 120.00 

SPR^ SOLID STATE PROGRAMMABLE 

RECEIVER 629.00 

5NB NOISE BLANKER SPP-4 ...... 70.00 

DC/PC 12 VDC POWER CORD 5.00 

RY4 TELETYPE ADAPTER 20.00 

SCC-4 100HZ CALIBRATOR ...,., 20.00 

TA4THANSCEIVE ADAPTOR 35.00 

CRYSTAL KITS . . . WRITE 

SSR-1 GENERAL COVERAGE RECEIVER 

.5 TO 30.0 MHZ 350.00 

DC-PC POWER CORD 12V . 5.00 

HS 1 HEADPHONES DRAKE 

RECEIVER 10.00 

DSR-1 VLF-HF DIGITAL SYNTHESIZED 
COMMUNICATION LABORATORY RE 
CEIVER SSB, AM, CW P RTTY, ISB .2,950,00 

TV-200 HP HIGH PASS FILTER 7.9 5 

TV 42 LOW PASS FILTER 100 WATT 
PERFECT FOR CB AND LOW PASS POWER 

TRANSMITTERS 10.95 

TV-3300 LP LOW PASS FILTER 1 KW CON- 
TINUOUS TO 30MHZ 19.95 

7072 DRAKE HAND HELD MIKE . . 19.00 
7075 DRAKE DESK TOP MIKE WITH VOX 
SWITCH ....... ........,,.* + .+ ,, 39-00 

TEMPO 

2 020 SSB/AM TRANSCEIVER 10-B0M 

1 1 5 V/1 2VDC F/S r . . . 759.00 

9010 REMOTE VFO 2020 139.00 

3120 EXTERNAL SPEAKER 2020 . , , 29.95 
MODEL ONE TRANSCEIVER 80 10M399 00 

AC ONE POWER SUPPLY 99.00 

VF/ONE REMOTE VFO TEMPO ONE1 09.00 
FMH 2 METER HAND HELD 6 CH FM 

TRANSCEIVER 199.00 

VHF/ONE SYNTHESIZED DIGITAL 
READ OUT 2 METE R 10 WATT TRANS 

CE fVER 399.00 

VHF/ONE SSB ADAPTOR FOR TEMPO 

VHF/ONE 225.00 

130A10 AMPLIFIER 2M 130 OUT, 

10 IN 179.00 

S0A10 AMPLIFIER 2M, BO OUT, 

10 \N ,.**.... 139.00 

B0A10 AMPLIFIER 2M, 50 OUT, 

1 I N 99.00 

TENTEC 

540 TRITON IV TRANSCEIVER .. .699,00 
252G POWER SUPPLY TRITON IV . 109.00 
262G SAME AS ABOVE WITH VOX 129.00 

245 CW FILTER TRITON IV 25.00 

244 DIGITAL READ-OUT TRITON 



I V ...... , 1 9 7 .0 

249 NOISE BLANKER PLUG-IN .... 29.00 
242 REMOTE VFO TRITON IV 169.00 

240 CONVERTER 160 METERSTRITON 
IV. . , 97.00 

241 XTAL OSCILLATOR (MARS) ...29.00 
ARGONAUT 509 TRANSCEIVER .329.00 

210 POWER SUPPLY 1 AMP 27.50 

251 POWER SUPPLY 9 AMP _ . , 79.00 

405 LINEAR AMP 1 00W ARGON AUT159.O0 

206 XTAL CALIBRATOR ,, . .26.95 

205 ANTENNA TUNER , , 9.95 

208 CW FILTER ARGONAUT ...... 29.00 

215P . . . MICROPHONE TEN-TEC 

LINE 29 50 

KEYERS 

KR1-A PADDLE ASSEMBLY DUAL $25.00 
KR-2 PADDLE ASSEMBLY SINGLE . 15.00 
KR-5A SINGLE PADDLE KEYER 6 14 



V I— * V^ ■ ■■■■■ra«B*rvrrBBB>r-r-BBkB-Bi r -C O m 9 LJ 1 

KR-20A SINGLE PADDLE KEYER 

1 15VAC/6-14VDC - - - 67.50 

KR-50 ULTRAMATIC KEYER DUAL 
PADDLE 110.0O 

SWAN 

7D0CX TRANSCE IVER 64S,95 

117XC CONSOLE POWER SUPPLY . 159.95 

510X OSCILLATOR (MARS) 67.95 

VX 2 VOX 44.95 

FP 1 PHONE PATCH 64.95 

444 MICROPHONE ............... 34.50 

120OX LINEAR AMPLIFIER 1200 

WATTS 349.95 

MARK 1 1 WITH AC 110/220 AC P/S 

AND TUBES 849.95 

WM-2000 WATTMETER . . . 49 .95 

WM^3Q00 WATTMETER RMS 66.95 

SWR-1 POWER/SWR METER 0-1 KW 3,5-150 

MHZ SO 239 CONNECTORS 21.95 

45 ALL BAND MANUAL SWITCHING 1 KW 

MOBILE ANTENNA 114,95 

742 TRI-BAND 2G/40/75M ELECTRONIC 
TUNE AUTOMATIC BAND SWITCHING 

TB 2A BEAM 2 ELEMENT 129.95 

TB 3HA BEAM 3 ELEMENT 189.95 

TB-4HA BEAM 4 ELEMENT 249.95 

KLM ELECTRONICS 

MULTI 270O VHF TRANSCEIVER ALL 

MODE 143-149 MHZ 795.95 

LINEAR AMPLIFIERS FM/SSB 

PA2-70BL 1 -4 IN, 70 OUT 169.95 

PA10-4QBL 5-15 IN, 40 OUT 94.95 

PA1 0-1 40B L 5-1 5 IN , 1 40 OUT . . 21 5.95 
PA10 160BL 5-15 IN, 160 OUT . . 229.95 
PA30 140SL 15-45 IN, 140 OUT . 189.95 

KR^400 AZIMUTH ROTATOR KLM 109.95 

KR-500 ELEVATION ROTATOR 

KLM , 149.95 

WRITE FOR KLM ANTENNAS, UHF 

AMPLIFIERS 

SHURE 

444 MICROPHONE SSB DESK TOP WITH 

OFF-0N VOX SWITCH/PTT 34.50 

526T DEAK TOP MIKE WITH PRE AMP 
BUILT-IN . * + - , * . 36.50 

COR ROTORS 

HAM II ROTOR WITH CONTROL . . 139.50 
CD44 ROTOR WITH CONTROL .... 119.50 

AR 22 ROTOR WITH CONTROL 49.50 

B CONDUCTOR ROTOR CABLE ... 16# 
PER FOOT 

HY-GAIN ELECTRONICS 

MODEL 3750 SSB/CW TRANSCEIVER 10 
THRU 160 METER, DIGITAL READ- 
OUT . .$1 .895.00 

MODEL 3854 SPEAKER CONSOLE FOR 

■aJ dr a_P \J j.aGBjjnj.aaHBB^<aaiiai|^^ad.fi444.iH i_r a_H _ "aj a_P 

MODEL 3855 REMOTE VFO/XTAL DUAL 
FREQUENCY CONTROL FOR 3750 495.00 
MODEL 3806 AMATEUR 2 METER FM 6 
CHANNEL HANDIE TALKIE ... H . . 129.95 

MILLEN 

90652 SOLID STATE GRID DIPPER 
BATTER POWERED, 17 THRU 300 MHZ 
WITH PLUG -IN COILS . 13B.00 

92200 ANTENNA TRANSMATCH 2KW UN- 
BALANCED OR BALANCED 

MATCH _....,,..♦, ,._,.. 199,00 

92201 ANTENNA TRANSMATCH JR 300 
WATTS, UNBALANCED OR BALANCED 
MATCH 138,00 




P.O. BOX 100, HWY. 441, DEFT. 73 C, OTTO, NORTH CAROLINA 28763 



Top trades given on goad clean amateur gear, 
military avionic and ground radio equipment, 
and late type test equipment. Write for special 
package price on complete stations. We accept 
Master Charge. We pay shipping via LLP.S. or 
best way on all advertised items to 50 states 
and APO/FPO military. Export orders ship- 
ping extra. N.C. residents add 4% sales tax. 
Phone Bill Slep (704) 524-7519. 



167 



John H, Nelson 
4 Plymouth Drive 
Whiting N J 08759 



10 and II Meter Predictions 



- - buy your stock now 



For the past several 
months, I have been 
planning to write an article 
on the next sunspot cycle 
(which, by the way, appears 
to have started last Novem- 
ber, very slowly) and its 
effect on CB radio. But 
prudence has held me back. I 
have lived with the sun 
through three high sunspot 
periods as the Propagation 
Analyst for RCA Communi- 
cations and have learned to 
have a great deal of respect 
for the whims of this greu 
ball of atomic fire. However, 
I have today thrown caution 
to the wind and have decided 
to go through with it Some 
stories that have appeared in 
newspapers and magazines 
recently are responsible loi 
this change of mind. 

The stories that I have 
read were telling the CBers 
that their band (11 meters) is 
likely to be in a shambles 
during the next sunspot high 
due to long distance co-chan- 
nel interference on account 
of sunspots and that the 
CBers will be all fouled up. I 
do not agree with this pes 
simistic view. If the forth- 
coming high was going to be 
like the high we had in 
1957 58, I would tend to 
agree with them somewhat, 
but I do nut think that it is. 
In fact, I expect the next high 
period, which should run 
from 1 979 to 1 982, to be the 
lowest we have had since the 
early 1 800's. 

I estimate that the yearly 
mean of the forthcoming 



cycle high of 1979-82 will be 
about 20 to 25 spots higher 
than the cycle high that took 
place between 1802 to 1805. 
I have increased the number 
by 20 to 25 because the 
astronomers will probably 
count more spots today with 
better telescopes than the 
astronomers did in the early 
180Q's. The comparison is 
given in Table 1. 

My own experience with 
sunspot numbers and fre- 
quency variations has indi- 
cated to me that a count of 
90 to 100 is necessary to 
bring the 10 and 11 meter 
band into operation with any 
degree of consistency, ah 
though temporary bursts of 
sunspot activity can bring it 
to life for shorter periods of 
time. Old time hams are, of 
course, well acquainted with 
the relationship that exists 
between sunspot numbers 
and the maximum usable 
frequency (MUF), and no 
doubt many of the CBers are 
also, but for the benefit of 
those who do not know this, 
perhaps a few words of ex- 
planation are in order. 

Ultraviolet radiations from 
the sun create and sustain the 
ionosphere, which makes it 
possible to communicate over 



great distances with high fre- 
quency radio (HF). Since 
sunspots radiate very strongly 
in UV P it stands to reason 
that the more sunspots 
the sun produces, the 
stronger the ionosphere will 
be, A strong ionosphere will 
reflect back to earth the 
higher frequencies and, if 
there are enough of them, the 
27 and 28 MHz band of 
frequencies {10 and 11 
meters) can be used for 
communication over vast 
distances — often six to eight 
thousand miles. And this they 
can do with very low powci 
When sunspots are scarce, 
these frequencies are usually 
^>od for short distances only. 
When operational, the 10 
and 11 meter bands of fre- 
quencies are at their best 
when the sun is shining on 
both the transmitter and the 
receiver at the same hour. 
They are rarely useful for 
long distances when a part, or 
all, of the ionosphere is in 
darkness between the trans- 
mitter and the receiver. In 
addition to a sunspot number 
effect upon the MUF r there is 
also a very pronounced 
seasonal effect. For any given 
sunspot number, the iono- 
sphere will reflect a higher 



RECORDED 


PREDICTED 


COMPARED WIT 


Year count 


Year 


count 


Year 


count 


1802 45 


1979 


65-70 


1956 


142 


1803 43 


1980 


63^8 


1957 


190 


1804 48 


1981 


68-73 


1958 


185 


1805 42 


1982 


62^7 


1959 


159 



Table h 



frequency in December than 
it will in June ... all the 
winter months are higher 
than the summer months. 

I have the actual fre- 
quency records on com- 
mercial radio circuits for June 
and December, 1968, wherein 
the highest useful frequency 
was recorded every two hours 
of the day, June, 1968, had a 
mean sunspot number of 110 
and the average of the highest 
frequency useful during the 
daylight hours was 22.2 MH, . 
while in December with a 
mean sunspot number also of 
1 10, the average of the high- 
est frequency useful during 
daylight hours was 253 MHd> 
In June, the highest fre* 
quency during the month was 
26 MHz, and that appeared 
for only one day. In Decem- 
ber, the highest frequency 
was also 26 MH/, but was 
useful for 18 days. These 
recordings were taken on high 
speed commercial circuits 
working at 240 wpm (four 60 
wpm teletypes on multiplex) 
and had to provide good copy 
for several hours per day. 
Circuits with less stringent 
performance parameters 
could be used above 26 MH/; 
therefore, we can say that 26 
MHz was not the full MUF, 
but it was close. 

We will now pick a year 
with about 70 sunspots in 
December and analyze thai 
for the December frequencies 
under these sunspot condi- 
tions. The sunspot number 
records show that December. 
1966, had a sunspot count of 
70. M frequency records 
show that the monthly 
average of the highest fre- 
quencies used was 21.5 MH/, 
with 24 MHz being the high- 
est, but it appeared for only 
one day during the month. 
The next highest was 22 
MHz, which appeared in the 
records for 16 days. This 
gives us an idea of what to 
expect during the winter 
months of the next sunspot 
high if my predictions are 
fight* 

An interesting comparison 
can be made for December, 
1957, with a sunspot number 
of 239. The records show 



168 



that the monthly average of 
the highest daylight fre- 
quency observed was 27 
MHz. The highest frequency 
observed for the month was 
28 MHz (the ham band fre* 
quency of 28 MHz was 
checked every day to see if it 
was there). We had no way of 
knowing what the real MUF 
was, however, because of 
frequency limitations. Also, 
these observations were made 
on east-west transatlantic 
circuits. 

A ham friend of mine read 



this manuscript up to the end 
of the preceding paragraph. 
When he had finished, he 
turned to me and said, "Well, 
what's it gonna be? You fore- 
casters are ail alike — ambig- 
uous and evasive, nobody can 
pin you down/ 1 (This fellow 
was an insurance agent — 
imagine an insurance agent 
calling somebody else 
ambiguous.) He told me to 
put my neck on the block. So 
here it is, October to Febru- 
ary, 1979/1982, daylight 
paths only on east-west cir- 



cuits: 

A The 10 meter band (28 

MHz) 

This band will be spot* 
ty, coming to life with 
periodic bursts of sun- 
spot activity. Far below 
1958 and 1968 quali- 
ties, 

B. The 11 meter band (27 

MHz) 

The CBers will not have 
any important co-chan- 
nel interference prob- 
lems (unless somebody 
decides to put his on a 



high gain antenna). 
G The 15 meter band (21 
MHz) 

This band will be the 

workhorse band for 

DX. 
D. The 20 meter band (14 
MHz) 

This band will also be 
useful as a secondary 
workhorse band and 
with performance 
pretty close to that of 
the 15 meter band. 
Forecast completed 
December, 1 976, ■ 





Attention ATV*ers — Video Tape Re- 
corders For Sale. Time lapse and reel 
time machines All in working condition. 
Send SASE for prices, models, etc., to 

DICTOGRAPH SECURITY 

SYSTEMS 

26 Columbia Turnpike 

Florham Park N J 07932 

ATTN: Room 113/Dave Griffiths 



THE BIGGEST LITTLE MANIFEST 
IN AMERICA 

Will De held March 19 & 20, 1977 in 
Vero Beach, FL. Make your plans to 
attend the Treasure Coast Ham f est now, 
PRIZES - Atlas 210 with console 
and an Icom 22 S. 

Tickets $2 advance, $3 at door. For 
more information write: 

2226 11th Lane 
Vero Beach FL 32960 



MULTI-BAND DIPOLE TRAPS 
Pace-Traps are the key devices required 
to build the all band Trap-DIpole 
depicted in recent issues of the ARRL 
Handbook. Two models available. NG 
Series {For Novice Gallon) — $14.95 pr. 
FG Series (For Legal Limit) - $16.95 
pr. Pace- Sola tor (Weather -Proof No- 
Solder Center Insulator) - $4.95 ea. 
Shipped postpaid in U.S.A. Check or 
M.O.to: 

PACE-TRAPS 
Upland Rd.. MiddLebury CT 06762 







Best for beginners . . . preferred by pro's] 

NYE VIKING SPEED-X 

^ _M> Model 114-310-003 

$8.25 

One of 8 models, 
all sure-handed * , , 
smooth operating 
. . . priced from 
$6.65. 

NYE VIKING SUPER SQUEEZE KEY 

Fast, comfortable, easy . , • and tunt 

Model SSK-1 (shown) 

$23.95 

Model SSK-3 (has 
sub-base to hold 
any SPEED-X Key). 

$26.95 




Whether you're a "brass pounder" or a "s*6e swiper 7 ' 
insist on the sure, smooth feel, and the k>og-4asting 
quality that is buitt into every NYE VIKING KEY, 

Bf tw manufacturer of NYE VIKING Low Pass 
Fitters, Phone Parches and Antenna Im- 
pecfence-malchtng Tuners. 

Available at leading dealers or write 

WM. M. NYE COMPANY, INC. 

1614 - 130th Ave. N.E., Bettevue, WA 96005 




talk 
paper 




Scono-tine* 



Quality tor an Economy Price 

Solid Slate Construction 
Linear Switch (FM/SSB) 
Broad Band 




Model Input Output 


Typical 


Frequency 


Price 


702 10W-20W 50W-9OW 


10W in/70 Wouf 


143-149MH2 


$139.00 


702 B 1W SW BOW-SOW 


1Win/70Wout 


143-149MHZ 


$169.00 



Now get TPL COMMUNICATIONS quality and 
reliability al an economy price. The solid state construc- 
tion, featuring magnetically coupled transistors and a 
floating ground, gives you an electronically protected 
amplifier that should last and last. 

The Linear Bias Switch allows you to operate on either 
FM or SSB. The 702 and 702B are exceptionally well 
suited for 2- meter SSB. Typical power output levels as 
high as i00W PEP can be achieved with the proper drive. 

The broad band frequency range means that your 
amplifier is immediately ready to use. No tuning is 
required fo f the entire 2-meter band and adjacent MARS 
channels on TPL's new Seono-tlne . 

See these great new additions to the TPL COM- 
MUNICATIONS product line at your favorite radio dealer. 

Catt or write tor prices and in for- 
rnatton on TPL*s complete fine of 
amateur and commercial amplifiers 

COMMUNICATIONS INC. 

1324 W. 135TH ST., GARDEN*, CA 90247 *(213) 538-9314 

Conodn: A£-SiMfnndft & S«fi* Lh!_, 285 Ywfclmd Blvd., Witlo*dol*, OntniaMJJ 1S8 
Export | EM£C Inc., 2350 Swih 30*, i^nu*, HhIIahJciI*. Ha. 3300$ 




169 




visiting views from around the globe 



from page 1 1 

had, along with a good idea of how his 
rig could be identified (off frequency, 
lousy quality, and cold solder joints). 



Sorry, Dave; just kidding. 

It turns out that Dave's follow- 
through was of great interest to the 
police in Hanover. It appears that the 
"Bad Guy" was a suspect in a number 



of unsolved cases, and they had never 
had enough evidence to search his 
home. With the information that Dave 
and the 07/67 "Mission Impossible 
Team" furnished, a Heathkit two 
meter rig was recovered, along with a 
few C8 rigs and a stofen gun. I 
understand the investigation even led 
to recovery of several thousands of 
dollars of household items and put an 
end to a housebreak ring in the South 
Shore. 

So to those of you who may 



encounter a "breaker/' play it cool 
, . . give him the low key approach, 
and then pass the Information along 
to the proper authority. Who knows, 
you might catch a thief . . . 

By the way, the 2,000,000 to I 
odds did pay off . It was Dave's rig and 
he has it back on the air (except for 
when he leaves his car, he is the guy 
seen wandering around the South 
Shore with a Heathkit under hisarml. 

Breaker, breaker six . . . 10-4, good 
buddy. 



Bandwidth 
Revisited 



It appears that the FCC is at tt 
again. The controversial "bandwidth" 
proposal, Docket 20777, has been 
sheEved for the present time. FCC 
Chief Engineer Ray Spence indicated 
to 73 that a terge amount of amateur 
interest has been generated by the 
proposed docket This proposal would 
have, among other things, excluded 
AM from segments of the low bands 
and restricted bandwidth in the 
420-450 spectrum to 35 kHz, thus 
banishing ATV as it now exists. 

Spence indicated that a large 
amount of the comments were 
critical, especially those from the 
ATV enthusiasts. It was indicated that 
the FCC will develop another proposal 
concerning bandwidth; however, 
Spence said it would be "quite a 
while" before action is taken. 

73 has received a considerable 
amount of input from interested hams 
concerning the bandwidth docket 
Much r much more data is required, as 
we are being given a golden oppor- 
tunity by the FCC to create our own 
proposal concerning bandwidth and 
the whole general topic of amateur 
radio deregulation. We at 73 are pre- 
pared to act as a clearinghouse for 



comments, proposals, and suggestions 
relating to amateur deregulation. The 
bandwidth question is presently the 
hot subject. However, please do not 
overlook other aspects of deregula- 
tion, such as repeater rules relaxation. 
( Refer to this month's "Briefs" in 73.) 
Let's get going! Talk up deregulation 
and bandwidth proposals at dub 
meetings and over the air — the ball is 
back in our hands. Organize your 
thoughts on paper, and send them to 
73. 

A questionnaire is being prepared 
by the 73 staff concerning repeater 
coordination, deregulation, and band- 
width. This will initially be sent to 
those who originally commented on 
20777. Repeater coordinators will 
also receive a form, as well as the 
clubs listed in our files. Any individual 
or club requesting a questionnaire 
should write 73, marking the card or 
letter ''Bandwidth Questionnaire." 

In a few weeks (time is short), we 
will compile a proposal based upon 
your suggestions. This will appear in 
73 and will aid us in our conversations 
with the FCC, Start planning! 

John MolnarWB2ZCF 
73 Magazine Staff 



Amateur 
Antidote 



"Break . . , Emergency . . . 
ZP5NP," That distress call broke into 
what had been an ordinary day for 
amateur George B. Riley, who was on 
a QSO with several other hams in the 
Virgin islands from his home in 
Linden NJ* 

Riley, an engineering supervisor at 
WOR-TV In New York City, became a 
link in a communication chain to the 
Food and Drug Administration's 
Mat ion al Clearinghouse for Poison 
Control Centers in Sethesda MD. 

ZP5MP was Paraguayan Army 
Sargeant Nelson Guadalope, who was 
attempting to connect with any 
American ham who could reach 
proper medical authorities to aid in 
treating a six year old girl who had 
swallowed a chemical herbicide 
known asTributon. 

A local doctor had originally 
treated the girl for a severe cold. Only 
after she had become gravely ill had 
the doctor discovered that she had 
drunk the poison. The doctor needed 
information about the ingredients in 
Tributon and was unable to get it 
locally. So he turned to the U.S. for 
aid. 



While still in contact with ZP5NP 
via another amateur in the Virgin 
Islands, Riley was able to contact the 
FDA's Division of Poison Control 
where pharmacist Larry Trissel had 
just reported for duty. Trissel con- 
sulted his index cards where products 
are listed alphabetical ty by brand or 
generic name. After some initial 
confusion over the spelling of the 
product, the ingredients and proper 
treatment were found. 

Only about ten minutes had passed 
between Riley's original call to the 
hospital and the prescription of treat- 
ment. However, transmission diffi- 
culties delayed the relay of the infor- 
mation to Paraguay by almost an 
hour. Nevertheless, the information 
was received in time to save the girl's 
life- 

Riley later received a letter from 
the U,S + ambassador thanking him for 
helping in the girl's recovery, Through 
Riley's efforts, amateur radio received 
valuable publicity. 

James Wilson 

Reprinted from The Catholic Digest 
January, I977 t The art/cle originally 
appeared in the FDA Consumer, 



Trevose Tower -Plus Eight 



It was back in June of 1969 that 
Preston Funk had his famous tower 
built in his backyard at 4860 Magnolia 
Avenue in Trevose. 

The tower is 229 feet tall ft has 
become a landmark in more ways than 
one in the nearly Vk years since it was 
constructed. 

It seems as though there have been 
as many hearings to decide what to do 
about the tower as there are feet in its 
height. 

A neighbor of Funk's started a long 
list of complaints shortEy after the 
tower was finished and Funk began 
using it for his PJ ham" radio opera- 



tions. 

The neighbor complained he was 
receiving radio signals from Funk's 
station over his home radio, television 
set, and telephone. 

The Federal Communications Com 
mission got into the proceedings. The 
FCC suggested a complaint also be 
filed with its office in Philadelphia. 
The FCC also told Funk's neighbor 
that a filter of the proper kind 
installed on the TV set would elim- 
inate the interference. 

20 Meetings 

In the first year, there were more 



than 20 meetings held by Bensalem 
governing bodies in an attempt to 
clarify the situation. That number has 
doubled. 

There are more than 90 stories in 
the files of the Bucks County Courier 
Times concerning the tower since it 
was completed around June 25, 1970. 

On March 25, 1970, the Bensalem 
Township Zoning Hearing Board 
ordered Funk to take down his tower. 

As anyone who has driven by the 
imposing structure lately can see, it 
still is there, poking its way into the 
sky. 

In May of 1974, a Bucks County 



Court ruled against Funk's appeal in 
March, 1970, agreeing; with the Ben- 
salem z oners that the tower had to 
come down. 

He followed his defeat in the Sucks 
court by appealing to the Common- 
wealth Court of Pennsylvania. In 
February of 1975, the state court, 
too, ruled the tower should come 
down. 

Helping Victims 

In between the two court rulings 
and appeals, Funk's ham radio station 
proved its worth. 

When Hurricane Agnes brought the 
state's worst flood in June of 1972, 
hundreds of people made use of 
Funk's ham radio facilities to send 
messages to relatives in the flood- 
stricken areas. 

Later, when earthquakes devastated 
Managua, Nicaragua, Funk again acted 
as a go-between for messages to and 
from the stricken area. 

Meanwhile, new homes have gone 



170 



up on Magnolia Avenue. One of them 
is direct I v across the street from 
Funk's tower. Mr, and Mrs. Edward H. 
Kolb live There, 

Mrs, Kolb said today, "We moved 
from Philadelphia about a year and a 
half ago. I see the tower every day. 
It's right across the street. But it 
doesn't bother me. And we haven't 
had any interference problems on our 
television or radio." 



A few houses down the street, 
Charles W, Conley echoed Mrs. Kola's 
remarks, "No, we haven't had any 
trouble, either, The tower doesn't 
bother me at all." 

Hearing Rescheduled 

Last nigh i, the Bensalem Township 
Zoning Hearing Board scheduled 
another meeting to hear Funk's bid 
for a variance that would allow his 
tower to remain up. despite the 



adverse rulings by the courts, 

This hearing was postponed from 
April, scheduled for May, when it was 
postponed again — until last night. 

Two members of the board 
couldn't make the meeting. So, once 
again, a decision on Funk's tower has 
been put off. 

On hand last night were a lawyer or 
two, a reporter, a couple of persons 
who had other business to transact 



with the zoning board, but no specta- 
tors. 

It would appear Preston Funk and 
his tower have outlasted the opposi- 
tion. After 714 years, even Muhammad 
Ali would get weary of battling the 
same foe. 

Reprinted from Courier Times, Bristol 
PA, November 18, 1976. Thanks to 
X-MITTER, Journal of the Penn Wire- 
less Association, Bristol PA. 



Simultaneous observations by three 
satellites have confirmed that long 
waves m the earth *s magnetic field, 
which spread the disruptive effects of 
magnetic Storms on earth, are gener- 
ated far out in space by energetic 
particles from the sun, 

Drs, Joseph N. Barfield of the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, R\L. McPherron of 
the University of California at Los 
Angeles, and WJ. Hughes of London's 
Imperial College, reported the results 
of their satellite measurements at the 
fall annual meeting of the American 
Geophysical Union in San Francisco 
early in December. 

They found that the low frequency 
waves are generated by the solar wind, 
the constant stream of energetic parti- 
cles that flows outward from the sun. 
When the solar wind strikes the 
magneto pause (the boundary where 
the earth's magnetic field loses its 
dominance and bows to the sun f s), it 
generates waves in much the same way 
as wind does over water, according to 
Barfield. These waves travel earth- 
ward, enter a "resonant region" where 
they are amplified, and propagate 
down to the ground. In ways that are 
still poorly understood, they are 
involved in magnetic disturbances, 
which disrupt communication and 
power transmission on earth. 

But they also have some pragmatic 
uses, fn oil and mineral exptoration. 
By monitoring the waves as they 
travel through different spots on 
earth, prospectors can learn something 
about the substructure, such as the 
location of ore bodies. Paradoxically, 
the waves may also aid communica- 
tion. Since they penetrate the ocean. 



LF-Still Many Questions 



they may someday be used to com* 
muni cats with submarines, which now 
have to surface to make contact 

Hughes, Barfieid, and McPherron 
detected the waves from magne- 
tometers aboard three satellites in 
synchronous orbit 22 T 200 miles 
{35,720 kilometers) above the earth, 
the first time several sate Kites had 
been used to make such measurements 
simultaneously. The environmental 
satellites SMS 1 and SMS- 2. and 
ATS 6, a research satellite, are «n a 
line along the earth's equator, each 
orbiting at a speed that keeps it poised 
above the same spot on earth. Hughes, 
BarfieW, and McPherron used this 
satellite arrangement to determine the 
origin of the electromagnetic waves. 

The magneto pause curves around 
the sunward side of the earth, with a 
"nose" pointing toward the sun. The 
three space scientists predicted that if 
the low frequency waves were gen- 
erated at the "nose/' as they believed, 
the first satellite to detect the 
descending wave front should be the 
one closest to the sun at the time. 
They found that the wave front did 
pass each satellite in the predicted 
order. 

The satellite measurements also 
showed how the waves are amplified 



and propagated, according id Barfiefd, 
a researcher with NOAA's Space 
Environment Laboratory {one of the 
Commerce Department agency's 
Environmental Research Labora- 
tories). Originally, it was thought thai 
the lines of force of the earth's 
magnetic field would vibrate like a 
guitar string, setting up the waves. 

Early ground-based observations 
also had suggested that as a wave 
generated at the magneto pause travels 
inward toward earth, its amplitude 
decreases until "it reaches a certain 
altitude, a "resonance region/* where 
it is amplified. 

The three satellites are located right 
at this resonance region. "For the first 
time we could look at things right 
where they were happening, with 
multiple probes," Barfield said. 
Measurements from the satellites con- 
firmed the existence of the resonance 
region by observing the change in 
amplitude of descending waves. The 
"guitar string" theory was not all 
wrong, but the waves do not originate 
at a magnetic field Line; they are 
amplified there. "A wave travels earth 
ward until it finds a magnetic field 
line that responds to the particular 
frequency of the wave," McPherron 
explained. This is the resonance 



region. 

The scientists used the amplitude 
changes of the waves to infer some of 
the characteristics of the resonance 
region. By noting how changes in 
amplitude of the waves differ between 
the satellites, the researchers found 
that the resonance region is very 
narrow on a magnetospheric scale — 
about 750 miles (1,200 kilometers) 
thick. 

The next step in the research, 
according to Barfield, is to look at the 
characteristics of the waves; what are 
the spatial limits of where these waves 
occur and how do they relate to focal 
features of magnetic disturbances 7 

The scientists hope to study the 
wave frequencies to Learn something 
about how matter is distributed along 
magnetic field lines. First, it is neces- 
sary to calibrate the waves-to learn 
what different wave characteristics 
perceived at earth reveal about what is 
going on farther out in space. For 
that, the satellites, with their direct 
measurements, are needed, But later, 
it may be possible to use the waves 
that reach earth to study the magnetic 
field thousands of miles above. 

Louise A. Purrett 
Boulder CO 



The other day, listening on 75 
meters, I came across a QSO that 
really jostled me. Two fellows were 
discussing the "sorry" state of ham 
radio. "All I do is work the same 
people, night after night" said one 
guy. His buddy replied that he "was 
having more fun on the way to work 
in the morning on the CB band." I've 
been listening to those two for years, 
and they never leave 75. Night after 
night the same QRM, the same dull 
conversation, and the same holding 
pattern. 

It made me a little angry to hear 
them blaming ham radio for their 
fading Interest. Neither of them {as 
near as I can telll ever venture off 75, 
and until a year ago, they were 
running AM day and night, with the 
expected results. When the going got 
tough, they just kept on transmitting, 
carrier and all, trying to cover the 30 
or 40 miles between them on a fre- 
quency filled with 9s and 5s. I guess it 



never occured to them to QSY to 10 
or 15 when nighttime conditions on 
75 got too rough. Or, how about VHF 
coutdn't they make it on 2 meter 
direct? 

The real hangup these fellows seem 
to have is no interest in trying some of 
the other activities ham radio has to 
offer. Neither of them apparently 
realiies they could listen for OSCAR, 
and key a 2m HT to get into it. They 
probably never thought of running 
QRP, or trying 160m, either. And 
they both will probably continue until 
their dying gasps, squeaking out 50% 
QSOs on 75, 

There has to be a way to save these 
guys, Otherwise they will be lost 
forever, just iike those 64 thousand 
some odd satellite frequencies lost in 
the last WARC Maybe we're loo 
involved in puNing new amateurs into 
the fold, and are passing by hundreds 
of old -timers who've been buried in 
new technology. 



On the Verge 



When I think of all the things those 
two are missing out on, I feel kind of 
sad. It's the same feeling I have when I 
think of 19 CBers in the Baltimore- 
Washington area facing federal 
charges, because they tried the easy 
way into ham radio. The HFers, as 
they call themselves, may have the 
upper hand in numbers (when you 
consider the meager forces of the 
FCC). But sooner or later they will be 
caught, and I wonder how many 



Novice or other class amateurs will be 
among them. 

The SSB outlaws and 75m hangers- 
on both have the same problem, Their 
collective tack of incentive must be a 
reflection of their lives, They stand on 
the verge of afl ham radio has to offer, 
but take the easy way out . . . whether 
it be complacency or lawlessness- 
Think about it 

Warren Etly WA1GUD 
Associate Editor 



171 



->:oo. y& '\i* ft 



4 



^ V { ■ ^ f v 










5 5 ■ h s h ;" % i ; 



from page 111 

ability of 30-50 MHz commercial 
equipment, I'd like to see more activi- 
ty on this channel. 

I've been monitoring 29.6 for the 
last 3 years, and [ can tell you that 10 
is open much more often than most 
hams believe, How about it OMs? 
More 29.6! 

Michael R. Downing WB601M 
Canoga Park CA 91306 



A LITTLE PUSHING 



: 



I would like to take this opportu- 
nity to commend the author of 
"Hutchinson's Remedy/' an article 
which appeared in the Holiday issue 
of this magazine. VE3CWY did an 
excellent job describing his cure to 
VFO chirp. The article was concise, 
explanatory, and interesting to read. 

It seems this article could be a hit 
with those who don't like to use ICs 
and other solid state components, yet 
want to cure their home brewed VFO 
of chirp, 

This is the type of article I believe 



will be popular among some 73 
readers, who want practical applica- 
tions for these new ICs, etc., to make 
them use them — | know I am one 
who needs a little pushing in this 
direction. 

JohnPilson WA1UZK 
Saunderstown Rl 

INSPIRATION 

I want to thank you for sending me 
your recent advertisement It has 
inspired me anew. 

For years now I have negEected my 
ham radio hobby, yet I continued to 
pursue Studies of electronics which 
opened the door for a very rewarding 
career. 1 owe it all to a couple of "old 
hams" and publications such as yours 
for sparking a desire within me to 
want to know! 

Now, more than ever before, I feel 
the need for promoting, practicing, 
and enjoying one of the most stimu 
lating hobbies ever conceived. Perhaps 
I can spark that "want to know" in 
someone through ham radio and its 
many facets that have touched. 



changed, and made more rich our 
I ives. 

Keep up the good work and much 
luck to you in your efforts, 

Kenneth R, {Randy) Lewis WB4NIH 

Summervilte SC 



HELPING OUT 



I am presently studying to get my 
Novice class license and your 
magazine and its articles are really 
helping me out. I've tried to read and 
understand QST, but find it very hard 
for someone who wants to become a 
ham. I know that your magazine can 
do a lot for someone who wants to 
become a ham. 

Louis Zimmerman 
Mexico City 



THE ABOVE MENTIONED 

Just thought I would drop a few 
fines and let you know how much I 
enjoy the construction articles in 73. 
Just finished building K20AW's 
11C90 prescaler as well as the solid 
state subaudible encoder in your Dec, 
'76 issue. 

I do wish that all your authors who 
go to the trouble to build PC boards 
for their construction articles would 
provide layouts for duplication such 
as the above mentioned did. 

Although I do believe that micro 
processors and such are the way of the 
future, 1 think the bulk of your I/O 



articles would be better suited for 
your new publication Kilobaud and 
not taking up space in an amateur 
publication. 

Allen Jones K9DZE 
Michigan City IN 



][ 



QUICK. CLEAN HEAT 



] 



How come you don't have a regular 
Hints & Kinks column? Would seem 
to complement your "Circuits" sec- 
tion which \ like so well. 

Anyway, my idea that I'd like to 
share is keeping one of the throwaway 
butane cigarette lighters like the 
Cricket with my shrink tubing. lt J s a 
fine source of quick clean heat. 

JohnDieboldW7SCU 
Seattle WA 



ANOTHER CHARTER 

At it again, eh? Some people chase 
butterflies. Some collect stamps, 
others dabble in the stock market, 
And still others seek Billy Holliday 
Records. 

But you! None of the above are 
good enough for you. Your hobby is 
starting magazines! No complaint, 
mind you, Just an observation. 

I can't complain. As a 73 lifer and a 
(forgive me) charter flyrer, I feel I'm 
ahead of the game. Add me to the list 
of charter subscribers to Kilobaud. 

Ralph O* Irish Jr. 
UticaNY 



Same day shipment 

First line parts only. Factory 
tested. Guaranteed money 
back Quality ICs and other 
components at factory prices 

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 



JMGTTL 




5M74QQN 


w 


SN74S3H 


IT 


SN74A4N 


19 


$nti\m 


17 


SH?IHH 


o 


EN7JUBN 


it 


SNH17N 


iU 


$JfJ*?0l* 


17 


SN!43£lhi 


JO 


3NM3AH 


.K 


SN7«QN 


17 


SNlM^N 


60 


£N?1#}N 


.17 


6NHT3N 


» 


SNT474N 


33 


5N7475N 


4B 


6H749CN 


45 


SfWlW 


.*& 


5»M59N 


*fl 


IzflM&N 


7* 


SNUlOC*) 


i'j 


Sltf+IQTIN 


.39 


SH7+1S1H 


.35 


SN?*lMN 


.59 


SnWUSK 


JB 


5NJA1&0N 


.95 


SN?Ji1JlN 


.75 


SNMl^fc 


MB 


SNF+liHI 


.» 


5N7+174 K 


«.< 


simi™ 


tt 


Sh74133.H 


if. 



maim 

£N7*| KBlN 
SN7*LSWN 
KN74LS&4*! 

3N/*L5ffJl 

;» ":iS2fl'4 
SN7*l.£7*t| 

5H741S9W 
S*7*LSS3N 

SN^L&liTH 



,34 
.34 
.39 
.33 
.39 
.34 
.34 
39 
.59 
.75 
I 10 
■ ij 
I.H 
MB 
1fl0 



SN^L&IWl ?.» 



LINEAR 
CA3D92 
CAMS9 



l.H 
3 60 



LM30UM 
I.H3C-AH 
LM3C7N 
IMOOBN 

imtm 

LUCttN 

t«asBh 

LMStt#-S 

LMSflDt-S 

LM340T-I5 

LM343H 

iwm 

LM36&M 
L«7l0« 

LM733K 

LH74H:H 

UffilN 

LMISfllt 

LMIM1? 

I MlinflflN 

NE54IW. 

NE5&5V 

NES6S* 
NttMY 
NE5B7V 

CMDR 

CH34CH3 Till 
C&4001 
CW0K 

awsn 

HH(J!2 
CW013 

ccnoifl 

i:oao2n 

OH 036 
CD4&27 
CD4ttMJ 
CWWS 
CJHKO 
CD4MB 
UM(?7i 
DMQT2 
014073 
GW07S 
CIMWI 
LOW 



35 
35 
J? 

B9 

45 

! 35 

f.U 

t 55 

' (j!J 

1 bQ 

1.50 

*35 

i.40 

1» 

K 

44 

S9 

3& 

» 

T» 
U 

» 

J. Mi 

43 
IM 
l.OO 

Us 

» 
H 

•J'i 

m 

2b 
t.a 

t.35 

,BS 

3.B5 

8? 
At 
.» 

55 
.411 
.*> 

40 

4b 
.« 
.40 
.40 



RO. Box 4430M Santa Clara, C A 95054 

(408) 988-1640 

TERMS: $5.00 minimum Drder U.S. luids. Calllornia 
residents add &%1ax. BankAmericard and Waster 
Charge accepted. * FREE: Send tor your 
copy of our 1977 QUEST CATALOG. 

include 

stamp. 



«Moioe 

CEH01K 
74CO0 

r4t» 

T4CU 

74G4A 

74C74 

74C15Q 

74*19? 

new 

7*(S» 

74CK6 

SU--T 

WW 

•..■-.- 

SI»5 
EDOB 

m? 
in 



S.tft 

}.K> 

.7i 

3.00 

;■ iii 
i.n 

i:i -.t. 
m.» 
19-50 

1.35 

5.95 

1.1Q 

2.75 

2 7i 

2.7-5 

2.75 

7^ 

.15 

.ft 

7S 



HQS/MEMOnT HAM 



2101 

21B2-1 

2lfl7B 

JlLDS-1 

2112-5 

?hl3H 

MViS'BE. 

IM52SZ 

MMSSiB 

HH532B 

MM533D 

PMV 

H02A 

ttassa 

HS2K133 

mam 
K&aisa 

C-W577 



4.M 
■DO 

1« 

2 50 

7 3D 

IIHW 

2 2D 

W 

B;« 

5.36 
«74 

11.00 
Jf.00 

3.a 

4.00 

Jl: 
iB5 



ELECTRONICS 



rc sockets 
Soldir Tin Lup rtalrt 
PIN tUP PIS 1UF 



CtOCK MODULES 
rcrrplili: duck mmluie iniiiiij 
Innslnrnmi a-« SmliVMS 
MAI MM. C. IV ttSE 
102^3 Tr^al'ofmiir 3.35 

widioe .nor 11.% 



B 


15 


24 


■r 


14 


Ifi 


n 


4:1 


IB 


20 


3d 


Sfl 


10 


27 


44 


61 


32 


..35 







DISfUT LCDS 



MAN1 

MAK3 

MAhU 

MAhIT? 

MAhl7i 

DL7D4 

DL.70? 

0L737 

mi*? 

1^0355 

' vj-a 

FNMIO 
HIDBDT 



I."'. 
EC 
CO 
CA 
i-.C 

It 

■;.•. 
:a 
DC 
:;c 
;,\ 
CC; 



.270 
.T!!S 

■!' 

ai^'i 

.300 

aco 

.300 

500 

«M 
.357 
500 
5DD 
BOO 
5M 



TJ&40 (Vs^S 



2 OT 

33 

I 9S 

! :,n 

1 511 
■ M 
■• !"■ 

??5 
95 
t.flO 
! DO 
1.9(1 
1.M 

2 90 



KSXER BMi 14 US 
|[KAl4Hfip« tf!d 3D[>Hl 

□at» Me»H 
4ning«mHlIII 
Kit Inar mot. 1D.09 
faeUlt HM1B-5 7 W 

MICdOFPflCESSCR 
Km writ, MB ! 9 DO 
BDBDA *ih dall 23.50 



W57-7?*il HEX Bi.75 
>"jia:: 125 in. dimity 39 



CfllfSTALS 
I MHi 4.» 

4 hkHt 

i VHr 
! D MHj 
IBMHj 

32Utfa 



4M 

4,25 
IB 

4J5 
1 K 

■i y.t 

■i K 

•raw MHi 

TVUJttCKIPS 
M^MffleGinirC3t9 
MWiJ?&4 Cock Dnviir 
LMIOBS-Modulnisr 
(ilAVIBSfiO 1 24 50 



&55M 
■ itf? 
2 09715? 
:■ <-W, 
3.27B0 
&.0918 
B.1A5 
5,7X43 
1Bi» 

22.1 m 

I Bfl 



i 50 
4 &D 
MS 
T.5D 
7 5D 
4.50 
4.5D 
4.50 
150 



5212 
■B224 
; ..'^ 
C0P1M?£tl 

Us«rt mmuE 

CLOCKS 
MUUOB 

MM53H 
MMS312 

HM5313 

MMS3H 

MM5315 

MUSJ1S 

MM53B 

MMS7WA 

UMS375AB 

MU5341 

TTTD01 

D5CCS5CK 
72DE 



4.50 
B 50 
3 50 
39.50 
750 



4.00 

a.flo 

4.BD 
S.86 

3.BD 
4. DO 
iS.35 
M0 
3» 
*.« 

1D.«0 
5 00 

o.ao 

3..7S 
14.75 



ias bU A in CDffVEffTEfl 

573DCW IB 00 

LD1M 13 75 



RiClDIB 15 

Giend TOiS- 20 

Dmline TOSO 2D 

T'ntow -01ft 2D 

.lum»Rr3 2D 

jumbo Gran 25 

Jgmbp QfUig* 25 

lumt ^ Vilta* 25 

* jIIbII, 7 luiirilon 
ElDpnaKhtlmnr, iihw 
hllEHnnlMU5oo5ta.DD 
EflarD jvjiutlp. 
lOp^SBBPKnnff. Jl WJ 

«WT0*i 

■A w 5% in fljmiinw* !j1 

2:- C«f Mm 03 U 

IttWT.'WFO 

*K*-1fl1$ 5.20 

3311 ■■:•: 

Levies ueodlor 
1st 50 

<S Hi Cr^sir I iiii i 
■pia m W 75 

A i pir» cMiifl ; 'v 
toamJ mfi ^Inicllara.. 

C* \&m Moduli l.H 
I in Hnrtflm fS4fl 
IDI HiKlgm rrjnsmll 

iml r<Mt» 17S 00 
HUDHLTIMPEIUnrulle 
METlfl HIT 

Indopf iiai iiuhftrar R*" 
LED i»adjuli. -1«Tf 
ly -2COTf tffmplnbj 
H'.ih board and hJit 5ft>- 
almeiifl*) PTlH 

tHMCWY BOAHO (ITS 
OK Inw pnwir f225.D0 
2KETROM 130.00 
I'D 44-.SI1 

Cjutiic EH rn J.W m 

TIM EUptiKl Kll ?h.l& 
unviiijl Ciuiifr Kli id jO 



Not a Cheap 
Clock Kit $17,45 

Includes everything 
excepl case. 

2-PC boards. 6- 50 LED 
Displays 5314 clock 

chip transformer, all 
components and Ml 
instructions 



Frequency Counter Kit 

Cover? audio, ultrasonic and 
low amateur band to 5 MHz 
typicaLOuai channel higtt sen- 
sitivity ±25 milEiVQlts. Crystal 
controlled clock. Can be pre- 
scaled lor higher frequency. 
6-. 50" digits. Full instiuctions. 
Less power supply £40.00 



1977 IC Update 
Master Manual 

Brand new. Complete IC data 
salectof fro m all rnajiuf acturers . 
1? r 000 cross references. $30 
with update service thru 1977. 
Domestic postage add $2.00. 
Foreign $6.00, 




Let us know 8 weeks in advance so that you won 
a single issue of 73 Magazine, 

Attach old label where indicated and print new address 
in space provided. Also include your mailing label 
whenever you write concerning your subscription. It 
helps us serve you promptly, 



>n 1 t miss ^^^B ^^ 



Write to; 



7$ 



magazine 

Peterborough NH 034 58 



D Address change only 
D Extend subscription 
EH Enter new subscription 
□ 1 year $15.00 



D Payment enclosed 

(1 extra BONUS issue) 
□ Bill me later 



name. 



- call . 



address. 



city_ 



state 



zip. 



Uj 
CO 



If you have no label handy f print OLD address here. 



name 



- call 



3 address. 






city. 



state. 



>z>P. 



172 



GET Jl JXTOVICE LICENSE 

THE EASY WJVY! 

only $24.95 ~ a great gift ~ help a beginner! 



The "73 Golden Road" kit makes it so easy to get your ham ticket that a five yeax old kid could do it. 



R3 THEORY II | 



The kit consists of six one hour cassettes and a Novice License Study Guide. You 
start off with a Morse Code cassette which teaches you all of the letters, numbers and 
punctuation you'll need ... all in one hour! It uses the newest and fastest technique of 
teaching code P , . each character is sent at 13 words per minute, but the characters are 
spaced for five words per minute* In this way you lay the foundation for copying code at 
13 wpm later on, and without the usual frustrating plateau which has kept hundreds of 
thousands of people from ever getting their ham licenses. With this system you only have 
to learn the code once , . . not over and over at gradually increasing speeds. 

The six words per minute practice cassette will make sure that you will almost fall asleep during the FCC test. This one hour cassette 
(which will play in any cassette recorder) has only coded groups of letters so it is impossible to memorize, unlike the beginning cassette 
which has words and phrases which will have you laughing and make everyone think you are crazy . . . unless they can read the code too. 




\^_ 



H THEORY III 



.J 



You get your theory explained in detail by Wayne Green (he did the code tapes too) 
on a four cassette set . . . three for theory and one questions and answers. You'll learn 
your fundamentals of electricity and radio at the hands of a true expert, which means 
you'll have no trouble understanding at all What a difference this makes when you want 
to go on to a higher class of license. It really pays to thoroughly understand basic theory* 
for then no manner of tricky FCC questions can throw you off - and they do get tricky 
at times, curse their dark hearts. 



|0 THEORY IV 

m 



m 



L 



You'll also get a Novice License Study Guide which covers the theory and the rules and regulations. There is a reprint of the latest 
FCC rules . , . something that is difficult to find anywhere else. The theory in the book will reinforce the cassettes, making everything 
even easier to remember. 

Individually these learning aids sell for: 

Beginners Morse Code cassette (one hour) . r ....... $4.95 Novice Theory Cassettes (four 1 hr) $15.95 

6 WPM code group practice cassette (3 hr) $4.95 Novice Class Study Guide . . . , $4.95 



Vu 




Our business is publishing a magazine and these things are just a sideline with us, 
because we feel that the more amateurs we can get licensed the more 73 readers there 
will be* In order to help make things easier for newcomers to get licensed we're offering 
the complete Golden Road Kit for just $24*95 *. ■ ■ that's a $5.85 saving! This offer is 
good for a limited time, so if you know of anyone who is interested in getting a ham 
ticket, send for this complete Novice system. There is no easier way to get a Novice 
license than with the Golden Road Kit by 73 Magazine. 



$30.80 


jT' — \ 




1 . / e " " o \ ) 



Please send _ 



"73 Golden Road Kit" including Novice Class License Code Tapes, Theory Tapes and Study Guide @ $24.95 (ppd. 



USA). Foreign orders add $3.00 postage and handling; First Qass mail USA — add $2.00. 
TOLL FREE CALL (800) 258-5473 

$ enclosed. D Cash □ Check D Money Order 

Charge my credit card: D American Express □ Master Charge 



□ BankAmericard 



Credit card #_ 
Expiration date 
Name 



Interbank # 



Signature 



Cali 



Address 

City 



State 



Zip 



If a gift, print name and address of receiver. Send to: 



Gift card to read: 



73 MAGAZINE - PETERBOROUGH NH 03458 



3/77 



173 



Social Events 



MARSHALL Ml 
MAR 5 
An unconventional Swap Fesi wifl 
be held by the Southern Michigan 
Amateur Radio Society in conjunc 
tidn with the Marsha 1 1 High School 
Radio Club on Saturday, March 5, 
1977 at the Marshall High School. 
Marshall, Michigan {near 1-94 at 1-6®}. 
Tech sessions, computer sessions. DX. 
VHF, YL meetings, plus a home tour 
of Historical Marshall, and dine at the 
world famous Win Schulers. Details 
and reservations: Goodrich, 117 
Parrott Drive, Marshall, Michigan. 

LAFAYETTE LA 
MAR ^6 

The Lafayette Amateur Radio Club 
is holding its 17th Annual Hamfest 
and Banquet on March 5th and 6th. 
This event attracts hundreds of ama- 
teur radio operators throughout the 
south. For more information contact 
Lafayette Amateur Radio Club, 413 
Kim Drive, Lafayette LA 70501. 

STERLING IL 
MAR 6 

The Sterling- Rock Falls Amateur 
Radio Society Hamfest- 77 will be held 
Sunday, March 6. 1977 at the Sterling 
High School Field House, 160B 4th 



Avenue, Sterling, Illinois. Free coffee 
and donuts 7:30-8:30 am. AH indoor 
facilities and plenty of room, Plenty 
of parking area, including parking lot 
to accommodate campers and mobile 
trailers. First table free, second and 
third table S5.O0 each. Limit three 
tables to a party or bring your own. 
Lots of prizes. For tickets and reserva- 
tions for more than one table, write 
Don Van Sant WA9PBS, 1104 5th 
Avenue, Rock Falls IL 61071. Make 
checks payable to Sterling- Rock Falls 
Amateur Radio Society. Talk- in on 
146.94 simplex. Advance tickets 
SI .50, door tickers S2.0Q. 

PHOENIX AZ 
MAR 6 

The Winter Hamfest will be held 
March 6 at South Mountain Park at 
the south end of Central Avenue, 
Phoenix. Featuring swap meet, eyeball 
and pot luck. Sponsored by the Ama- 
teur Radio Council of Arizona. 

BRIDGMAN Ml 
MAR 6 

Blossomland Amateur Radio 
Association will hold the 1 1th Annual 
Spring Swap- Shop, Sunday, March 6th 
at Bridgman Middle School gym. Lake 
St at Tower, Bridgman, Michigan. 



"CDAKIT - 

P.O. BOX 101-A, DUMONT, N. J. 0762B 

RF t AUDIO COHNICTORS t ACCESSORIES 



U50 2 Mftl UHF fight 

angle adaptor $3.25 

$1.50 \ U&224/U UHF spike (2.45 

$1,20 I UGW3/U UHF splice $2.71 

$1.20 I UG2J0.U &NC male $2.70 

J UGJPK'U BMC 

S2J5 chassis female $2.40 

$2.10 1 Lightning Arrtitor 
S2.ID JVltoft UHF ,, $2 + 25 

ALL ITEMS POSTPAID -NO C.Q.D.'t 

mmtm send fo* free catalog ftxn®@ i gft 



5 FL3W UHF male 
f SO*!* UHF chauii 

fomalo 
UGI71/U adaptor 
UGI74/U adaptor 
PL251PO puih-orv 
UHF male 
2 PL7U UHFtpHce 
I M3S* UHF 



5 
S 
2 



■(■' 
T 



PRINTED CIRCUIT 

BYTESIZE CIRCUIT BOARD 

BLANKS, POSITIVE ACTING PHOTO 
RESIST, CARBIOE DRILL BITS, SNAP 
IN CIRCUIT BOARD SPACERS AND 
CARD PULLERS, DRILL/MILLS, 
PROTOTYPE BOARDS, W. H. BRADY 
& DATAK DRAFTING ARTWORK, 
MATTE FILM, PRECISION GRIDS, 
BUBBLE ETCHERS, PC DESOLDER— 
ING TOOLS, POSITIVE ACTING 
DIAZO FILM. PR EC O ATE D CIRCUIT 
BOARDS, SILVER PLATING POWDER, 
WIRE WRAP TOOLS 

SEND STAMP 4 ADDRESS FOR FLYER 

TRUMBULL CO. 

833 Balra Dr., El Cerrlto, CA 94530 



Exit 16 on 1-94. Expanded facilities, 
refreshments, prizes, and fun. Talk-in 
on 22/82 and 94, Table space 
restricted to radio and electronic 
items only. Advance ticket donation 
$1.50. Tables $2. Write: John Sulli- 
van, PO Box 345, St. Joseph Ml 
49035. Make checks payable to Blos- 
somland A.R.A. 

NORTH TONAWANDA NY 
MAR 15 

The Amateur Radio Association of 
the Tonawandas Annual Auction and 
Flea Mart will be held March 15th at 7 
pm, at the Payne Avenue Christian 
Church, Payne Avenue, North Tooa- 
wanda. New York, Please tag at! gear 
to be sold with seller's name or call, 
and minimum opening bid. If you 
have gear to sell please bring it. 
Admission free 

MAUMEE OH 
MAR 20 

The Toledo Mobile Radio Associa- 
tion, Inc. is sponsoring its 22nd 
Annual Ham Auction, Sunday, March 
20, 1977 at the Lucas County Recrea- 
tion Center. Maumee (Toledo), Ohio, 
Auction, flea market, commercial 
displays and good eyeball QSOs. 
Time: 8 am to 5 pm, Admission: S2 
advance. S 2. 50 after March 1, 1977 or 
at the door. Talk in on 52-52 and ail 
Toledo area repeaters. Send SASE, 
Toledo Mobile Radio Association, 
lnc + . Box 7548. Oregon OH 43616. 

WHITEWATER Wl 
MAR 20 

The Tri County ARC (Whitewater, 
Wisconsin) Hamfest will be held 
March 20, 1977 in the Whitewater 
Armory, Donation: $1,50 in advance, 
$2 at the door. Reserved tables $2 in 
advance. Write Doc Walters WB9E MR, 
81 N. Main Street, Fort Atkinson Wl 
5353B, 

MIDLAND TX 
MAR 26 

The Midland Amateur Radio Club 
will have a Swap Fest on Saturday and 
Sunday, March 26th and 27th. It will 
be held in the County Exhibit Build- 
ing on Highway 80, just East of 
Midland, Texas, Pre- registration wilt 
be S3. 50 per person, and $4, 00 at the 
door, Please send pre registration fees 
to Midland Amateur Club, Box 4401, 
Midland TX 79701 There will be lots 
of door prizes, 

EAST RUTHERFORD NJ 

MAR 26 

The Knight Raiders VHF Club 
presents its world famous Auction and 
Flea Market to be held at St Joseph's 
Church in East Rutherford, New 
Jersey on Saturday, March 26. 1977. 
Free admission — free parking. Re- 
freshments are available. Flea market 
tables: in advance - $5 for full table, 
or S3 for half table; at door - S6 for 
full table, or S3. 50 for half table. For 
further information call Bob 
Kovaleski at 473 7113 (evenings 
only). Talk in on 146,52, Send reser- 
vations and checks payable to Knight 
Raiders VHF Club, Inc., PO Box: 
1054, Passaic NJ 07055 (reservations 
close March 20). 



CHARLOTTENC 
MAR 26-27 

The 5th Annual Metrolina Hamfest 
will be held Saturday, March 26 from 
\2 pm to 6 pm, and Sunday, March 
27 from 8 am to 4 pm- New location 
this yean North Carolina National 
Guard Armory, Douglas Municipal 
Airport. Charlotte NC, Door prizes; 
both Saturday and Sunday. Tickets: 
S3.00. Talk-in 34/94, W48FB. For 
further information write: Mecklen- 
burg Amateur Radio Society, 2425 
Park Road, Charlotte NC 2B209. 

GRAND RAPIDS Ml 
APR 2 

Trie Third Annual Swap and Shop 
will be held at the Northeast Jr. High 
School, 1400 Fuller Ave., IM.E,, Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, on Saturday, April 
2 from 9 am to 5 pm in the cafeteria. 
Featured will be: CBs. monitors, hem 
equipment and electronic parts. For 

ther information contact Grand 
Rapids React at the above address. 

COLUMBUS GA 
APR 2-3 

The Columbus. Georgia Hamfest 
will be held April 2 and 3, Palm 
Sunday weekend, at the Fine Arts 
Building at Fairgrounds, 9 am to 4 pm 
daily. Flea market, ham auction, prize 
drawing at 1:30 pm Sunday, talk in 
28/88, 3975 kHz. buffet dinner Sat. 
at 8 pm. For more information write 
K4JNL. Advance tickets: K3MTY/4, 
Rt 5, Box 750. Phenix City AL 
36B67. 

ST. CLAIR SHORES Ml 
APR 3 
The South Eastern Michigan Ama- 
teur Radio Association is holding its 
Nineteenth Annual Hamfest on April 
3 P 1977 from Bam EST to 3 pm EST, 
It will be held at the South Lake High 
School In St. Clair Shores, Michigan, 
21900 Nine Mile Road and Mack 
Awenue. For further information con- 
tact Dorothy Spilski WBBPRJ, Secre- 
tary S.E.M.A.R.A., 11906 Riad 
Avenue, Detroit, Michigan 48224, 
313-521-6646. 

MOBILE AL 
APR 16-17 

The Mobile Amateur Radio Club 
will hold its annual Ham Fast and 
Computer Fest on April T6 and 17th 
— all the newest equipment on 
display, computers too. Swap Si Shop 
all day Saturday from 9 to 5, banquet 
at 7 pm, doors open Sunday at 9 am, 
prizes, drawing at 1 pm. Activities for 
the ladies and children, campsites 
available, over 1500 people expected, 
the biggest Fest on the Gulf Coast, 
For more informatron contact Marvin 
Uphaus K4BVG, 512 Tuttle Avenue, 
Mobile AL 36604. 

LIBERTY MO 
APR 23-24 

The P.H.D. Amateur Radio Assn., 
Inc., of Liberty MO (Kansas City area* 
will sponsor the Eighth Annual North- 
west Missouri Hamfest on Saturday 
and Sunday, April 23 and 24. 1977 at 
the Kansas City Trade Mart ( Exhibit 
Hall 2 (Municipal Airport terminal 
building). There wilt be a complete 
program of forums both days, a large 



174 



number of commercial exhibits, swap 
tables, YL-XYL program. Doors open 
from noon to 6 pm on Saturday, April 
23; and from 9 am to 5 pm on 
Sunday* April 24. Setup time for 
commercial and swappers wifl be from 
10 am to noon on Saturday. There 
will be a Saturday night banquet at 
the world famous Gold Buffet, with 
ARRL president Harry Dannals 
W2HD, as guest speaker. Pre- registra- 
tion is S2 r admission at the door will 
be S2.5G. Pre registration including 
banquet is $8. Talk- in on 146. 34/, 94 
and 3.925 MHz. For in formal ion and 
pre -registration write to. PHD Ama- 
teur Radio Assn., PO Box 11, Liberty 
MO 64068, 

SULLIVAN IL 
APR 24 

The Moultrie Amateur Radio Klub 
will have its 16th Annual Hamfest 
Sunday, April 24th at Wyman Park, 
Sullivan, Illinois, Heated indoor area 
and large outdoor parking area. No 
charge to vendors. For information 
write: MARK Radio Klub, PO Box 
327, tvlattoon IL 61938- Talk in 
146.94. 

AMBOY IL 

APR 24 

The Rock River Radio Club Ham- 
fest Mill be held April 24, 1977 at 
Ambov, Illinois (Lee County), at the 
4H Center, Routes 30 and 52; Same 
place as last year. Tickets SI, 00 ad- 
vance. $2,00 at gate. Camper parking 
available at a nominal fee. Write: Carl 
Karlson W9ECF, Nachusa IL 61057. 
Indoor and outdoor facilities. 

LASCRUCESNM 
APR 24 

The Mesilla Valley Radio Club 
sponsors Whitey's Bean Feed and 
Swap-Fest Sunday, April 24th, at 10 
am. Located near Las Cruces, New 
Mexico at La Mesa with talk ins on 
16-76, 04-64 and 3940 kHz. Fun for 
all the family with big prizes, plenty 
of food and the usual beverage truck. 
All included for S5.00 for adults, 
$1.75 for kids. Eat, drink and win a 
prize with Whitey K5ECG as host. 
Free overnight parking at grounds so 
come for a spell. AM correspondence 
should be made to: Thomas B. 
Rapkock Jr,, 640 W. Las Cruces 
Avenue, Las Cruces NM 88001. 

DAYTON OH 
APR 29 

The 8th Annual FM B*A*S*H will 
be held on the Friday night of Dayton 
Hamvention, April 29, 1977, at the 
Dayton Bittmore Towers (hotel), Mam 
at First Streets, from 8 pm til mid- 
night Admission is free to all hams 
and their friends. Sandwiches, bev- 
erages, snacks and C.O.D. bar will be 
available. A live floor show will be 
presented by TV personality Rob 
Reider WA8GFF and his group. It will 
be followed at 11 pm by a fabulous 
prize drawing featuring an Icom 
IC-245 and many others. See you 
where the action is! 

MEADVILLE PA 
MAY 7 

The Third Annual Northwestern 



Pennsylvania Hamfest will be held 
May 7 at Crawford County Fair- 
grounds, Meadville PA. Free admis- 
sion. Flea market begins at 10 am. $2 
to display — hourly door prizes — 
refreshments — commercial displays 
welcome. Indoors if rain. Talk-In 
146.04/64 and 146.52. Details 
C.A.R.S., PO Box 653, Meadville PA 
16335. 

BINGHAMTON NY 
MAY 7 

The 18th Annual STARC Hamfest 
will be held Saturday, May 7, 1977 at 
Binghamton, New York- Take exit 
71N from NY-17, go 3.8 miles north 
on Stella- Ireland Road. Flea market, 
tech talks, hourly door prizes. General 
admission S2, 00 /per son. Banquet by 
pre reservation at S6. 00 /person. 
Indoor exhibit space by preregistra- 
tion at S5.00 per table, Outdoor 
exhibit flea market space free. Talk -in 
146.22/82 and 94/94. For details and 
reservations, contact STARC, PO Box 
11. EndicottNY 13760, 

NEW YORK NY 
JUN 12 

The 4th Annual Hall of Science 
A.FLC. Flea Market and Hamvent ion- 
Dealers booths, test bench, refresh- 
ments, zoo, museum. A fun day for 
the whole family, Sunday, June 12 
(rain date June 19). 9 am to 3 pm, 
Admission: $2.00. Free parking. 
Directions: .34/.94 repeater; informa- 
tion: (212)699-9400. 

PLAIN CITY OH 

AUG 14 
Hamfest 77 is to be held on Sun- 
day, August 14, 1977 at the Plain City 
Fairgrounds, Plain City OH. Talk-in 
on 146.16/76 or 146.5Z Advance 
tickets SI. 50 - gate S2.00. For addi- 
tional information or reservations, 
write UCARC, 13613 U.S. 36, Marys- 
ville OH 43040, or call Gene Kir by 
W8BJN 513-642 9S61. 

ERIE PA 
AUG 27 

The 2nd Annual Erie Ham Jam will 
be held Saturday, August 27, 1977 at 
the Erie County Fieldhouse, Route 8 
(Parade Street) and I -90, Flea Market 

— large indoor display area — forums 

— camping and motels nearby. For 
more information contact RAE Ham 
Jam, Box 844, Erie PA 16512 

MADISON Wl 
SEPT 25 

The 5th Annual Madison Swapfest 
will be held Sunday- September 25 at 
Dane Co, Expo Center Youth Build- 
ing, Madison WL Rain or shine — 
inside facilities — doors open at 8 am. 
12,000 sq + ft of electronic equipment 
and components for hams, computer 
hobbyists and experimenters. Bring 
the whole family for delicious food 
and entertainment, Excellent overnile 
camping accommodations. Tickets — 
advanced ST. 50; at door $200. Tables 

— advanced $2.00; at door S3 .00, 
Make check or money order payable 
to M,A,R.A, - mail to M.A.R.A-, Box 
3403, Madison Wl 53704. Reserva- 
tions must be in by Sept. 10, 1977. 



Ham Help 



Let me congratulate you for the 
progress that the 73 Magazine has 
made. You have struck me with light- 
ning three times. My son Gurbux 
Singh at Rochester (WB9TTN) will 
take care to ground the electrical 
buildup. I have passed your ? 3 to a lot 
of people and it has been a pastime 
with me to read over and over again 
some of the articles. Your September 
issue arrived yesterday and was won- 
derful. You made history and let me 
congratulate Sherry Smythe for the 
wonderful photographs. 

Wayne . . . could you put me on 
"Wanted Help" column? We need 
radio magazines and other reading 
matter. Please do not send any equip- 
ment for amateur radio is still under 
suspension. Our license is however 
renewed. 

Let me wish you more success and 
when are we two going to have an 
eyeball GSO? 73 to 73. 

Tara Singh 
X22KN and XZ2TA (mobile) 

187 Eden St. 
Rangoon, Burma 

I am interested in getting my ham 
ticket. Please enter my name and 
address in your Ham Help column. 
Thank you. 

Norman Malinky 

405 W. Walnut St. 

Painesville OH 44077 

216-3524162 



I am in the service, and in Ger- 
many, CB is going to the birds more 
than ever, l r m enclosing my order for 
your set of 73 tapes, and will need 
help pretty soon. I've heard that the 
Conditional class license is no longer 
available, How can I get my license if 
this is true? I'm stationed in Augsburg 
and hope there is a ham nearby. I've 
even gone to the extent of getting a 
credit account with SWAN. 

SP5 Tim Y, Woo 

483d Med. Pet. (Vet Svc) 

Augsburg, FRG 

APO New York 09178 

Phone (2582) -4484 

I am trying to get into the CW 
world, but only have Old equipment, 
some working, some not. I need the 
following: (1) instructions (literature) 
for Lysco, mod. 600 xmtr; (2) M can, 
coils (parts) for Hammarlund mod. 
HO 110 receiver, 

HI be glad to send $T00 for 
postage to the first ham to help me 
out. 

Dale McMindes PJ4DM 

T.W.R. Box 37 

Bonaire, 

Netherlands Antilles 

I badly need the schematic and 
owner's manual for the HQ-100 gen- 
eral coverage receiver. 

Robert M. Johnson 

36 Wolcott St. 

Camden NY 13316 



I read the article in the December 
issue about the Friden 8800 problem, 
and since that time I have acquired 
one of these things. I was quite wary 
for a while, as if something went awry 
with the electronics, I would be up 
the creek. The only thing that the 
vendor supplied was the operational 
manual, which tells you how to 
change the ribbon, etc* 

Well, after much hunting, I was able 
to locate some more information on 
the thing, and I am sure that others 
will be giari to hear of it I have 
schematics of printed circuit boards, 
with interconnecting wiring data, 
power supply schematics, and all 
other data which will help anyone in 
solving logic problems within the unit, 
I am offering these copies at $6.00, 
which includes shipping. This is done 
mostly on a cost basis and shipping. 

Tim Ahrens WA5VQK/5 

2200 Sorret Tree Ct, 

Austin TX 78744 

You are my last hope. Can you 
please put my letter in your Ham Help 
column? I subscribe to your magazine 
and reading the article on those hams 
in Weisbaden (Oct, 76) t I tried to 
contact them! No answer, if you have 
any info that can help me, that would 
be great! 

I am looking for an American ham 
who is stationed or living in Germany 
and is licensed to operate in that 
country who can help me get my 
license over here. I am a special radio 
and electronic devices repairman for 
the Army. On my last leave, I didn't 
have enough time to get my ticket, 
t've been trying feverishly for a year 
and all my leads have been dead ends. 
I stilJ have 3 years over here! PLEASE 
HELP ME!!! Anyone, 

PFC Robert Mtlback 

504th Maim. Co. 

71st Maint. BN 

APO NY 09139 

Anyone know how to improve the 
receiver section of the Swan 350? 

Is there such an animal as a wide- 
band low gain preselector? This circuit 
would have to be inserted between the 
antenna relay and the rf amp tube of 
the receiver section and be capable of 
covering 80 through 10 meters, I 
would like a small circuit which could 
be mounted inside the transceiver 
housing. 

Thank you. 

Lloyd GosaWBSTNC 

1423 Upland Dr. 

Kalamazoo Ml 49001 

I have obtained a set of wiring 
diagrams {45 sheets) for the Friden 
TM20K715 and TM20K714 printer 
and controller, and I am interested in 
sharing the information. The cost 
would depend on how many people 
are interested and p hopefully, if 
enough people want copies, the cost 
would be about S35.DQ. 

Bill Dries 

1908 Parmenter 

Middleton Wl 53562 



175 



Repeater Update 



Compiled by Stan (VUastkowski WA1UMV 



ARIZONA 








WR7AHJ 


Phoenix 


53.96 


IN 52.96 


WR7AIM 


Tucson 


146,94 


Autopatch 


FLORIDA 








WR4AUR 


Sarasota 


146.73 




GEORGIA 








WR4AZU 


Cedar town 


147.72 




WR4AYM 


Toccoa 


34-3iD 


IN 52.025 


MAWAfi 








WR6 


Kailua 


146.76 




ILLINOIS 








WR9AIU 


Peoria 


146.97 


Autopatch 


WR9ACS 


Jack son v die 


147.00 




WR9AAA 


Joiiet 


146.82 




WR9AAA 


Joliei 


223.82 


IN 222.22 


WR9AAA 


Jo! let 


442.20 


IN 447.30 


WR9A1A 


Park Ridge 


146.64 


PL 


INDIANA 








WR9ADI 


Fort Wayne 


146.76 




WR9ADA 


LaPorte 


146,61 


Autopatch 


WR9AFN 


Logan sport 


147,18 




WR9AFN 


Logan sport 


146.94 




WR9AEG 


Indianapolis 


146.97 


Autopatdi 


WR9AEP 


India nap oh 5 


147.06 


Autopatch 


KENTUCKY 








WR4ANE 


H awes villa 


146,88 




MICHIGAN 








WR8ANT 


Cadillac 


146.97 




WR8AJV 


Belleville 


146.94 


Autopatch 


MINNESOTA 








WR0ADT 


Fridlay 


146,67 


PL 


WR0AKF 


Shore-view 


146.73 


PL 


WR0AMS 


Andover 


147.06 




MISSOURI 








WRfiAHX 


Kansas City 


14697 




NEW JERSEY 








WR2A0A 


Bel mar 


146,775 




WR2AGK 


Franklin Lakes 


146,79 




WR2AMC 


Titusville 


22482 




WR2 


Toms River 


147.255 




NEW MEXICO 








WR5AQR 


Santa Fa 


444.20 


IN 449.20 


NEW YORK 








WR2ANN 


fredonia 


53.57 


IN 52.57 


WR2ACF 


Fredonia 


146.67 




WR2AM8 


Fredonia 


146.85 


Autopatch 


WR2AHK 


Farmmgdale 


147.135 




WR2AMD 


Jericho 


146.50 


IN 147.50 


WR2AKC 


Staten Island 


147045 




WR2AHX 


Manhattan 


147.27 




WR2AJJ 


White Plains 


146,775 





NORTH CAROLINA 



WR4AJX 
WR4AJG 
WR4AON 



Indian Trail 
Jacksonville 
Rocky Mount 



147.90 
147,00 
147.12 



IN 147.30 VOX 

Autopatch 

Autopatch 



WR3AF2 
WR3AHR 
WR3A8E 
WR3ABE 
WR3AFQ 
WR3AJJ 



SOUTH CAROLINA 
WR4AQY Orangeburg 



Pittsburgh 


444.40 


Lancaster 


224.90 


Philadelphia 


52.64 


Philadelphia 


443.80 


Acme 


146.67 


Sharon 


147.15 



IN 449.40 
IN 223.30 

IN 52.72/52.76 
IN 448.80 
Autopatch 
Autopatch 



147.09 



Autopatch 



TENNESSEE 



WR4AGX 




Nashville 


" 


146,94 








WR4ANU 




German town 


1 


147.09 


Private 




WR4ADO 




Kings port 




146.76 


Autopatch 




WR4AXQ 




Bristol 




147.00 


1 


IN 147.60 




WR4AFS 




Chattanooga 


' 


147.00 








TEXAS 


















WR5AET 




Houston 


' 


146.82 








WR5AJY 




Houston 




147.21 








WR5AFK 




Houston 




147.09 


Autopatch 




WR5 




Dallas 




147.09 








WR5 




Seguin 


L 


147.21 








Osca r ^r 

Our 1 Qrfetri IntBtm^tiflB 


t 


5 Its 

0=*t E GrlbuJ h'6»«i1»0« 




Orb.r Dm* 


Tsui 


Lnrpnrii 


Orbit 


Dm 


Tail I 




urn 


fCMTi 


■IE* 






tNbf) 


IGMT1 otEq, 








mBBHIQ Tnr 








Crown) H 


1047BB 


1 


013403 


76.0 


NA 


20003 BTN 


1 


0144 55 


B5 e 


10490 AX 


2 


0033 24 


eoa 


MA 


20015 STU 


2 


0044 51 


70. B 


10503 B 


3 


017741 


74,4 


N 


2O028 


3 


0130.46 


B4.5 


10515 A 


4 


002701 


mz 


NA 


20040 BTN 


4 


0039 42 


69.5 


10628 B 


5 


0121 19 


72, B 


N 


20053 


5 


0134;3S 


833 


10540 A 


& 


00703$ 


577 


S 


2006 s 


6 


0034:34 


66.3 


10553 


7 


0114 56 


71,2 


N 


2007 B 


7 


0129 30 


820 


10565 A 


a 


0014 17 


55.1 


NA 


20Q9O BTN 


a 


0029:26 


670 


10S7BBX 


a 


0108 34 


69.7 


KA 


20103 BTN 


9 


0124:21 


80.8 


10&90A 


10 


0007:54 


54.5 


N 


20115 


10 


0024 T 7 


656 


10603 a 


M 


0102 n 


68 1 


NA 


2012SHTN 


n 


011913 


79.5 


10615 A 


12 


0001:32 


&2.9 


N 


20140 


12 


0019:09 


84.5 


10826 8 


13 


0055 49 


66.9 


S 


20153 


13 


0114:06 


783 


10641 A 


14 


0150.06 


ao.i 


N 


20165 


14 


0014:01 


63.3 


10663 & 


15 


0049 27 


G4.9 


NA 


201 7H BTN 


15 


D10B-5G 


77 


10SGG X 


IS 


014344 


78.5 


NA 


20190 BTN 


1G 


0001:52 


52.0 


10079 B 


17 


0043 04 


63.4 


N 


70203 


17 


0103:flB 


75,8 


106QT A 


te 


0137 22 


76. y 


NA 


20215 BTN 


1B 


0003:44 


608 


10703 B 


19 


0036.42 


61.6 


N 


20228 


19 


0053; 40 


74 5 


T0716A 


20 


0130:69 


75.4 


S 


20241 


20 


0153:36 


88,3 


1072BQ 


31 


0030 20 


60.2 


N 


20253 


71 


0053:31 


73 3 


10741 A 


22 


0124:37 


73.8 


NA 


20266 BTN 


22 


0148:27 


B7 


1U7&3 H x 


23 


0023:57 


6S-G 


NA 


20278 BTN 


23 


M48;23 


72.0 


107G6 A 


24 


011B-14 


72.2 


N 


20391 


24 


014318 


B5.B 


10778 B 


25 


0017;3B 


B7.1 


NA 


203Q3BTM 


2B 


0043:14 


70,8 


1 079 1 A 


20 


0111 -52 


70.6 


N 


20316 


26 


0138:10 


B4.fi 


10B03B 


27 


0011 13 


55.5 


5 


20328 


27 


0038:06 


BBS 


10B16 A 


7B 


0105:30 


B9.1 


N 


20341 


2S 


0133:02 


B3,3 


T082B8 


29 


0004:50 


53,9 


NA 


20353 BTN 


29 


0032:50 


60.3 


10841 AX 


30 


0069:07 


676 


NA 


20366 BTN 


30 


0127:53 


82.0 


108S4 B 


31 


0153 2B 


81 l 


N 


20378 


31 


0037 49 


67.0 



The listed data tells vou the time and ptece OSCAR crosses the equator in an 
ascending orbit for the first time each day. To calculate successive orbits, make 
a list of the first orbit number and the next twelve orbits for that day. List the 
time of the first orbit. Each successive orbit is 1 1 5 minutes tater (two hours less 
five mtnutesL The chart gives the longitude of the first crossing, Add 29' for 
each succeeding orbit. When OSCAR Is ascending on the other side of the 
world, it will descend over you. To find the equatorial descending longitude, 
subtract 166 degrees from the ascending longitude. To find the time it passes 
the north pole, add 29 minutes to die time it passes the equator, You should be 
abJe to hear OSCAR when it is within 45 degrees of you. The easiest way to do 
this is to take a globe and draw a circle with a radius of 2480 miles (4000 
kilometers) from the home QTH. If it passes right overhead, you should be able 
to hear it for about 24 minutes total. OSCAR will pass an imaginary line drawn 
from San Francisco to Norfolk about 12 minutes after passing the equator. 
Add about a minute for each 200 miles that you live north of this line. If 
OSCAR passes 15 degrees from you, add another minute; at 30 degrees, three 
minutes; at 45 degrees, ten minutes. 



OSCAR 6: Input 
145.9CM46.00 MHz; Output 
20,45-29.55 MHz; Telemetry 
beacon at 29.45 MHz. 
OSCAR 7 Mode A: Input 



145.85-145.95 MHz; Output 
29.40-29.50 MHz. 
Mode B Input 

432.125-432.175 MHz; Out- 
put 145.92S 145.975 MHz. 



PENNSYL VANIA 

WR3AFZ Prt1$burgh 147.09 



Autopatdi 



Orbits designated "X" are closed to general use. "ED" are for educational 
use "BTN" orbits contain news bulletins. "G" orbits have a ten Wan erp limit. 
"L" indicates link orbit, "N" or "5" indicates that Oscar 6 is available only on 
northbound or southbound passes. Satellites are not available to users on "NA" 
days- 



176 



DIOOES/ZENERS 




SOCKETS/BRIDGES 


TRANSISTORS, LEDS, etc- 


1N914 


100v 


10mA 


.05 


8-pin pcb ,25 ww 


.45 


2N2222 NPN 


.10 


1N4004 


400v 




1A 


.08 


14-pin pcb .25 ww 


.40 


2N2907 PNP 


.15 


1N4005 


600v 




1A 


.08 


16-pin pcb .25 ww 


.40 


2N3740 PNP 1A 60v 


.25 


1N4007 


1 0OOv 




1A 


.15 


18-pin pcb .25 ww 


.75 


2N3906 PNP 


.10 


1N4148 


75v 


10mA 


.03 


22-pin pcb .45 ww 


.75 


2 N 3055 NPN 15A 60v 


.50 


1N753A 


6.2v 




z 


.25 


24-pin pcb .35 ww 


1.25 


LED Green, Red, Clear 


.15 


1N758A 
1N759A 


lOv 
12v 




z 
z 


.25 
.25 


28-pin pcb ,35 ww 
40-pin pcb ,50 ww 


1.45 
1.95 


D.L. 747 7 seg 5/8" high 


1.9S 


1N4733 


5.1v 




z 


.25 


Moiex pins ,01 To-3 Sockets 


.25 


XAN72 7 seg com-anode 


1.50 


1N5243 
1N5244B 


13v 
14v 




z 
z 


.25 

.25 


2 Amp Bridge 100-prv 


1.20 


FND 359 Red 7 seg corn- cathode 


1,00 


1N5245B 


15v 




z 


.25 


25 Amp Bridge 200-prv 


2.50 






C MOS 








- T 


T L 


— 




4000 


.20 




7400 


,15 




7474 .40 






74 1 93 ,85 


74S0O 


.55 


4001 


.20 




7401 


,15 




7475 .45 




■ 


?41 94 1.45 


74S02 


.55 


4002 


.25 




7402 


.20 




7476 .20 






74 1 95 .95 


74S03 


,50 


4004 


4.95 




7403 


.25 




7480 .65 






74196 1.50 


74S10 


.45 


4006 


1,20 




7404 


.15 




7483 1.00 




■ 


74197 1.25 


74S11 


,45 


4007 


.40 




7405 


' .25 




7485 1.05 




i 


74198 2.35 


74S20 


.50 


4008 


1.20 




7406 


.45 




7486 .40 






74367 .85 


74S40 


.30 


4009 


.25 




7407 


.55 




7489 2.50 








74S51 


.45 

ft ft 


4010 


,45 




7408 


.25 




7490 ,40 








74S64 


.30 


4011 


.20 




7409 


.15 




7491 1,15 




■ 


751 08A .35 


74S74 


.50 


4012 


.25 




7410 


.15 




7492 .95 






75110 ,35 


74S112 


1.50 


4013 


.40 




7411 


.25 




7493 ,45 






75491 .50 


74S133 


.45 


4014 


1,10 




7412 


.30 




7494 1.25 






75492 .50 


74S140 


.75 


4015 


,95 




7413 


,65 




7495 ,85 








74S15IA 


.45 


4016 


.35 




7414 


1.10 




7496 ,95 






74HOO .25 


74S153 


.45 


4017 


1.10 




7416 


,25 




74100 1.85 




* 


74H01 .25 


74S158 


.45 


4018 


1.10 




7417 


,50 




74107 .45 






74H04 ,25 


74S194 


1.50 


4019 


.70 




7420 


.15 




74121 .40 




- 


74 HOB .25 


74S257(8123) 


.25 


4020 


.85 




7426 


.40 




74122 .55 






74 HI 5 .30 


74LS00 


.45 


4021 


1.35 




7427 


.45 




74123 .55 






74H20 .30 


74LS01 


.45 


4022 


1.15 




7430 


.15 




74125 ,45 






74H22 .40 


74 LS02 


.45 


4023 


.25 




7432 


.45 




74132 1.35 






74H30 .25 


74LS04 


.55 


4024 


.95 




7437 


♦45 




74141 1.30 




- 


74H40 .25 


74LS08 


.45 


4025 


,35 




7438 


.35 




74150 1.00 




■ 


74H52 .15 


74LS09 


.45 


4026 


1,95 




7440 


.25 




74151 .95 






74H53J .25 


74 LSI 


,45 


4027 


.50 




7441 


1.15 




74153 .95 






74H55 .25 


74LS11 


.45 


4028 


.95 




7442 


.65 




74154 .75 




, 


74H72 .55 


74LS20 


.50 


4030 


.45 




7443 


,95 




74156 1.15 




. 


74H101 .75 


74LS21 


.25 


4033 


1.95 




7444 


m \J TmJ 




74157 ,75 






74H103 .75 


74 LS22 


.25 


4034 


2.45 




7445 


.95 




74161 1,25 






74 H 106 ,95 


74LS32 


.55 


4035 


1.25 




7446 


ttfv 


I 


74163 1.25 








74LS37 


,40 


4040 


1.35 




7447 


.95 




74164 .95 








74LS40 


.55 


4042 


.95 




7448 


1.20 




74165 1.50 








74LS42 


1.75 


4043 


1.25 




7450 


.25 




74166 1.35 




. 


It M ■ jT»t .VT. ^^ a 9mm 


74 LS52 


1,45 


4044 


.95 




7451 


.25 




74175 .95 






74 L00 .35 


74LS74 


.95 


4046 


1.50 




7453 


,25 




74176 1.25 






74LQ2 .35 


74LS90 


1.30 


4049 


,80 




7454 


,25 




74180 .85 






74L03 .30 


74LS93 


1.00 


4050 


.70 




7460 


.40 




74181 3 f 25 






74L10 .35 


74 LS 1 07 


.95 


4066 


1.35 




7470 


.45 




74182 .95 






74L30 .45 

wm -a m a ^^ -M *¥% J mmm 


74LS153 


1,20 


4069 


.40 




7472 


.45 




74190 1,75 






74L47 1,95 


74 LSI 57 


.85 


4071 


.35 




7473 


.35 




74192 1.65 






74L75 .55 


74LS164 


1.90 


4082 


.45 


















74LS368 


,70 


9000 SERIES 










LINEARS, 


REGULATORS, etc. 




9301 


1 


.00 






MCT2 


.95 


LM320K5 


1.65 


LM340T-24 1.25 


LM723 


.45 


i^j v %j i 

9309 




.45 






8038 


3.95 


LM320K12 


1,65 


LM340K-12 2.15 


LM725 


1.95 


9602 


1 


.50 






LM201AI- 


t .75 


LM320T12 


1.65 


LM340K-15 1.65 


LM739 


1.50 


%j \j\j £■ 










LM301AH 


i .25 


LM320T15 


1.65 


LM340K-18 1,65 
LM340K-24 1,25 


LM741 8^14 
LM747 


.25 
1.10 












LM308AI- 


I 1.00 


LM339 


1.65 


MEMORY, CLO( 


;ks 


! 




LM309H 
LIVI309K 


,65 

.90 


7805(340T-5J 
LM340T-12 


1,00 
1.25 


LM373 1.95 
LM380 .95 


LM1307 
LM1458 


1.25 

.95 


743188(8223) I 


LOO 






LM310 


1.15 


LM340T 15 


1.25 


LM709 .30 


LM3900 


,65 


8080 


2i 


i.50 






LM311 


1.35 


LM340T-18 


1.65 


LM71 1 ,45 


LM75451 


.65 


MM17I17A 


1C 


),50 
1.50 
L95 
















NE555 
NE556 
NE565 
NE566 
NE567 


.50 

1.10 

.95 

1 75 


1 VII VI 1 / \J£. r\ 

MM5314 
MM5316 




INTEGRATED CIRCUITS I 


INLIMITED 


2102-1 
2102-L1 
TR 1602 A 


1 
i 


,75 
1,95 

> 95 




7889 Clairemont Mesa Blvd. • San Diegc 


>, CA 92 


111 • (714) 278-4394 


L/ J 

1,35 


£ 








All orders shipped prepaid 


No mi 


nimum 


SN72720 


.35 


1 1 i i \j\j£.r^ 


% 


h" * t^mrf 








Open accounts invited 


COD c 


jrders accepted 


SN72820 


.35 














Discounts available at OEM Quanti 
California Residents add 6% Sales 


ties 
Tax 














24 Hour Pti 


one (714)278 4394 


Masi 


ter Charge / BankAmericard 








HAVE YOU WfeVSIED V 



JUNE 63. Surplus kiuft DWQ ? Hern mm 1 I Qn 
220, increasing ARC 2 transceiver selectivity, 
PE 97A i'vmt IMPply noinwirsion, BC 34ft iaartd 

Spread, in :n Testae, eo nvet tl ng BC 230 

ik, begtaner'i i* uilng EC 453, racvr motor 
mriing, transistor cw monitor. Be 4*2 ant roley 
conversion., mobile loading coils, increasing 
Two* selectivity, TV with The ART 26 t*. 
TflC 6 rn an 220 ARC 5 hf r* fit tw, ARC 3 in 
Bfl 2M. 

AUG 63. Battery op 6M Mn, diode noise gets. 
*ioeo modulation. 'f=<M»><- T H seeficfi, enr yifl, 
halo m<nJi, a* of *»*irt. VEE beam devon coax 
RF w»ltrn#t«r TX T^&= Gu«dt, diode 
vu&r.i v LMh,N!;a.. squelch. 5*UR * »oi*r» 
atron *erT«ij1 em »nfo, mrp On Windom | 



OCT 63. rVBf M i.jfticr.^t ideas HF r<ppao» 
lion, cheep font Oatrtv remote tuned y*gi. 
construction flints, ant couple* SS Vertu 
1 1 lantern a lor met construction, 2M nuv»ilof 
converter, LsUrvutie HE 35 modi. &uyer\ 
i do to R# r> In, product detector, novel 
Hi c VFO. radio astronomy, oanadeprof ""if" 
■ hi '-■ i im i,' i I-. ke -jmii 

FEB 64. ?M multichannel exciter, rx design 
Ideas, majlc t'r switch, loudspeaker enclosures. 
40M 2W t*, Look Ot [Ml «quipmnnt. radio 
grounds, 40M Z|_ Up coat ant, neutralization. 

MAY 67, u-.umI Issue. 432 Ouidquad quacj r 
rtt Handed HF ou*d, Two *l quad, mmiquid 
*QV qjitj. auad upwimma. haH qnul. three 
e< quaa 20M quad. I ill Over quod, easy to *»*cr 
Quftd Quad Bd'Uoorapny FET vfo. luH 
troubleshooting HF djrrvny load, uftd* 
stand n? tie MF £5& cW rs. geDtnetrpc 
Curt desiyi. GSS 201 transfer?. FET converter 
*ix 10 2014, Kn pats r» titter*. 

JULY 67. V£ ham i»dirj, VE# hunt, dob 
adaptor, home brew toiMr. transistor det»gn. 
39 Worlds far, grid plane ant, G4ZU b«m, 
SSTV momim UHF FET preempt, IC "I*" 
«mp, vertical ant, VMF/UHF dippet, louver 
hnrts, scope mon-Hor lr>g, operating desk, 5 Lum 
. n.ssband, MrcIiooI ham dub. Hesth H ft 10 
■ Mi. ids. 

OCT 67. MF tn\t\\ ii.i re rjp, rugged roUTOr, 

rletigFii^g ilug lunnrJ coils. FET cofitrartor. 

SSTV nil* gsrt r VHF «pg period rm, roifiabta 

oJ*. qamrrim rrralch capi old i»m« dMlng. 

JUKE 68. S^iptwn Iumi 7ranifqrfm«f tuck*. 
BC 1206 tx, APS 13 ATV t> id<v witaga rtc 
fUOpft g(w*. FU rjq comma* n«i KtaA 

iV^as. f 3 ■ tenoning old *uu i pmani, 

^A1 r. nnoiti TRA 13 un 432 *Taq COufllar 
wvac. Erarucerwar p*t tuE^ry s f vn for cftew 
lapv recof^lati SufpiMI CanwrstDn QibMa 
grapnv. HT 2O0 Malbia on 2M. AftC I guard r*. 
PITTV t« TU 

JULY SB, WftOdWtl <Qi.«p eomTruciion litl<ivar 
ioww*, trerlincj a rnlaiphane Onlc, IC AF osc, 

"dFJ" CACtiimnd. hiiin «. Itih ups I fart 1 i. 

SEPT 6&. Mqtnl. vMt. 433 FET pranmiji. 

eoov^dnfl TV Ttinori, ^ial osc sn-ilnhiy par- 
,iii*>i Toe dBfign, mponbouncfl Thomble, 6M 

welter (cgrFUKiTJoni j lir , gg^ G^ iramcr" 

lL.orreL.nm>! Jart 69h 2M dab amp •-..im ckub 
tjpi I' Port 3>. 

NOV 66. SS6 >t*l filtan soUd naia irouWa- 
»rkJofing. IC '»«<1 COMPtar I many effort & 

Dirtiiwim. "c* kforineri, tj»ra ctimm 

OdV«*CV p^lur info. |fiin*i»e itifj. 40M Irm 
trtaot . BC 34 8 M dOuU* Csm>«fflpn. 

r if unci an t«T* cooqw w«r* m«». tnar 
miafOr apofptatiunt. hi xilTaoa- UramtHor 
rta"> chin tun iFatt 51 

JAN 69. SupprinfrO' Loi"crei»o* HVV 12 on 
160 b£*rn N.r».o fl AC .oarage conpol. 2W 
iiaJidfTCK t*. LC Ooiver t#ducef. HHictrum 
anaJysi* inirj, 6M IramiVtOi r* oparatmg ten 
k»I«. RTTV MuioilA^r. cremating nai T.ul.ii,iv, 
bpwr 4Q t* in, *eqLjfcntial reiav kkVrUMmrj. 
^nhlpesi pfieraTor't brlidgfei, ham club Tip* (Fart 

FEB 69^ SSTV carrara n>od fqr tnnacon, 
tn-band linwr, tnlactHfH a F niter. un||uhL||-on 
Ifdhtistar info, Nikola Tesra ftiograchv, mab^la 
<n»talfarion hiFJti, -i.trac^is Ikania ttud<y l¥mrt 

n 

MAH 69. Sfurpfui iwut. tCS t» mods eha*p 
tOfli«r«tfti RX2 c^tculaTiqm. p^anirttor 

hVUtr. baniw balancad moouLatOr. franitiirjr 
tjv..l!ifo'i ^tnfl bl««MHm. haifp^wa f**itlin* 
tnfo, Syrpiui Convi-iffln Bibfiography antra 
Ircanie sruUv IPvf t 2 1 

APR 69, 2 channafl acap* anw. n ptaainp. 
Two e* PTT. vt'ultlf t>C road, SW« pr^jga, 100 
kH; mirfctr i*i^*. aomp Uanusror tpanri SB 610 
TMjfinoiKSut tnotit. ooriatfle BM AM i>, 2M 
conh«rier, <mtra licama study IP«rr 31 

MAY 69. 2M Tunniila, 2M Stot r r« atfanuntoi, 
generator llller. thorl V€£, quad tuning, UMHQ 
a nt annesc n pa, rnnaiuflritt ant gam, phone natch 
i i-ii,*, SWA iMdlRntai, I COM short vort Innfi, 1 liM 
antenna. HF |)Pdp<»giiliDn anglott, FSK ojccUoi, 
KW mmmy loed, Ml POWCr' hrtear, tXtf« i ■ 

ttudy [part 41_ «H band CuVtath array 

JUNE 69. Micrgw»v* pwr genet»non, 6M «n 

432-er ■■ >» fiW nonverter, 2W 6/8 wave 

whip. UHF ■. Eurtara, ATV yideo mo>dul«(Or. 

UHF FET p»«amcH. BTTV mannqrvoDt «irT* 
la»ftei study lp«rl fe|. binding uhf t*vtti«v 
m + fti VEE for 10 2©M, rtit *fo, 

JULY C9, AM modulate*, sstv msfn. cm n 

l.ne*r r 432 KW a"*P, 432 « I iM IC 

COnvajriar, radio cenliclEed mfrMIt flTTV 



The back issues of 73 are a gold mine of interesting 
articles ... just take a look at what's been covered . . t every 
possible interest. This is the most important library you can 
have for hamming. 

The supply of these back issues is very limited . . . and 
when these are gone, that will be it. Don't miss out by 
procrastinating. 

Single issues $1 .50 each (before 1 976) 

Ten back issues (your choice) , , , ¥ , $1 2 postpaid in US. 
Twenty-five back issues (your choice) $20 postpaid in US, 
Twenty-five back issues (our choice) $10 postpaid in US. 



TU, audio noiirh I Liter, VRCTO conversion, 
tube lubldtuilan, 2M tren«liitor «tUtir. extra 
license tlMtly (paM u! hi FET vIp 



AUG 69. FET regen tot 3 5 MNl UO. FM 
ci vita) ivwrtching. 5/6 weave wet-iiral. .niimjuc 
•- ro iCi. Hi TV tone gen, gaotf bad trjn 
mut cfiecfcai. 2M AM **_ m epu tt tramiuor 
Ft T60M prppegairor. triac aopticaTttmc. 
S'fnpie iF «wa«p fen, irani»tt04 kayet. SB 1Q0 
on 6M m.\M) fi*q mae4ur«en*ni *!»ir* ikcense 
srtudy lipatt /I, FM (JeitHTtOfi mttti, art im fiu 
t*_ circular quadi, FM nolvt f^-i* irensistnr 
Pararfieia* meat 



4 no good 

i taf. 



rtrrorill, trant^tErr p,l t < 



SEPT 69- lunnrtj diotftr ihaoty. majic tee, 
soldering lechnbquM, wa^e travel' ih^uiy. cable 
shielding, tiantiitor theory , AM ruriaa iimker, 
AF5K g*n. rramritor amp debugging, moasura 
meter rasulnnce. dlqde-stack pwr iupply. tran 
sistor tatting. ?frW 6M t*. HK-10 nautrelking, 
oepcvcltor uiaage, radio propagation, AM mud 
percantorje, extra class Ittema «tudy [pari Bl, 
3 .400/1 hriaar , ATV vidican cam ere. 7 transrisigr 
!»[«#■„ FET COPIDrestar, rf dlale choke. 

OCT 69. Supar gain 40Vf am. FET ermpir, 
[«i«riomi mfo, -scape: calllvator. thyrectnr 
turga protector, slower tuning tmi*%, ider:- 
caiib'etot h«rmonKcs fm aidapior for AM t*, 
CB evti. on 6W, praooriiDnal £Ontrpl *tal sven, 
utal fi'rer inaiafiaf ion, Q-mullipiiaf iraracfivr 
pew supply, aactra ctavs study tpert Q) 



NOV 69, NCK 3 On 6M. iF notch fitlart. Ctiar) 
L*lib#ai*Ofi, HW32A external VFO. 6M con 
verTer teaifiine into, rf a teidg*. fm moiule 
hiftti, umbietl* ant 432 ** t* tport l|, pvw 
supply tricks i*ytrh dtoda-s. triflf(ttW kevep, 
TrtniinO" luiiv cfesjgn ^ral wtH *i.gn gani,. elec- 
Uontc vailac, SB33 modi, a«lta ciest study 
(part 101, SB34 linear imp rove mam* 

DEC 69. Transistor -diode rhuekBf, dummy 
load.'.iimnuriiQr, tuned Filtar chokat. band- 
iwvitrHing Swan 25G * TV 2. B6mh *al*ctivity, 
match OMarcuroc, rtt xtal celibraior, tmniiitpr pa 
design, hv mobili fli-, 1 10 gHi rreurnoter r CB 
rig on FiM_ gaitfaj iichiw study (pert It), 1970 
boyet t guide 

JAN 70 Trantcaiver Kctun'r yftft, b*nih 
POiVar tuppry. SSTV zplg* merhod b*W lU<Wd 
camv loaded ant. SM tundpw r.iT* antra 
license etudV (pan 12, ta<1i(ifl« d*Oda; 

f awturrMle into 



FEB 70. IBireih ISM diPOle 0M conwarter. 
hkgh dvnlity pc boafd £a,mper JTtotJil* h^ntt, 2V 
Iraq iynthe*ire». encoding. tin coding for re 
peatery DK 3B mod*, panor#m« wtll r» F war 
tabl* -2 MF mo M' in mount, Mtre litente study 
Ipari i3r, iineei IC irrf©, are *0M tn t IC 
Q mull ., i 

MAR 70, Cirlu application*, ehargor for drycells, 

FM lrm\ muier, pc poarrJ tonsttuctipn. ham 'fm 
standarrii, aheap r\ wattmEHei , multllreq fm 
DK, '"^"lyitam module* ipart 1 J, 'A\* nt mods, 
gdo dip Ilia. Motorola 41V conversion:, ™ 
monitor, hoybng surplus logk r SSO 73A 4ono- 
buov (.onvarnon. CRC9 ntfa converiron, 
e Ktr a daas tludv Eperl 14 ' mtrq to wtif Im 

APR 70. \«».»r- blanker. 2M h^tcj^^eir diOdV 
convener, f#peeiter cofitrolla' , •irtJ*»*f^T»di.ng 
COR repeetk^ B-iimw 2M ant | -\aa, 

Ttudy foa*t t!>>, memreikiw *srnicO«*fL>ctor¥, 
removal ing »u#jj*i.-* meiers Iwtaar em0 cr.as 
regufalDPt, hi parformarn^c >l arr>0 i^ »gc ivweri, 
SSa frlp fpf tt>c«rtyv-a>* radiio, 'recuum lube lo»d 
t»On . geneial Im dope & nowte guide mi 
irvg your ani 

MAY 70, Convmnf!) on im totker -SBB03. 
futu'e u' CM In, im r» aligner 5/B-WfluC 

wail uoriig ?M irnailigenlly. autq burglar 

Bttrmi, pwf SUPpHe* IrOm guiplui epmponents. 
"IF" syM*rn module* {part 2f, viir i et pc& 
ampw, flducntad "idiot" J Hitei, postage stamp 6M 
tit, o*trcr tlaai* study (part JGl, fiiahou If ML, 
low-band nolH:« rnonitof, motjiU* DV4 l«. Wir-ftitB 
auto patch 

JUNE 70. ODRR *ni irfa cncun remote SWR 
ifKtiCiiloi trufoor til verticai, two n on one 
»nianna. anvironment & etata lose. 2 el trap 
. criruHi uwyingtutfriiev t.^*> 4^M qrp **, 21 dB 
2M beam a>tr* c lees study f paft I 

DEC 70. So hi! state irhf eacner. dwiie tre con 
troi f.r*r !iSB JM tnmsmo* FM 1«, HW100 
offiet tuning, \itiis gaie diwei, 3 SOOZ M 
imeaf. gevefai clan xiudy (y*' 5J Iransi r- 



JAN 71, Split fqnes for dsing. Heath 
mocti, kiw duty cycle, M'pttjitt* ^era-beaiift MX** 
IC prnjecri. 1O1S20IM rHraboltC ideas, Itghi 
ning pratectionv IC m jKCefwy. aitrc an it. 
double balanced miners rufiTume**: mar 
tool, ham literr** study quests 

FEB 71 MetaJ locator Maracipr ftnwry AF 
jnti. SSTV patch bo*. ATV hints. RTtv 

rg indiCaTOr, ton* w>COdV * dO«Kt*r 220 

MHJ eonverl*r. SSTV Magnetic deflect -d" i£ 
coda Un, 6M tx baesper general class n 
(pari 61., RTTV int'O, part itoard Mrmil 

low ohtiimeier 

MAR 71. lC audio Hnot. IC CM convattoi , trnu 

vHiiikiii ideas, Otfli ^puiiiiB iiilu, sWrpfus ei|vnt> 
mnni |denfif.t..ti inn hi Unenr, iSimpJe fqrws 
Patuh, repeater aMtllo mlxar, diyi RTTV \i 
Rorios, eoarhanger gndoltnt, general class study 
h'un 71 

APR 71. Intro to Im, ru.it to htenkej. r«peaier 
oroble'ni. Motorola HT mods mutrowava re 
oamla* linking, digital IP iin.l. Tuneable 2M I m 
rjt/t". repeoter djireciory, fen mat -fcetniar.*, 
meter evaJua,tor. VerecCOt i«i od viator, sumpb- 
(•an. touchipne hookop hf otesetector, 10M 
12Vf tt 

MAY 71. 75M motive pvfsap^ 2M pt*a 
tfanarutv am© design I 0M dib ik. po'T»H»li 
itartaea^hiav directory, aud««i .^mcimcf cii 
trarnisioi LM Ireometw, 4S0 MHz l 
nmole ef tiltes, 1 tub* 2M trHnsc«ive'^ surplus 
2M power amp. general clews study I part 

JUNE 71. 2M beam *»n#i ifrmnn 3 el 2M quad 
n, mm, |. .-,,,. i dipale p<innrns irveaThflf batli 
ver Ileal, pocket patjoi squelch, two •" wto, 
lumnrj mobile wh*p*, tr'aP^iSTflr pwr supply, 
capacity decada box, 40M gain am, general 
class study (part S>, 

JULV 71. EC audio processor, audio sin. gen, cw 
hlter. 2M rm osc. 2M COlflnrrnr wsrtical FM 
supplier direcEory, Motor old C strip conversion, 
transistor bera tetter. g«n*T^I rlass study 1p*ri 
1QI 

AUG 71. Ham facterntM loarr 1 >. 5QO Watt 
Mfiear, d*me3n**ani> tor July eOllinesf, 4 totw 
HO 40 station, vfo digi reedoul , Juprter on 16M. 
general ciass study (oetf tfl. pink irekes Aave> 
ffWlaa 

SEPT 71. Transfprrneilesf POMr«; Supoiies solid 
state tv camera, IC subnityTiOrV two rt wait 
me lots. IC COmpteisoi age. mulrichanr*ai 
HT 200, hem facsimile Ipart 21, causes of 
mmrnjde noise, vfo wiltl tracking mjxet, gin 
•rll cirrsR study (pofl 12], transistor heat 
■iiiitiriy, IC pulse grn , (on* patch isolation, bed 
wattmeters. 

OCT 71, Eirirjr^ency rapaatar cor. tr'artECBiwitr 
POWflr I up ply, predktlng mataor showers, rjigi 
twitching, reverse currant hattary char: 
P.-rtuiv* repeatar?. earth ground*, audio "tailor 
Ing" tfllafs. Swan 350 modi 

NOV 71. 3 el J5M beam, motor -tuned gnd 
alavia, JM gain weylicel. rrtnitstor biasing, spi it 
site fepaater, fo> hunting, audio tirtef. tran 
stslor, diode tesie> *t«l levter, 6M 4n amp, 
lO 15 20*4 quad, trans istoi pi nei final, aft? 
feedftne. cotnrnunicatadnt dbs. 23DO MH: e> 
Citer 

AUG 72- SSTV intrO. v«kK processor T*n 
'afjaeia* iflifj, test probe construct ion. GE 
coghn* e t supply. 432 H tesimg. prearno 
cornpressor, £uc-er mods, lot" patch, Tkvo *» 
inlo. solar info, SCR rogulatot for HVPS. 
ideal" Rtfll OSC, Im rn adep1dr H auto thetl 
alarm, 

SEPT 72. Plumbicon 1 v camera , i/VWV 6 60 kH* 
rx, clgflrtube sig gen, cw acilvri flFtvr, rf testing 
..i IZg^DBOQ GHz, bfllUfl «mt feed, trensiitqr 
power tupply, IC 6M ik, IC Im/am detector 
Ipart 21. active Hlter design (part 3|, K2QAW 
freu counter (part 3i, 2M 'rett synthesizer | DJ n 
») 

OCT 72, Correcttora for Aug rm *m adaptor., 
2M fTeq lynthesLLFer ip^rr 21. 6M transistor vtn. 
rtano ampere net* ittre frerj rrMEeeafcment 
Ipaft 1 '-_ active filter dvsign Ipirt 41. repeats 
ttme*. eirite ciasa u&A '(uh 31, balloon v*rt 
i ID gam, time delay r>u v . 432 filter ideas 
DC AC Miverter. he dude converter, rt! decade) 
end fti*»e drrn-et , plus minus supply tot iCa. 



NOV 72. Hf liensistpr power iimpi RTTV 
uclcal, IC (1 1 fM transistor keyei . einergencv 
power, 22Q MHr preamp, iInmIiN' delta ant, 
■ imple convtirier usmg moduleSj hf RF tailar, 
'Mumped MnH" p»{,. 2M Ireq i;"i l»"M.'Hr 4 f ■ . ■ ■ ■ 
31, K20AW counter errrita, 2M pteartii'v, e*trn 
i rjjsst QStA (par I 43, hi 2 YQlsmeTtt! . NikO'* Tatbj 
story. «hf syrr ifin'nr- iransiStor regetT r*. 432 
SSB iransvertar. AC are welder, mtro to corn 
outers, hybrid am nTOdulator HRin rs 
10M transistor *™ «■ 4GM gndPitn* IC ll 
dvmorntratoc overload prpteEliqr 
e^nerator . d<gi Iraq counter autai IM tuning. 

DEC 72. SSTV uapr analyze' >n» 

burst encodes and decodes. univ*»s»' »* imp, 
sutopatch fiockup LV3SQN into wQ^age ver 
table cap mlo. 2M 16 erail mto. SSB module 
Hon mpmior. eiel trap, activity meter,, T0A war 
tic supply, uauumrariq n ime ines. radio astron 
omy mductence meter, 75 to TOM itan»yerier. 
LEO into, 40M preamp, tr"ii"sistO' v*o 1072 
inde», 2M Praamp. 

JAN 73. MT 220 IPm. tMr.inif, 3-el 20M yr>gi, GO 
MM? Ireq novinrer, speech processoi , 2 lone 
poo, Fm test sot, tijt o^rer tower, SM convattor 
M»inn modulus, lunnnble af filter, six band 
linear, 1DM IF lunar, dlod« nolin limlier. 
Eiw/ssb age. HW27a transceiver 40 M mod, HAL 
IO 1 mod. 

FEB 73. CW id gen. tone operated relay 
lproidal buadraiure **n* actiwei liter, lime fT*o 
rnaatsurernem (pait 2!. rerearer timing ctfnirpl, 
SSTV crrcuill (part T< 2M converter i.«mg 
nwAjIes, multrfvncliOn nwlennrj FET UiMtrg, 
treq courtier preo>rn«, TR22 hi pavpar mod, 
traniHtor rf ppvwp amp< loan IJ 4 Irghi bulb rf 
power indfkcelpis, 75A4 litien apa;.>tan..« 
measurement. Comet 201 mnd- l wdrlil time 
info 

APR 73. FM deviation meter, 2W FEl jjieamp, 
iwp 2M power amps ivpEater conuol fperl It. 

repeater licensing, European 2M 1m. fm icexsnoi 
adaptoi, RCA cMUl mods, lightning dntecio/ 
cb alignment gadget, transisrof rr uowMi amps 
(part 21. repeater economics. 

JUNE 73. 2?0 MH -if 9flr>. uht powrtr maler, 
refi^wter licensing into. RTTY autOswUch, 40M 
hybrid v*o I {Kilar mount. 10 t'j.'OM 

quad. K2QAW ronntnr modi, double cdbji ant, 
harri summei |Ob, tone decoder. Iiald sfengen 
meter, meed batiavy peck, ohm meter, FCC 
rags (pact 11. 

AUG 73L Log-par rod iCf Ipatt 1 1 . tone but tt pen 
rf power «rsp design t pensrsior radio inlercom, 
160M ant, SSTV morutur, haw cost fretj 
counteff. VOM d4SJgA epp aom in, 437 *■ 
emitter, fm eudro procstetmej. FCC <egt Loart 31 



SEPT 73X Repeater control system, log 
periodic* Ipart 21, 7M m cahwatO' PLL ir 
applications. TT pad hookup. Heath HW7 
meler Oscar 6 dooplei . 2M twiiH art I, 2M 
converter, IC feeyer measure axil Z, FCC tegs 
(pari 4) T 

OCT 73. OE Pockm rnatn mods, mlcrowawn riifq 
measuremoni. CA3102E 2M frontend, :► k^ hf 
imeoi, rf Wettmerer, meter repair, OO'VlO dlpole. 
IC "hi" gen, vtd r r im u i"i>kkpliEr FCC regt Ipwt 
5). 

NOV 73L 4BD MHr erc.ter, mtrp to ATV 
Circuits, niL.nl vgltege monitor. autoPetch * On 
nections, IC meter amplifier, TR22 4C supt 
indoor vertical IC al fine neozavy power 

failure rjrotectron. I60M ant acouprer. Moio 
*H SSTV ISA. Class fl «t ^mr*^ FCC 
regs (pan €1 



DEC 73, Coda tn**d drsnlay. 2V k,w amp, IC 
keyer. 3038 warvlorm gen. helicel resonaiOf 
design, sensittva *l yoltmetae, nronmi«Tv control 
switch, IC lesiar. sedueniial tone decoder. ?M 
r oi table beam, el uri ionic calcutetor malfi, cw 
tKrer detrgn. FCC r«gt Ipbmt 7f 

FEB 74. SSTV momlor info. IC BudHcj m i I 

....urn: svwtn" i|in "'i.n'vi ■■■■= telephone 

Idle control r.yiliHii, in. h:,.,Mi cdntlt m H'Ki 
wjir Q at filter-, blown HUM indicator, 4fJm iw 

stn with Ten 'fr uJuJus, sjrppta pfeei 

compressor. t>n(j|r Ir . 432 «rr'- 'nv.il nstem 

bly. transistor keying tir*.uir. t scgmenl r eaeto ul 
With nixie driver 

APR 74. Vq« i 1 1» repeaierv tone ester a led. 
relay hf t Jaaiae o tlg r, 10 to 2m ta connajrier 
remote control panel for scanner. RCA tti 
tutung, subaw<sitr(w tone gm, FCC r#o* Ipart 
iter Atlas 



MAY 74. Cd car ngnrlion. audio coneiteeaoi 
mlo, •nteffarerKa suOpresBson lot bo,ttt. auto 
bugler aJafmt, 7^ re praamo. T0m Im ton 
vartor 

JULY 74. 4 l OOOA linear, uriiwiu) fhSg g*rt 
umwertai pfati gai iC timei h;ou nhasecf 

irray, 135 kH- 432 tvlHj pre*mp 5 , 10M nrp am 

IN* 3000 vdc supply, how to read duiQi ■fttf 

AUG 74. rrjrnul.il Hmri-Tionsl wurrmetors, 4&0 
MHz FET prearlip, use gdo to I mi 
Trimllne tt pari hookup, R390 & R39S r * 
mod-., [racking Cw hilar, aural voltmetui uttl 
warsel regulated supply, ssth scan converter rrl 
Ipgk probler^t jD i| m . 

SEPT 74. MOS<EV electronic keye» ipael l 
an Aiimn9 tyeutm Heelh 10 1Q3 sr;OP* rm 
orp GM am is, ff cpeach clipper, audio nOrse 
limner, rn laiethfe On SSTV mofliic 
IC tester, miniature rip construction lower 
ccniu jltiO". infinite »t attenua t&» , edettrt. 



(More) 



PHOTQ 'UM*l *d*B*, IC ' ttMetl B|«T 

OCT 74. Micrat^ai^iicfQ' circuit*, iyrnhev^m 
NT 220 Id*fT 1 I, ripflitw gov*rr»n--Fm . re^u 

■wtwJ 5 vdr itipoJy <m *#tc£l„ r*mov4#i]l* 
mobil* tnrt, Wo Toxoid m« ret trig, 2 V verr 
coihnur, MoTO'oiji modal coda, 2M c 04*1*1 
dipoi*. 1 G MHi |f strrp, MOSKEV electronic 
xeve' Ipart 2J, carbon mike ■ i lit, hiinmH 
1& piU lilivr, GM frtmiimn, 3 wire dfpole, ATV 
sVflr: ft4n, NCX S mods, mohilc ivhip fen ipjn 
men i cJuvullo*i, «tu auto uei-rknl trig 

NOV 74, KZOAW courtier update > rogulatftd 5 
vdc tupply, wind direction indicator, svntho 
id HT 720 (part 29. 20M 3 el beam, auto 
patch pad hookup*, d&ubl* nub am match, 
no vie* clatt instruction tJigi iw< metef {part 1). 
fiM converter (1.5 MHi dj, "C bridge." 
MOSK£V electronic haw lp»*t 3). Au 3 , H tw 
1Mb convtrw «f rax*. r«p«jtr*# oil lf«q <nd>ca 

TO* 

DEC 74. C»** of nicadi. unntf ipaao - tfrreei ton 
vnrfi^afOT, »** tatel 3 its *i4*o CDflvina. elat 
tfOn»c kavar^ flint* fof fH>vtc«t, unfcnoiftn maior 
scalar SSTV WP* id***. TTL tog*C P'c 
ou&hc aarwice band convartar. tuned dmda r«t 
*aceiva*i. dig* iwr mat at {(i*t\ JJ. teteohorw 
pol» D«*m tuppon h rhomb+C ifit«nn», 197* 
ll>d«M 

FEB 75, Haatb HO 10 ucop* mod for SSTV. 

electujniL Heyet, digital Hill Mia orbital tlmoi 
Qtcer 7 operation, teteliir* urtmni prediction, 
Heath Sa 102 modi, contuaring FM & AM, 



Since there's little to get stale in back issues of 73 (our 
magazine is not padded . . . like others , . . with reams of 
activity reports), you'll have a fantastic time reading them. 
Most of the articles are still exciting to read . ■ , and old 
editorials are even more fun for most of the dire predictions 
by Green have now come to pass. Incentive licensing was every 
bit the debacle he predicted . . . and more. You'll really get a 
kick out of the back issues. 



'•Ct*at*r engineering Re bar 80 A s»tv ctmni 
mod. nOutraJiteng HiMIh 58 X lOA Bounce 



I C 5 vyi t ct: tapa fctyff for cut t jl 



M 



APR 25. 350 wait* tot 2M. 2M tcenur^ 
tvmhra^i*. ft8 m« io>oid info S-tufKI*ut> 
r«p«ai*f coniroNa*, mnil haire/v c*r««Mrion*, 
TR22C pfe*#np. talaphnna atTachmant r#iji 
Guide tp 2M Hand ' ^nsce^ers 2M 7 iri 

baarh. basic taltfphqna ivitims (part IS, tOrrun 
ID iin*ef. modified hi Hu trier mohrle um to* 
2M, tslVf quad modi firm for 20 M, 2M foJiinajir 
H 11 A turplut *n concurs ion. S/lfi Wave 
7M ant, Hallicraftari SX 111 m mod* r 1 BOM rw 

tK. 



AUG 75. t4G 437 VH; Habcatanlt Iparr », ItJ 
mm 1D trmaf. d^gt iivt compular I part 1). 
Jlbiigginij ft laadmea.. DV'M hytr t g„ide, mm 
i?«i*ll«i6 monitor, cmof M *PCH kcv*< '" PC ooard 
method, noa ji i i iutu final piauuhom compact 
mulTJband dipoto«. «m«ll ehgiqii doc*. «CC«AOry 
v to for hi irtiiHItW. frkodet n nan Mori* uotiei 
--nulit function gan r 5M uranning fvntriesizer 
*rratl. *CP-202 IrViifcLY ehafga' 10W «riulri 
plenvenE tiaam. 

SEPT 75. Calculating Ireq cOurttur, wx uteMite 
FAX ivilv^rr (p«rl II. IC rmUlvulMMMMir ihiee 
button TT ilt!<cocJer. rrouthlEralippI ing fitu via. 
aOM dx .inn. 14A/432 MH,: hullc.nl jinli (i^n 



7 







/ 



cluiipnl. dn> t«w (ompuKi {conclusion), read 
r*fa* for ciw bk in. NE5S5 P#*s«f tfnur. P Oi V tt 
*ra alarm, porta W* yrp tig p owai un^t. 
praciuOit IO wdc raieranca standard. 135 IHi it 
itnp, ta4apHone rundsan with fm tfarocerwaft, 
Motorola T44 u mod lor ATV. 60 MH: 
pymh*ttf*r trrjri t0 r h*m r^rlio PR) 

OCT 7&, A deiux« TTV kvvboard {part 1), 
Op Amp*: a basic primer, an introduction to 
mlcroprocasior5 r 2m Syntbatazar (conclu 
si^nl, Satellite Fax System (conclusion], 

rugglatod supplies (dptpalUng the mystery 1 . 
Digital Logic made iimpla, FCC interview, a 
coutait uP system, digiTal crock time basus, 
the operating desk. QRP 432, hem PR. 

NOV -DEC 75. Block butter double issua* 
Flip flops enposed. break through m im%t 
Kin ATV, sttobmg rjjaplat/m is cool, the 
tuned lunch box I antenna tuner for HF 
trinKtiversl, a deluxe TTv keyboard (Part 
2), that 127' rotating. ma*i, lesc than Si 00 
multi purpose scope for your shack (part 1!. 
erred ictmg third order inuttnod. feedline 
primer, QRMmjih* Third Rercn, why tubM 
haven't dead, instant circuits, - build vDui 
own IC test rig. the K20AVU synthes^er 
PROM ot«d, a ham* mrro to mictroprocei 
sirig, Ground Fault interrupter (a keep ah v* 
circuit for yourself 1. a $1 strip chert ra 
corder 4 an eyen simpJer c(ock osc. r the Fun 
City surplus scene, updating the Heath 
I B 1 1 01 counter. 256 pogetl 1 



_ MAGAZINE CLASSICS 

issues containing hundreds of articles & projects 

GREAT FOR NOSTALGIA BUFFS 



DJUNE 63 

□ AUG 63 

□ OCT 63 
DFEB 64 

□ MAY 67 
DJULY 67 
OOCT 67 
OJUNE 68 

□ JULY 68 
DSEPT 68 
U NOV 68 
UJAN 69 

□ FEB 69 
□MAR 69 
□APR 69 
QMAY 69 
DJUNE 69 
DJULY 69 
OAUG 69 
O SEPT 69 
OOCT 69 
Q NOV 69 
n DEC 69 



i r JAN 70 
OFEB 70 
MAR 70 
QAPR 70 
Q MAY 70 
DJUNE 70 

> DEC 70 
HJAN 71 
LI FEB 71 

Omar 71 

□ APR 71 
DMAY 71 
DJUNE 71 
PJULY 71 
D AUG 71 
CI SEPT 71 
OOCT 71 
DNOV 71 
OAUG 72 
Q SEPT 72 

OCT 72 
DNOV 72 
a DEC 72 



SEND TO 73 BACK ISSUES PETERBOROUGH, Nil. 03458 



3/77 



□JAN 73 
°FEB 73 
OAPR 73 
OJUNE 73 
□AUG 73 
D SEPT 7 3 
OOCT 73 
DNOV 73 
a DEC 73 
OFEB 74 

APR 74 
OMAY 74 
a JULY 74 
P AUG 74 
P SEPT 74 
£ OCT 74 
DNOV 74 
DDEC74 
OFEB 75 
PAPR 75 
U AUG 75 
O SEPT 75 



□ $ 1 .50 single issues (indicate your choice at left) 
issues @ S1.50 

D $ 1 2 len issues (indicate your choice at lefl J 

n S20 - 25 issues (indicate your choice at left ) 

Q SIO - 25 issues, our choice D 60-65 □ 66-70 □ 71-75 

□ Cash, check, money order enclosed. 



Name _ 



CaU. 



Address 
City 



State. 



Zip. 



Charge □ American Express □ Bank Ame Heard □ MasterCharge 



Credit card # 

Signature 



interbank # 



($1.00 handling charge for orders iess Than $4.00} 



Expiration date 



The fascinating « r 
RMMO COMMUNICATIONS 



Master 
Handbook of 




1001 

Prartiral Hectromr GrtL 



The 2-Mtxm FM Handbook 




• FASCINATING WORLD OF RADIO COMMUNICATION Interesting 
stories in the history of radio pioneering and discovery, Also includes 
the fundamentals of broadcast band DXing, A must far every radio 
amateur. $3.95* 

• 2IV1 FM HANDBOOK Contains almost every conceivable circuit that 
might be needed for use with a repeater. AM circuits explained kl detail.. 
All aspects covered, from the operator to the antenna, S5.95. 

• PRACTICAL TEST INSTRUMENTS YOU CAN BUILD 37 simple 
test instruments you can make — covers VQMs, VTVMs, semiconductor 
testing units, dip meters, wattmeters, and just about anything else you 
might need around the test lab and ham shack. $4.95. 

• 1001 PRACTICAL ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Tab's new 1001 
circuits is available for only $9,95 ppd. The next time you want a 
circuit for just about anything, eat your heart out that you didn't send 
for this book the first time you read about it. You'd better order the 
book right away, before they run out, $9.95. 



CQEFUTEfi 

FWERffiil 



• COMPUTER PROGRAMMING HANDBOOK 
■ , , Peter Stark K20AW. A complete guide to 
computer programming and data processing, 
Includes many worked out examples and 
history of computers. $8,95. 



i 



• TTL COOKBOOK by Donald Lancaster. Ex- 
plains what TTL is, how it works, and how to use 
it. Discusses practical applications, such as a 
digital counter and display system, events 
counter, electronic stopwatch, digital voltmeter, 
and a digital tachometer. 336 pages; 5% x &%; 
softbound. S8.95, 




• RTL COOKBOOK by Don Lancaster, Explains 
the how and why of RTL (Resistor-Transistor 
Logic) and gives design information that can be 
put to practical use. Gives a multitude of digital 
applications ranging from the basic switch to the 
sophisticated counter. 240 pages; 5% x 8%; 
softbound* S5.50. 





MY COMPUTER LIKES ME 

. . . when 1 speak Basic , . .Attrecht 

An introduction to Basic . . . 

simple enough for your kids, if you 

want to teach Basic to anyone 

quickly, this booklet is the way to 

go. $2.00 pp. 




• HOBBY COMPUTERS ARE HERE An an- 
thology of computer articles from 73 — a must 
if you loan articles to friends. This keeps the 
easy to read basic information all in one place 
for quick reference. Only $4.95, 



Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of paper and mail to 73 
Magazine, Peterborough NH 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. 

Note: Prices subject to change without notice on books not published by 73 Magazine. 



• REPEATER ATLAS Hundreds of new listings . . . by both location 
and frequency . . , dual listing, invaluable for your car . . * find those 
repeaters as you travel. This is the ONLY complete list of repeaters 
being published. Almost 3000 repeaters listed in this rssue . . . repeaters 
from all over the entire world. Only $1 ,95, 

• VHF ANTENNA HANDBOOK The NEW VHF Antenna Handbook 
details the theory, design and construction of hundreds of different 
VHF and UHF antennas , . , A practical book wriuen for the average 
amateur who takes joy in building, not full of complex formulas for the 
design engineer. Packed with fabulous antenna projects you can build, 
$4.95. 

• WEATHER SATELLITE HANDBOOK Simple equipment and 
methods for getting good pictures from the weather satellite- Antennas, 
receivers, monitors, facsimile you can build, tracking, automatic control 
(you don't even have to be home). Dr. Taggart WB80QT S4,9&. 

• COAX HANDBOOK The World's Only handbook devoted exclusively 
to coax, feedJines and connectors. Special price only $1 .50. 



197E 





•TEST EQUIPMENT LIBRARY The editors of 73 

present a complete guide to testing that is both basic 

fit complete St aimed at everyone from beginners to 

amateur Extras. Everything from how to test diodes to 

frequency counters, plus cumulative index. Three 

volumes. 

Vol. I — Component Testers — $4.95 

Vol. II — Audio Frequency Testers — $4-95 

Vol. Ill — Radio Frequency Testers — S4.95 



• THE NEW RTTY HANDBOOK This is a brand new 
1977 edition book . . . the only up-to-date RTTY 
book available- The state of the art has been changing 
radically and this has made all previous RTTY books 
obsolete. This book has the latest circuits, great for 
the newcomer and the expert alike . . . something (a 
whole lot, actually) for everyone. Only $5,95. 




• 73 VERTICAL, BEAM AND TRIANGLE ANTENNAS by Edward M. 
Noll W3FQJ Describes 73 different antennas for amateurs. Each design 
is the result of the author's own experiments: each has actually been 
built and air -tested. Includes appendices covering the construction of 
noise bridges and antenna line tuners, as well as methods for measuring 
resonant frequency, velocity factor, and standing-wave ratios. 160 
pages. $5.50. 

• IC OP-AMP COOKBOOK by Walter G. Jung. Covers not only the 
basic theory of the IC op amp is great detail, but also includes over 250 
practical circuit applications, liberally illustrated. 592 pages, SV2 x 8%, 
soft bound, $12-95. 

• 73 DIPOLE AND LONG-WIRE ANTENNAS by Edward IVL Noll 
W3FQJ This is the first collection of virtually every type of wire 
antenna used by amateurs. Includes dimensions, configurations, and 
detailed construction data for 73 different antenna types, Appendices 
describe the construction of noise bridges, line tuners, and data on 
measuring resonant frequency, velocity factor, and swi\ 160 pages. 
$5.50 

• RF AND DIGITAL TEST EQUIPMENT YOU CAN BUILD RF burst, 
function, square wave generators, variable length pulse generators — 
100 kHz marker, i-f and rf sweep generators, audio osc, af/rf signal 
injector, 146 MHz synthesizer, digital readouts For counters, several 
counters, prescaler, micro wavemeter, etc. 252 pages. $5,95. 

• SSTV HANDBOOK This excellent book tells all about it, from its 
history and basics to the present state of the art techniques. Contains 
chapters on circuits, monitors, cameras, color SSTV, test equipment 
and much more. Hardbound $7, Softbound $5, 




Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of paper and mail to 73 
Magazine, Peterborough NH 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. 

Note: Prices subject to change without notice on books not published by 73 Magazine. 






THfc „ 
COM VI TfcKs* 



• THE NEW HOBBY COMPUTERS! This book 
takes it from where J Hobby Computers Are 
Here" leaves off, with chapters on Large Scale 
Integration, how to choose a microprocessor 
chip, an introduction io programming, low cost 
I/O for a computer, computer arithmetic, 
checking memory boards, a Baudot monitor/ 
editor system, an audible logic probe for 
finding those tough problems, a ham's com- 
puter, a computer QSO machine . . , and much, 
much more! Everything of interest is there in 
one volume, ready to be enjoyed by you, $4.96 
postpaid. 



• SCELBI'S GALAXY GAME FOR THE 
"8008*7 M 8080" Here's a new twist in computer 
games by Scelbi Computer Consulting and 
Robert Findley. The game, "Galaxy", pits the 
operator of a spaceship against alien craft, as 
well as variables such as speed, time and 
ammunition. No two games are the same! This 
game is described in Galaxy Game for The 
8008/8080, published by Scelbi Computer Con- 
sulting, lnc + SI 4.95. 




mm ■»■«■ <uii 




• WHAT TO DO AFTER YOU HIT RETURN PCC's first book of 
computer games .. . 48 different computer games you can play in 
BASIC . . * programs, descriptions, muchly illustrated, Lunar 
landing, Hammurabi, King, Civil 2, Qubic 5, Taxman. Star Trek, 
Crash, Market, etc. $6.95 ppd. 

• 101 GAMES IN BASIC Okay so once you get your computer up 
and running in BASIC, then what? Then you need some programs 
in BASIC, that's what. This book has 101 games for you, from 
very simple to real buggers. You get the games, a description of 
the games, the listing to put in your computer and a sample run to 
show you how they work. Fun. Any one game will be worth more 
than the price of the book for the fun you and your family will 
have with it. $7.50 postpaid- 

• BASIC by Bob Albrecht, etc. Self-teaching guide to the 
computer language you will need to know for use with your 
microcomputer. 324 pages. This is one of the easiest ways to learn 
computer programming, $4.95 ppd, 

• TVT COOKBOOK by Donald Lancaster, describes the use of a 
standard television receiver as a microprocessor CRT terminal. 
Explains and describes character generation, cursor control and 
interface information in typical, easy-to-understand Lancaster 
style. This book is a required text for both the microcomputer 
enthusiast and the amateur RTTY operator who desires a quiet 
alternative to noisy teletype machines. $9.95- 




• SCELBI'S FIRST BOOK OF COMPUTER 
GAMES Need a game for your 8008 or 3080 
microprocessor? Try Scefbi's First Book of 
Computer Games for the 8008 /8Q80 which 
describes three popular games, "Space Cap- 
ture", "Hexpawn", and "Hangman". Complete 
flowcharts, logic description, program listing, 
and instructions are provided. A must for the 
game freak! $14.95. 



» mnm #■■ 






• THE STORY OF COMPUTERS by Donald D. 
Spencer, This book is to computer books what 
Dick and Jane books are to novels ... ex* 
Uemely elementary and fast reading with lots 
of cartoon -type pictures to rapidly give the 
norvcomputerist a fair idea of what the hob- 
byist is talking about when bespeaks of CPU's, 
drops other computer lingo, and attempts to 
explain just what computers are and can do to a 
spouse, child or any other un-electronics- 
minded friend . . . easy way for students to 
bridge the generation gap and inform parents 
schooled in the dark ages (pre 1960 ?). $4.95. 





• 6300 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE & 
COOKBOOK If you have been spending too 
much time developing routines for your 6800 

microprocessor r try the new book by Scelbi 
Computing and Robert Findley. This manual, 
6800 Software Gourmet Guide and Cookbook 
describes sorting, searching, and many other 
necessary routines for the S800 user. $9.95. 




KILOBAUD 
IS HERE! 

Software St Hardware exposed to 
the core* Written for the non-PhD 
computer hobbyist who wants to 
know what's new. $2.00 each at 
newsstand, $15.00 for 1 year sub- 
scription. 



•BRAND NEW DICTIONARY This new 
microcomputer dictionary fills the urgent 
need for all computer people, engineers* 
scientists, industrialists, communications 
people — as professionals, amateurs, 
teachers, or students — to become quickly 
acquainted with the terminology and 
nomenclature of a new revolution in com- 
puter control capabilities in areas that 
pervade most of man's daily activities. 

Over 5000 definitions and explanations 
of terms and concepts (704 pages) relating 
to microprocessors, microcomputers and 

microcontrollers. There are also separate appendices on: program- 
mable calculators; math and statistics definitions; flowchart symbols 
and techniques; binary number systems and switching theory; 
symbol charts and tables; summer ies of BASIC FORTRAN and 
APL. In addition there *s a comprehensive electronics/computer 
abbreviations and acronyms section. $15.95. 




Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order an a separate piece of paper and mail to 73 
Magazine, Peterborough NH 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. 

Note: Prices subject to change without notice on books not published by 73 Magazine. 




NOVICE 
S4.95 



AMATEUR 
RADIO 

ADVANCED 



ADVANCED 
$3,95 



GENERAL 
$5.95 




LICENSE 

STUDY 
GUIDE 




EXTRA 

CLASS 

$4.95 




The ONL Y Complete 
License Study Guides 

FCC exams got you scared? 
Frustrated by theory fundamentals? 
There's no need to worry. 73' s four 
License Study Guides will help you 

breeze through any of the lour tough 
exams! They are the ONLY guides which 
cover ALL the material you will have to 
know. Many amateurs find that one 
quick reading through our guides is 
enough to gel them through with no 

sweat 



novice 

theory 
tapes 

Startling 
Learning 
Breakthrough 



You'll be astounded at how really simple the theory is when you hear it 
explained on these tapes. Three tapes of theory and one of questions and 
answers from the latest Novice exams give you the edge you need to breeze 
through your exam. 

73 is interested in helping get more amateurs, so we're giving you the 
complete set of four tapes for the incredibly row price of ONLY $15.95. 

Scientists have proven that you learn faster by listening than by reading 
because you can play a cassette tape over and over in your spare time — 
even while you're driving! You get more and more info each time you hear 
it. 

You can't progress without solid fundamentals. These lour hour-long 
tapes give you all the basics you'll need to pass the Novice exam easily 
You'll have an understanding of the basics which will be invaluable to you 
for the rest of your life* Can you afford to take your Novice exam without 
first listening to your tapes? 



»G¥iCE iHtOfiv tins 



/« ■ ■ »\ 



NOVICE THEORY TAPES 

SET OF FOUR 

TAPES 

only S15.95 



FOUR TAPES for $15.95 
$4.95 EACH 

5 WPM This If the begin 
ning tape for people who do 
not know the code at all. \X 
takes them through the 26 
letters, 10 numbers and nee 
essary punctuation, complete 
with practice every step of the 
way using the newest blitz 
teaching techniques. It is 
almost miraculous! In one 
hour many people — including 
kids of ten — are able to 
master the code. The ease of 
learning gives confidence to 
beginners who might other 
wise drop out. 



NEW CODE SYSTEM - Four Speeds Available 



6 WPM This <s the practice 
tape for the Novice and Tech 
mcian licenses. It is made up 
of one solid hour of code, sent 
at the official FCC standard 
(no other tape we've heard 
uses these standards, so many 
people flunk the code when 
they are suddenly — under 
pressure - faced with charac 
ters sent at 13 wpm and 
spaced for 5 wpm}. This tape 
is not memor liable, unlike the 
zany S wpm tape, since the 
code groups are entirely ran 
dom characters sent in groups 
of frve. Practice this one dur 
ing tuncrv while in the car. 



ONLY 4 for $16,951 73 is in the publishing business, not tapes, so 
you ever seen one hour cassettes for under $6? For 1st class mail add 



anywhere and you'll be more 
than prepared for the easy 
F CC exam. 

1 3 WPM Code groups 
again, at a brisk 13 per so you 
will be at ease when you sit 
down in front of the steely 
eyed government inspector 
and he starts sending you plain 
language at only 13 per. You 
need this extra margin to over 
come the panic which is uni- 
versal in the test situations. 
When you've spent your 
money and time to take the 
test you' It thank heavens you 
had this back breaking tape. 

these are priced much lower than 
25tf per tape ordered. 



20 WPM Code is what gets 
you when vou go for the 
Extra Class license, It is so 
embarrassing to panic out just 
because you didn't prepare 
yourself with this tape. 
Though this is only one word 
faster, the code groups are so 
difficult that you'll almost fall 
asleep copying the FCC stuff 
by comparison. Users report 
that they can't believe how 
easy 20 per really is with this 
fantastic one hour tape. Mo 
one who can copy these tapes 
can possibly fail the FCC test. 
Remove alt fear of the code 
forever with these tapes. 

anyone else could sell them. Have 



RADIO AMATEURS , 
TALK TO THE WOULD.'' 



a&k me about IV. 



BUMPER STICKERS: 

RADIO AMATEURS TALK TO THE WORLD!! 

AUTHORIZED VEHICLE 

SUPPORT YOUR LOCAL POLICE 
50* each; any 3 for $1 .00 

BINDERS — Red Binders with gold lettering keep your 1976 fit 
1977 73's safe from being lost or damaged. Each binder holds 
12 issues. $6.00 ea., 2 for $11.00, 

BACK ISSUE BUNDLE!! 73 Magazine Classics, issues containing 
hundreds of articles & projects. Great for nostalgia buffs. 20 
copies (all different) for $8 00 



QSLsI 

ONLY S6 for 250, 
SI for 500, 
S15 for 1000, 
AND 



SryftX- 

Bttc* rype. Mj* uiw^if 



$20 




Sly/? W - Stack type btum world 



for 2000! 

How can 73 make such beautiful cards, printed on the best 
coated stock, available for about half the regular cost? 

The world and satellite are printed in blue, your name, 
address and call are in black. The QSO information is a standard 
form on the back, DOMESTIC ORDERS ONLY 

ALLOW 6*8 WEEKS FOR DELIVERY, 



Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of paper and mail to 73 

Magazine, Peterborough N H 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. 

Note; Prices subject to change without notice on books not published by 73 Magazine, 






Review 



AUDIO FREQUENCY TESTERS 

The 73 Test Equipment Library, 

Published by 73, Inc., $4.95 

This book r the second in the 73 
series on test equipment for the radio 
amateur and experimenter, 
approaches the subject of audio fre- 
quency testing from every angle. 

It is appropriate that Lhis second 
book in this series be devoted to audfo 
frequency test equipment, since this 
area plays such a large part in so man v 
facets of amateur radio. From voice 
transmission {SSB, FM or AM) to ham 
TV, the precise measurement and 
generation of audio frequencies Is 
essential to the testing and operation 
of all equipment. For the RTTY 
operator, whether he uses AFSK or 
FSK, this book should be invaluable 
for the proper maintenance of his 
station. 

Through the 39 separate articles, 
the reader is instructed on how to 
build such items as audio sine wave 
generators, attenuators, two- tone 
generators for SSB testing, tone gen- 
erators for RTTY, RTTY monitor- 
scopes, SSTV and FSTV sync gener- 
ators, oscilloscopes, and more. 

No complete ham shack or work- 
shop should be without a copy. There 
is no better source available on the 
subject for so reasonable a price or 



with such clear, concise easy to build 
projects. 

Rich Force WB IAS L 
Associate Editor 

RADIO FREQUENCY TESTERS 

The 73 Test Equipment Library, 

Published by 73, Inc.. $4.95 

The generation of radio frequency 
waves is the one common denomin- 
ator throughout all of ham radio. No 
matter what your specific interest in 
this fascinalin9 hobby, without the 
correct generation and radiation of 
radio waves your enjoyment will be 
frustrated In this book, which is the 
third in the 73 Test Equipment 
Library series, the editors of 73 have 
put together some of the best articles 
they could find, all aimed at assisting 
in achieving the best possible on-the- 
air signal 

With the inclusion of 77 articles, 
the book covers such subjects as swr 
measurement, rf impedance measure 
mem, rf power measurement, field 
strength, frequency measurement, rf 
signal generators, crystal calibrators, 
grid dip oscillators, noise generators, 
attenuators, dummy loads, and more. 
Each subject is illustrated with various 
pieces of equipment which can be 
built to fit your specific needs. 

By addition of this book to a 



station library, any ham can be well 
on his way to having one of the best 
signals on the band. 

Rich Force WB1ASL 
Associate Editor 

HOW TO MAKE BETTER QSLS 

by Jack Janicke K2JFJ, 

Published by 73, Inc., S4.95 

Jack Janicke in his new book pub- 
lished by 73 appeals to the artistically 
minded ham by guiding him on his 
way to making original unique QSL 
cards. Janicke contends, and it is true, 
that the "special" QSL is the one that 
gets answered first by DX stations. 
One chapter is devoted entirely to 
boosting QSL returns. 

All types of priming processes are 
included, with special emphasis being 
placed on the silk screen method. 
Plans and pictures are included to 
allow the reader to construct, with the 
utmost ease, the necessary equipment 
for silk screening QSLs, as well SI 
other items found around the normal 
ham station. Many other uses for the 
silk screen materials are explored. 

This book should also appeal to the 
beginning art student, who is just 
starting into silk screening. All silk 
screen techniques are thoroughly 
covered. 

In addition to silk screen, the meth- 
ods for producing photographic, 
mimeograph, and letterpress cards are 
also examined, Janicke goes into 
detail on each. 

So if the high cost of having 



"unique" QSLs has you down, try 
rolling your own, but first learn how 
from an expert in the book, "How to 
Make Better QSLs/' 

Rich Force WB1 AS L 
Associate Editor 

DIGITAL INTEGRATEO-CIRCUIT 

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER 

AND OPTOELECTRONIC 

CIRCUIT DESIGN 

Texas Instruments 
Electronics Series, 
Published by 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
$16.50 
If microprocessor design and inter- 
face techniques are your thing, Texas 
Instruments has the reference book 
you have been needing. More than just 
a collection of IC specifications and 
pmouts, "Digital Integrated Circuit; 
Operational-Amplifier, and Optoelec- 
tronic Circuit Design"* provides prac- 
tical circuits and applications using 
the devices specified in the title 
Eighteen chapters cover an entire 
range of devices, from introductory 
TTL and Schottky logic, counters, 
and converters, all the way to opto- 
electronic devices used in computer 
interfaces. If you have ever puzzled 
for hours over a tiny aspect of circuit 
design, the answer to your problem 
may rest in this book, a necessary 
addition to any computer hardware 
enthusiast's library. 

John Molnar WB2ZCF 
73 Marine Staff 



(the outside looks nice) 

BUT 
IT'S WHAT'S INSIDE THAT COUNTS 



Regulated 5 Vol! Po*t?r Supply 



Industrial Grade 
Transformer Guaranteed 
for the Life of rhe 
Instrument 



Built-in Pfescaier 
Plug -in 



High Stability 10 MHz 
TCXO ■ 2ppm (- 0002*:.) 
Plug -in Module, 




Full a-Oigrl Readout 
Large 3 L€,D. S 



Automatic Decimal Point Placement 



Industrial Quality 
Glass Epoxy PC Boards 



Test Points 

For Convenience 



Separate Regulator 
For the Front End 



Rugged Anodized 
Aluminum Cabinet 



Separate Input tor >50 MHz 



DAVIS FREQUENCY COUNTER 

► 500 MHz • ±.0002% ACCURACY 
• UNBEATABLY LOW COST 



500 MHz Kit $249.95 

Kits include all parts, drilled and 
plated PC boards, cabinet, switches, 
hardware and a complete instruction 
manual with cahbratrng instructions. 

All parts are guaranteed for 90 days. 
Factory service available lor $25. 



500 MHZ Factory Assembled $349.95 
Shipping Charge $2 + 00 

Instruction and Calibrating Manual $3.00 
(refundable with purchase) 

Factory assembled units are tested and 
calibrated to specifications, and are 
guaranteed for 1 year. 



DAVIS ELECTRONICS 

Dept. F, 63 6 Sh eridan Drive. Tonawanda. New York 14150 

"™ (716) 874-5848 





DUPLEXERS 



I 
I 



T-:V 



Patent 






OUR NEW BANDPASS- 
REJECT DUPLEXERS WITH 
OUR EXCLUSIVE 

CIRCUIT* 




-]• 



. . . provides superior perfor- 
mance, especially at close 
frequency spacing. 

Models available for all Ham 
bands. Special price for 
Amateur Repeater Clubs 

CALL OR WRITE FOR DETAILS: 



WACOM PRODUCTS, INC 

Box 7307 

Waco, Texas 76710 

817/776-4444 



,© 



m 



NEW-NEW-NEW 



DC-5 




SIMPLIFIED 
VERSIOM 

easier assembly 
bigger digits 
50% less soldering 

6 DIGIT - 12/24 HOUR 



DIGITAL CLOCK KIT $22.95 I 



The best looking clock on the market is now easier to build! New features too — 
push-buttons to set time, larger .4" high readouts and super detailed instructions. 
The DC-5 comes complete with extruded aluminum case available in 5 colors, line 
cord transformer, quality PC boards and Polaroid lens filter. Colors available: 
gold, bronze, blue, silver, black (specify). 



Mobile Version, .01% accuracy, 12 V dc 

Alarm Version, 12 hr. only 

Time base kit, use with any 60 Hz clock 



LOW COST $ 
CLOCK 



. . * . i. * * > ijitO.yo 

$24.95 

$4.95 



DC-4 



12/24 HOUR 6 DIGIT 
LARGE .4" DIGITS 



DC-4 includes all parts and switches, does not include PC board, case or transformer, DC-4 
will not fit in case as shown above. Case size required, 3" x 5" x 4". 



PC Board, drilled and etched, 3" x 4" 

Transformer, line cord type, 12 V ac . . *.,,.... . 

Transformer, lug mount type, 1 2 V ac 



.$2.95 
. . 1 .98 



30 WATT 



2 Meter 
Power Amp 



600 MHz PRESCALER 



The famous RE class C power amp now 
available mall order* Four Watts in for 30 
Wans out, 2 in for 15 out, 1 in for 8 out, 
Incredible value, complete with all parts, 
instructions and details on T-R relay. Fully 
stable, output short proof, infinite VSWR 
protected! Case not included. 
Complete Kit $22.95 



$44.95 KIT 

assembled . . $59.95 

Extend the range of 
your counter to 600 
MHz, Works with 

most any counter. Available kit or assem- 
bled and tested. Specify ^10 or "M0Q with 
order, 




741 OP- AMP SPECIAL 10 for $2.00 

Take advantage of a special one time deal on factory prime mini-dip op-amps, These 
were house numbered for Xerox Corp., but also have the 741 number printed on them. 
This is the LOWEST price in the USA! 



FERRITE BEADS with info and specs . . 
6 Hole Balun Beads ..........,.-,*•* 



SLIDE POT - 10k linear taper . 



1G00uf 15V FILTER CAP 



1000V, 2,5 A DIODE 



. 15/$1.G0 
. . 5/$1 .00 



, . 4/$1.00 



5/SK00 



5/$1.00 



IC SOCKETS 

14 PIN 25 50/10.00 

16 PIN .... 30 50/12.50 

24 PIN SO 10/ 4,50 

40 PIN 75 10/ 7.00 



MINI-KITS 




FM Wireless 

Mike Kit 

$2.95 



Transmit up to 
300' to any FM 
broadcast radio. 
Sensitive mike input requires crystal 
ceramic or dynamic mike. Runs on 3 to 
9 V. 



LEDBLINKY KIT 

A great attention getter which alter- 
nately flashes 2 Jumbo LEDs. Use for 
name badges, buttons, or warning type 
panel lights. Runs on 3 to 9 volts. 
Complete Kit $2.95 



SIREN KIT 
$2.95 



2 m W 
audio output, 
3-6V opera- 
tion. Uses 
3-45 Ohm 
speaker. 




TONE DECODER KIT 

A complete tone decoder on a single 
pc board. Features - 400 to 5000 Hz 
adjustable frequency range, voltage regu- 
lation, 567 IC. Useful for Touch-tone 
decoding, tone burst detection, FSK 
demod, signaling, etc. Use 7 units for 12 
button touchtone decoding. 

Complete Kit, IDA $4.95 



POWER SUPPLY KIT ±15 V, +5 V 

A complete bench supply! Dual tracking 
regulator provides adjustable ±6 to 15 
Volts at 100 mA, while a stable 3 
terminal regulator produces 5 V at 1 
Amp. Novel 2 transformer design 
permits 110/220 V operation. Complete 
with all parts except case and cord. 
PS-3 Power Supply Kit $14.95 



DECADE COUNTER 

PARTS KIT 

INCLUDES •7490A decade counter 

• 7475 latch 

• 7447 LED driver 

• LED readout 

• Current limit resistors 



$3.50 



Complete with instruction and details on 
how to build an easy, low cost freq. 
counter. 



INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 



LM567 
LM565 

555 . . , 

556 .. , 
7490A 
7447 . , 



SEND 254 FOR CATALOGUE 
FREE WITH ORDER 



Phone Orders Accepted V m& ^ chaige 

PXX Box 4072A, Rochester NY 14610 (716)2716487 L"r c :* 



a«IHlhMtA.;tAj 



1.75 

.75 
.50 
,85 
.59 
.85 



Satisfaction guaranteed or 
money refunded, COD, 
add $1.00. Orders under 
$10.00 add $.75. NY resi- 



MC1458 . . , 


. , . ,75 


MC4024 . . , 


. , 1 .95 


74107 


.35 


74143 


. . 3.50 


7805 


■ » ■ kC? w 


309K 


. .1.19 



dents add 7 



% tax. 



SST T-! RANDOM WIRE 
ANTENNA TUNER 




A/ 1 hand operation ft GO- 10 meter*) with any random 
length of wire* 200 watt output power capability - 
will work with virtua/ly any tramcetrer Ideal for 
portable or home operation. Great for apartments and 
hotel rvomt — simply run a wire mside, out a window, 
or anyplace available. Toroid inductor for imaJt $ize: 
3X4*1 MX2-3J8* Built-in neon tufte-vp indicator, 
SO-239 connect or. Guaranteed for } yr, t W day trial. 
IF NOT SATISFIED RETURN FOR A FULL 
REFUND? 



THE ORIGINAL RANDOM 
WIRE ANTENNA TUNER - in 
use by amateurs for 5 years. 



COMPACT 
EASY TO USE. 



SST 



. . . .* $29.95 

POSTTAin HDD lALtl r*KlN If A LIP t 

Electronics, (213)376-5887 
P.O. Box 1, LawndaLc CA 90260 




Ask for our cooperative 
marketing agents 




Frequency Counter Model C-40IBSF 

Display ddigita 

Measurrng range**"'*"* 1 Hi -G70MHz 
Gate inns**-""'* 10m Is. 



Tiny offers aft excel lorn quat it v ranoa of the lowest 
rnodeJs at compel hi vo price* Our product line in- 
cludes Digital Frequency Counter, Digital Mult* 
Tester, Audio Counter, Digital Clock, and Function 
Generator. 



CLCCTRONICS 

ENGINEERING CORPORATION 

2-B-G ITAflASHI ITA&ASr-b-iCU " JAPAN 

TELQai&e4/a2 1 1 cable; TIN/ ELECTRO. 



FREQUENCY STANDARD 



ftftf»e 



°v 



PROVIDES STRONG, PRECISE 
MARKERS EVERY 1 MHz, 
500, 250, 100, 50, 25, 10, 5, 
2.5, 1 KHz, 500, 250, 100, 
50, 25 Hz WEIL INTO THE 
VHF RANGE. 







&M& 



EJUtitl 



fa: 

jramruftiE 



* USE AS MARKER GENERATOR 
FOR KAN RECEIVERS 

# OSCILLOSCOPE TIME BASE 
CALIBRATE 

+ CMOS IC CONSTRUCTION 

• POWER REQUIREMENTS 

6.5 V to 15 V at IS ma. 

(I V Radio Battery exeelletit) J?!?,,, 1 "- 

* ZERO TO WWV 



IWtiW 



CHOICE 



COMPLETELYASSEMBLED 
IN CABINET 



$3491 



Pleat* 
Add 

Pottage 



WIRED 
PC BOARD 



IP. 0. BOX 2366 INDIANAPOLIS, IND462Q6 




Portable • Commercial Standard 



FREQUENCY 
COUNTER 



t * 



rfrai- If IV 



9**4*1 a Y*9 



*■!*«■ fcf»§»- Hi, 




FEATURING 



1 Hz to over 300 MHz ■ Commercial Ac pur a 
cy 3,1 h ■ Completely Portable - has. Nicnd 
battHries ■ Small - 2"k4"h6" * Recharge/ 
operates from ext. 12V or 110V ac " Internal 
charge-limiting circuitry * Less than 50mV 
sensitivity -Hi-accuracy international 10 MHz 
crystal * Easy to check calibration * Counts 
down to 1/10 Hz 



$ 



Fully Guaranteed 



349 9 



95 



Master ( harge BauM An*ef ica*o 



dig 



i - 




P.O. Box 2214, Salem. Oregon 97308 (5031 399-1370 




Where to get it. 

Equipment, parts, sup- 
plies and services. Hard to 
find and standard items at 
bargain prices. 

Over 600 places to find 
transceivers, antennas, 
surplus, new and used 
equipment, /iPs/com- 
puters, ICs, components, 
assortments, assemblies, 
discounted items, test 
equipment, peripherals, 
etc. Hundreds of large and 
small mail order sources. 

A complete directory 
divided by sources, items 
and locations. Saves count- 
less hours of shopping. 
Easily pays for itself through 
comparative buying. 
Contains no advertising. 

Rush my order, i enclose $5.95 plus 550 
postage and handling. Caltfornians add 
39C sales tax. Full refund if not 
completely satisfied within 10 days. 

Name 



Address 



City/State/Zip 

Primary interest: Amateur Radio □ CB □ 
Experimenting □ /iPs/Computers D 

Send to: Peninsula Marketing 
Dept. F 

12625 Udo Way 
Saratoga, CA 95070 

L. ............ 



186 



Novice Q&A 



Ql 
2N544 



This column will be a monthly 
feature of 73 Magazine. It is hoped 
that it will be of assistance to begin- 
ners and old-timers alike. We only ask 
that your questions be kept as general 



as possible. We will try to answer all 
queries received. Please mail your 
questions to Technical Editor, 73 
Magazine, Peterborough NH 03458. 



LAST l-F XFMR - 0t * ** F 



> 







TO FIRST 
♦AUDIO 

ampl 



m 



I 



Q. Is there a practical SSB detector 
for most receivers? 

4* The circuit in the figure is simple, 
but will not disturb the set. Your 
regular detector can be switched in or 
out and The simple detector used, or 
not A stable bfo signal is required. 
This circuit will work with older 
receivers when the voltage to the bfo 
tube is stabilized, 



TO BFO +200 
OUTPUT VDC 



Q. What frequent check should be 
made of self -powered VTVMs? 
A From time to time the VTVM 
should be opened and the battery 
examined, it should be firmly seated 
in the holder and the battery contacts 
should not be corroded. Check the 
tightness of ail bracket held-down 
screws, if you cannot zero-set the 
VTVM, replace the battery, 



8 + 



(AMPL) 



RE 



^ 



/77 



Kl 



TO AMPL 
* SCREEN 



TO 
►EXCITER 

B+ 



Q. How can amplifier screen voltage 
be removed during periods when the 
transmitter is operated with the final 
plate supply turned off? 
A. The circuit in the figure permits 
safe operation of the amplifier screen- 
grid circuit when powered by the 
exciter supply, Kl's coil is connected 
in series with the b feeder resistor {R 1} 
for the amplifier's pfate supply. Con- 



SIGNAL 

NO. I 



facts are connected in series, with the 
iead running from the exciter supply 
to the amplifier screen circuit in this 
manner, screen voltage is only applied 
to the final when the HV supply is 
turned on. Common 5k to Wk relays 
can be used. The value of Rl must be 
chosen for satisfactory bleeder opera- 
tion plus an appropriate drop in B 
plus for the relay coil. 



SIGNAL 
NO 2 



VIA 
I/ 2 I2AV7 



C4 
.47 jjF 




I / p TO 
{— *-03ClLL0- 
lv SCOPE 

X VERTICAL 
INPUT 

VIB 
3 I/2 I2AV7 



£H3 
>L6K 

? ^77 



V2B 

I/2 I2AV7 



+ IB0-250 
VDC 



Q, Is it possible to see two signals 
simultaneously presented on a CRT 
screen by using a special type of 
electronic switch? 

A. Refer to the figure, Two signals are 
alternately switched to one input of 



the scope so rapidly that you seem to 
"see" two presentations. But actually 
there is only one signal shown at a 
given time on the screen. This is a 
handy gadget for checking input and 
output waveforms. 




.022 



ih 



€5 



rh 



.022 

UF 47 pF 



^ 



4=y \*™* 






102 




Q. How about a simple transistor 100 

kHz calibrator for my ham band 

transceiver? 

A. Refer to the figure. The output of 



this simple crystal calibrator should be 
connected at the receiver's antenna 
input side — not at the antenna 
terminal you would normally use. 



FRO* AF 
GENERATOR I 
OR 
MODULATOR 




SIK 



.022 
*iF 



/77 




Q. To get an elliptical pattern from an 
af generator, what is the proper meth- 
od for connecting the scope? 



A. Refer to the figure. Modulation can 
be added to the Lissajous pattern 
either on a vertical or horizontal form. 




Q. Is there a simple scope setup to 
make it easy to check and match 
diodes? 

A. When checking diodes of the same 
type, with the circuit in the figure, a 
comparison can be obtained by utiliz- 
ing the same pot setting and noting 
the relative sizes of the traces ob- 
tained, Choice of a transformer is not 
critical. In addition to scope conven- 
tional traces, look for any indication 
of "fuzz*' or ripple. Even if the basic 
trace seems good, do not rely on a 
diode exhibiting either fuzz or ripple. 

Q. How can a transmitter be easily 
modified for CW operation? 
A. By feeding an af oscillator into the 
mike jack, a transmitter can be used 
for CW operation. The oscillator can 
&l$o feed a pair of phones for sidetone 
monitoring. The output of the keyed 
oscillator should be a good clean sine 
wave and care should be taken that 
the modulator is not overdriven . 

Q. What causes the exciter meter to 
deflect to the left when the trans- 
mitter is on and the PTT is actuated? 
A. A diode in the metering circuit 
may develop a reverse leakage which 
w/ff permit some of the positive delay 



bias to appear in the exciter ale 
circuit. This causes down-scale deflec- 
tion of the meter. To correct the 
condition, simply replace the diode 
with one which has a much higher 
voltage rating and it will block the 
delay bias completely. 

Q, Regarding batteries: When should a 
mercury or a manganese battery be 
used? 

A, Where long shelf life, steady output 
voltage and size are important^ the 
mercury battery should be used, The 
manganese battery should be used 
only when you need both high surge 
capability and good shelf life. Both 
batteries are far superior to the old 
lead-zinc cells. Although more costly, 
the newer batteries are worth the 
price difference. 



News? We need input, and one of 
the best sources is the club news- 
letter. Got one? We reiterate our 
longstanding offer of a free 
subscription to 73 or Kilobaud in 
exchange for a spot on your ham 
or computer club newsletter 
mailing fist. Deal? 



187 



Radio Hut 

TERMS: Money Back Guarantee. No. COD'3, Texas Residents atfd 5% 
Tax. Add 5% of order for postage arid handling. Orders under S10.00 
add 75c. Foreign Orders: US Funds ONLY! 

For your convenience, call your BankAmeNcard or Master Charge 
orders En our Continental United States. Call Toll Free- 1 - 600 - 
527-2304. Texas Residents call Collect! - 214-271-B423. 



P. O. Box 64783 Dallas, Texas 75206 





CMOS by Motorola 

These are pulled from sockets but they are: 

100% Guaranteed - Limited Quantity 



UNTESTED DIODES 
A good assortment of 1 amp rectifiers. Good Yield. 50 for 
$ £0 - 100 for $ .95. 

BATTERY CLIP 
Standard 9V battery clip - 15 for $1 .00, 



PLASMA Discharge Display 
By National Electronics 

12 DIGIT DISPLAYS" character 

Neon Orange in color 

Specs Included Only $ ,79 
Money Back Guarantee 

Complete Power Supply Kit for above, 
including P,C. Board XFWIR, and 
Instructions, Only $3.25 
Money Back Guarantee 



MCI 4001 


Quad 


2 input Nor 


.13 


MC14011 


Quad 


2 input Nand 


.13 


MC14012 


Dual 


4 fnput Nand 


.13 


MC14023 


Triple 


3 input Nand 


.13 


MCI 4025 


Triple 


3 input Nor 


.13 


MC14027 


Dual 


J-K Flip Flop 


.28 


MC14013 


Dual 


D' Flip Flop 


.24 



WATERGATE SPECIAL 

Telephone relay automatically 
starts and stops tape recorder. 
No batteries required. Kit 



complete with drilled PC Board. 
PARTS AND CASE - 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED 

ONLY $10,95 



VOLTAGE REGULATORS 

LM 340-6 LM340 15 

LM340-8 LM340-18 

LM340-12 LM 340-24 

Your Choice - Only $ ,85 ea 



TRANSISTORS 



2N4400 6 
2N5401 6 
2N3055 



/ $1.00 
/ $1.00 

,75 



3N201 

PROTECTED DUAL GATE N-CHANNEL 
FET FOR LOW NOISE, VHF PREAMP 
APPLICATIONS Only $ ,80 



HARDWARE 

New, includes 2-56, 4-40, 6-32 and 8-32 
screws and nuts- A very useable selection 
of hardware. 



% pound $1.50 
1 pound 2,60 



BRIDGES 

1 amp 50V $ .89 

10 amp 50V 1,29 

25 amp 50V 1.49 



1S0-M/4 

330jv1/4 

330,/O/8 

470^1/4 

680^1/4 

1K 1/4 

1.2K^.1/4 

2.2K^1/4 

3.3K<a1/4 

3,9Ka1/4 

4.7K-M/4 

6.8KvrO/4 



20Ka1/4 

22Ka1/4 

27KU1/4 

33K^1/4 

39Ka,1/2 

43K A 1/4 

47K^1/4 

56KA1/4 

82KU1/4 

IOOKjO/4 

150KA1/4 

220KjO/4 



All resistors are PC Lead 
but are not pull offs 
5% - 100 min, order Each value 
No Mix -99# 100 



ELECTROLYTIC CAPS 

2200 UF 35VDC Upright PC Lead $ .29 
1000 UF 35V DC Upright PC Lead $ .29 



FCM 7010 SPECIAL 

4 DIGIT DIRECT DRIVE 
RADIO ALARM CHIP 
SIMILAR TO MK50380 
ONLY $3,75 



DIODES BY MOTOROLA 

2-1/2 AMP 1000 VOLT 
8 for $1.00 

Limited Quantity 



LM309K 
NE565 

NE555 
LM3900 



$1.50 
1.00 

.45 
.35 



LOW POWER SCHOTTY 



FN D 359 

COMMON CATHODE 

DIRECT REPLACEMENT 

FOR FND70BUT 

LARGER .40 IN. 

CHARACTER 

Only $ .90 

6 for $4.95 



FCS 8000 

COMMON CATHODE 
12 HOUR 3-1/2 
DIGIT ARRAY 
Includes AM/PM 
Indicator and Colon. 
.80 in, character 
$4.95 



TTL 

7400 
7401 
7402 
7403 
74L04 
7404 
7406 
7408 
7409 
7410 
7411 
7 13 
7420 
7430 
7421 
7423 
CA 



100% GUARANTEED! OR YOUR MONEY BACK. 



.19 
.19 
.19 
.19 
.29 
.19 
.29 
.19 
,19 
.1 9 
.29 
.50 
.19 
,19 
.19 
,39 



7425 
7426 
7427 
7432 
7437 
7438 
7440 
7442 
7443 
7444 
7446 
7447 
7450 
7451 
7453 



,30 
,27 
,19 
.34 
.39 
.39 
.19 
.65 
.65 
.69 
.89 
.85 
.24 
.19 
.19 



7454 
7470 
7472 
7473 
7474 
7475 
7480 
7485 
7490 
7491 
7492 
7493 
7494 
7495 
7496 



.19 
.38 
.25 
.25 
,39 
,59 
,49 
,95 
.75 
.75 
.75 
.70 
.95 
.75 
.89 



LL OUR TOLL FREE NUMBER 1 
FOR QUANTITY DISCOUNT INF 



74100 
74123 
741 25 
74141 
74145 
74154 
74161 
74163 
74164 
74174 
74175 
74180 
74191 
74192 
74193 
74195 
800-527 
OR MAT 



$1. 
.65 
.47 
.75 

$1 

$1, 

.95 
$1.10 
Si .10 

.95 
$1.80 

.80 
$1.25 
$1.25 
$1. 

.69 
2304. 

ion: 



LM 710 
LM 711 
LM 748 



.25 
.19 

.19 



74LS00 


.25 


74LS74 


,49 


74LSQ2 


.25 


74LS90 


.85 


74LS04 


30 


74LS132 


.90 


74LS08 


■ Zi -J 


74LS138 


.89 


74L51Q 


.25 


74LS139 


.89 


74 LSI 1 


.32 


74LS155 


.90 


74LS20 


31 


74 LSI 57 


1.00 


74LS21 


.33 


74 LSI 62 


1,39 


74LS22 


.33 


74LS163 


139 


74LS27 


.30 


74LS175 


1.09 


74LS30 


.31 


74LS193 


1.09 


74LS32 


.33 


74LS258 


1.09 


74LS37 


.40 


74LS367 


.70 


74LS3S 


•0>D 


74LS368 


.70 



PLASTIC READOUT FILTER 
Originally used in desk top calculators. Perfect for LED and 
other type of readouts. With peel-off protective coating, 
AMBER in color 5-5/8 x 1-3/8. 6/$1.00 + 



CMOS SALE 
PRICES SLASHED - ALL PARTS ARE 100% PRIME 



C04000 
CD4001 
CD4002 
CD4007 
CD4009 
CD4010 
CD401 1 
CD4012 
CD4C13 
CD4014 
CD401S 
CO4016 
CD4017 
CD4018 
CD4019 
CD4021 
CD4022 



+ 16 
.16 
.16 
.16 
.45 
.45 
.16 
.16 
.29 
.75 
.75 
.29 
.80 
.80 
.39 
.90 
,90 



CD4023 

CD4024 

CD4025 

CD4027 

CD4028 

CD4029 

CD4030 

CD4035 

CD4040 

CD4041 

CD4042 

CD4043 

CD4044 

CD4049 

CD4050 

CD4051 

CD4052 



.16 

.70 
.19 
.39 
.75 
.99 
.16 
,99 
1.00 
,69 
.59 
.60 
.59 
,35 
.35 
.90 
.90 



CD4053 

CD4056 

CD405S 

CD4060 

CD4066 

CO4069 

CD4071 

CD4076 

CD4102 

CD4116 

CD4507 

CD4512 

CD4516 

CD4518 

CD4520 

CD4528 

CD 49 11 



.90 
1,00 
.90 
1.00 
.69 
.30 
.16 
.99 
.68 
.39 
.40 
,50 
.85 
.85 
.85 
.80 
.30 



(Toll Free) 

CALL 

HAM RADIO CENTER 

ST. LOUIS 

FOR NEW AND USED AMATEUR RADIO EQUIPMENT 
MASTER-CHARGE BANKAMERICARD 

TRADE ON NEW OR USED 



Hours 9 A.M. - 5 P.M. (Central) 



Closed Sun. & Mon 



THE HAM-KEY 



NOW 5 MODELS 



Iambic circuit for squeeze keying. 

Self completing dots & dashes 

Dot memory, 

Battery operated with provision for 

external power. 

Built-in side-tone monitor. 

Speed, Volume, tone & weight controls. 

Grid block or direct keying. 

Use with external paddle such as HK-L 





NEW 

MODEL HK-5 

ELECTRONIC KEYER 

$69.95 



MODEL HK-1 
$29.95 




MODEL HK-3 
$16.95 



• Dual lever squeeze paddle, 

•Use with HK-5 or any electronic keyer, 

• Heavy base with non-slip rubber feet. 

• Paddles reversible for wide or close finger spacing. 



• Deluxe straight hey, 

• Heavy base, no need to attach to desk, 
t velvet smooth action. 




MODEL HK-2 
$19.95 




MODEL HK-4 
$44.95 



• Same as HK-I, less base for those 

who wish to incorporate in their own Keyer. 



- Combination HK-i & HK-3 on 
same base. 



Available from your local dealer or order direct. 

HAM RADIO CENTER, INC. 

8340-42 OLIVE BLVD. • P. 0. BOX 28271 • ST. LOUIS, MO. 63132 



iTlafCh 



189 



Poly PakV exclusive m* 



j i 



J! 



I I 



mmm 



100' 5 OF BARRELS PURCHASED I 

For the first time anywhere, Paly Pak 
merchandisers introduce a new way 
in buying the economical way. flaw 
stock from the " barrel Ir . Remember 
the "good Die days"? They're back 
again. The same way merchandisers 



Ti 



Wx 



Jli '7\\ 



* r 



YOUR 

CHOICE 

OF 

ANY 
KIT 



Ev *'ry ht carries 

* money hack 

guarantee! 

INCLUDES 
( T00% ! 

'material! 

TOQu i 



f 



* 



throughout the United States buy 
from various factories . . , their ever* 1 
runs in barrels. Poly Pak has done 
the same. Therefore you are getting 
the same type of material as the 
RE ^TESTERS DO! 



TEST 'EM YOURS 



'NSAVE' 



Buy 

Kit 



Free 



BARwn. RiT^aoa 

PLUGS, SOCKETS 

RECEPTACLES 

100 far 
SI -?8 

eludes AC, DC+ RF, audio, 
-i.'j ijiii. ntl ItLtLJs, Wt. i Id. 
Cat No. 3A 3S27 




.EDS J I 



BARREL KIT I 
JUMBO RED LED< 

15 tor S I 

Hiri % material, oner can- 
cellation from factory 
dumps, SV 10 mil*. For 
\0{f* vt proj*0C** s red lena r 
C#t. No. 3A3339 



BARREL KIT *15B 
MAGNIFIED MAN-3's 

12 for *^j^_ 

$1-98 *"MAN*S. 7- 
t-a-E. readout, wttti hyiU-Qo 
mnjsn J fi er, Factor jj iltmjon- 
tinued line. 100% mate- 
rial. C^ No. 3A3325 ■ <■« 



BARREL KIT £201 
EV INDICATORS 

w /leads 

15 f or $1.98 



1Wit lanii* mftnuraciuffcr 
damps Inventory! Wort h 
G3tf et»-, LiKe Kralu-o-ivheat., 
Cji. Nu. 34 3526 



BARREL KIT tI6? 
ROMS-RAMS- 

RECilSTERS 

l-lo. $1.98 

pea. You set more, Montiy 
Friarkedf mostly National. 
Some MYvin-r, J^30G4 



* 



BARREL KIT ?157 
MOLEX CONNECTORS 

75 for 

«pl<p98 '" l £ o». 

Ky]r>n, whjt« CftMc OodfWfc- 
tfji-s, a*fll. factory flver-rwi. 

NO PICKEEt Mixed in bar- 
rgla.Cat. N». 3fl 3324 




fTJ^C 



BARREL KIT £200 
9 DIGIT 
READOUT 
MODULES 

5 for €^/£ 

SI .98 »"iili calculator & 
driv er chips benin U-li ep ca:y. 
CStTNo,^" 3A J*15 




BARREL KIT#1«« 
LONG LEAD DISCS 

4 ozs. $1.98 

No ecufttiftg make* it ■<> 
j/ou K«t lSO-pc. .kit iap- 
prfn>. All marked. 100^. 
Cat. No, 3 A 3089 




BARREL KIT 
CLOCK CHIPS 

20 for 
$1.98 

w\t rlrmh rlilp, alarm, ealen- 
rjjtr, bnfpi'ra, who kftnwa, 
nil' mi ye ri, Cat. Ho- 3fl 3308 




BARREL KIT £1*5 
C A RE O- FILM 
RESISTORS 

75 for $1.98 

Hard Un fiaid; hut we jzat 
millions. Lo & Ili values. 
2 A and Vs watt , f> & , 
ift*,i tot. Ail marked, 
LiH) ■■'■ .3A 3534 



BARREL KIT :ifil 
MINI TRIM ROTS 

3d for i «■ 




meg; 



AsEt, valuois lOl) 

What a hvt\ Single turn. 



Vf. Wt. 6 as. 3 43345 



HIT J?l4ft 

SWITCHES 



BARREL 
ROCKER 

25 for 

DEB, ^pl .*J O 

Bau-f«l^ 'II barrele.. so many, 

our •cumc-me^"' rshuuld jet 
tht- deal. H*. 3 A 3302. 




BARREL KIT S IBM 

Includes >c-si*tt3r. f eap.-t, 
tfuibifprmerJi, recti fiira, dJ- 
odee N etc. far -p.c, work, 
Pr? formed. dumped inta 
barrels by ructori»«. 1 % - 
C«i. Up. 3A14Q1 



OP AMP 
SPECIALS 



B 



GLH301H 
□ LM30>IV 
D LH307V 
p LTW3Q&V 
J LH:J03H 
"\ \M'422.H 
LM324N 
LW3 39N 
LBA370N 
LIY1373N 
LM37TK 
LM360V 



S for IMS 
Blot J..19 





QLM3B1N 
i,M555H 
LM5SSV 
] LMSfiBN 
D LM703H 
n LM709H 
□ LTV4710H 
QLMTZ3H 
DLH741V 
Q LW747H 
J L«74BV 
Gum BOON 
□ LM39QON 
■-LM42S0W 
Cod* HiaTOS 
Vcffllnl DiP< 



BARREL KIT #161 
'P0P r RLASTJC 
TRANSISTORS 

25 for $1.98 

2N£0G4's wrtfh am m«= 
2N.^i)rte"a of iOE*^ mnte- 
riaL TO- 02, Preformed, 
CM. N«. 3A 1343 1 



if 



BARREL KIT £14 

MlN 
TRAM 



BARREL KIT 
MINI BLOCK 
CAPACITORS 

100 for $1.98 

UnbeHevabUet Worth $6 0. 

fliffh. preci.Rifl.(v illbmily 
cupa for all npplLcalLorj^. 
Wt, 5 in* Cat- 3 A 352ft 

BARREL KirpSej 

KEVBOARD 

CHIPS 

10 for $1.98 

T/ruthlnhsr w* c*n't taat 
em, MM57J0'm, keyboard 
Encoder chips. How good 
they are we don't know. 
t*l. Na.3A34l4 




100 ?£ itifitaj film roalB- 

tora, Lorr tcad-'i. 3 A 7413 




BARREL KIT 416ft 
V. REGULATORS 

15 for 
$1.98 

LSA3Q&KC TO- 3 V.K.'a bar- 

t*led, Bot by the pound, 
«&. 3A 3330 




BARREL KIT 
CA PHONO P 



15 for SL98W 40 lor 5* 



PLUGS/ 1 ! 

L.98 



Miniature tran£form.er back 
again. A.bsI l outputa. inlar- ' 
ftlujC^i and audio. 0:iL>' 1" 
ar[, Wt, 2 lbs. 3 A 32B4 



1,000.^00 RCA tjltonii pluBs 
for ttiia oob. You hl-iB»ers 

know wut tJwj 1 are - ^ - 
100 ^ material, 3 A 3293 



BARREL KIT £184 
,-WATT METAL FILI 




ARREL KIT #20J 
ALCULATOR 
KEYBOARDS 

10 for $1-91 

It'a true! EQ-key, 4 fune^ 

Hon keybo&rda at ridlcM- 
iouis give-mwaTh Wt. 
Cat. Ho. 3A 3524 



150 for 



^ 



BARREL KIT :i59 
MODULAR SWITCHES 



25 for 
$1.98 




Ceatralab 

iwitcheE, TV 

r-psti. Dfhdt. 6pdt. etc. Bm 

titW.Cit. No. 3A315Q 



makera ex 



BARREL KIT ffl43 
7I-PC TRANSISTORS 



$1.98 



100 ft material, T0>92, 
factory discontinued Lisu'i 
pnp'e mi seed with iijirifl, 
aS'44aO-l-2-3-d. 3A3290 



BARREL KIT ffl38 
PANEL SWITCHES 

30 for 
$1.98 ^ 

l>id yott haar of OAK?"^it- 
utber eopt maker barrelled 
*iJ| tj-pea i if rctaJ-'Ka p|pc- 
tfir, ^EidL'K, i-[l: 3A326B 




BARREL KIT fl3 5 
MICRO MINI LAMPS 

20 for 

$1"98„-^"^ ^i p*. 

Itciii'(f'in*! "Sljipro. H |^b 1 1/ 4 x 
V<\ ' wtth wire I^Bidis a ten 
& VI>C. AW m>iK. Wnhrth ao^ 1 
e4- Cat. Nq^ 3fl 3259 




BARREL KIT #134 
CALCULATOR CHIPS 



ff 



BAKKfcL KIT J^llfl 
MINI SCRS 

50 for $1.98 

UNBELIEVABLE! TO-1i3 

|3lafltic S(?KS in barrels , . . 
rile from factory. Includes 
all voltages up thru 200 
p™. 3A3133 



BARREL KIT J11S 
200 fOr Cat,Ko|M 

$1.98 3 A3 % 44 Tri nnr 

Calculutur rn;iln..r iluiiipt We 
guL a zillion itt 'iTHi. Usvd 



15 for / 
$1.98 

NutlrJTlill type. 
MM,l"il6, SB', 
tested. Cat. No. 




S 



\ 



Cftn be 
"■l: L T n- 

3 A 325 B 



for 1C 



"k»it.4- L ni.c: 



BARREL KIT ;93 
HALF WATTERS 



.98^ 



: i 



BARREL KIT #112 
MICRO MINI LEDS 

40 for 

All the tiny leds. avjnj, up- 

riifht vt Mc-naantia. Litronia, 
variety of colors f Vicld 
&ti% or better. 3A313S 




200 for $1 

HtSlairtf Cm lor) tried to 

ri?uJ us by mixlDjf XH*) f fi 
aolor-coded reaf Riots Jn 
barrel. But valuo is thrr«, 
•1 tiz, 3 A 304S Untested 




BARREL KIT J»2 
3 AMP EPOXY 
RECTIFIERS *Unteated 

100 for $1.98 

CNHimetic rejects. eleCt-ri 
colly tine bu&iaesj&l Von 
rtLN'ub m vw r it J » not for Ui 
AbbL, voStayuJs. 3 A 1204 




BARREL #91 
SILVER MICAS 

100 for $1.98 

Axial, red caae r Vftrietjr nf 
physical a|««s i values. 
Cat. No, 3A301S 



i-9i-> 



BARREL KIT #131 

TANTALUM 

ELECTROS 1 

30 for $1.98 

Mixed, in E irl;eiJ prtme, lop 
Krade UftL vaLuu& H volt- 
"K^. Cat. No. 3 A 3233 






BARREL HIT jfl2 
PWIN1 DIP ICS 

75 for $1.98 

Larj^e rr.fjrr dumped ] 6(1'r- pt 
lb^ into barrels. Includes 
Tils, LM-S80-3, 703, KG7, 
IS5B t 5oS — ^but who knowaT 
W* t lb. 3fl i24H 



% 



BARREL KIT ;1Q9 
TERMINAL STRIPS 

100 for $1.98 

Wide JUiL-it. uf terminal strip 
rji-mnectora,- from 1 contact 
up. Strip mpfiufacturcru 
Ijjtrj-eS d«inp U yoUr fiaiin, 
Wt. ] ^>-Cflt.Np 3 A XI jfi 



BARREL KIT :SA 
LITRONICS LED 
READOUTS 

10 for $1-98 



BARREL KIT #104 
SLIDE VOLUME 
CONTROLS 

10 for 
$1.98 

Cjt tin. 3 A 1057 




: it's, :2V*, 

J-l-L-tr^-- ^ i;ii\ ,.l,i 

from. fcitiiM -. , 
have fun' No. 




^iiiiilvs, tri- 
\ti C-tl. Sot 

.lU rtii s.fil; 

3A29&1 . 



ARREL KIT 
NATIONAL IC 

100 for 
$1.98 

iyya tfOOO, T400 ienta, 
ttTLj;. BOj\ts t teffi^fprx, L-Iuek 

& Okie, fiiir^, litifin^. rtr. 
Cat. Ha, 3A ^B-eOUrueiiied. 



BARREL KIT #127 
AXIAL ELECTROS 

40 for 
$1.98 

Asst, l.! upauitieu and 
volt it (tea. Cat. No* 3 ft 3227 




BARREL KIT ,7126 
UPRIGHT ELECTROS 

40 for 
$1.98 

Irrtf Lei litOOmf in mixture 

at Voltai*B.J 00 3? marked 

n unfld. 3fl322e 




"la* 



BARREL KIT -. 
RESISTOR SPECIAL 

200 for *^-r^S'^ 



&M 



Includes \%, V*, %. I. 2- 
watt era, carbon. 8 o*. 
100^ ffood, 3A3DS^ 



BARREL KIT #»9 
PHOTO ELECTRIC 
CELLS 

10 for $1.98 

A.-j:;i. GE tyyta, CDS typea 
Mixt-d by factory r BIje jol 
fnr Li^ to sepjirate, 100 % 
PjfUJ.:!. C«t,No. 3A3QG2 



;b? barrel kit fa© 

BONANZAHOBBV LEDS 

40 for 
$ 1-98 

74?'ei, TST^e, alh^lu*. trfi 
pies, etc. , tt'i to 0,fi, B<>t 
from fnctoty, all mixed ; 







Untested 



lia.v<: tatit 3A2AS& 



BARREL NIT -3-1 

15 for $1.91 

LM-340T 
VOLT REG 

Fafiior> rele^tnd taem Jorl 
Length of lttart« p May iflctude 
i-,6, S,ia, 1B.18.24 volt*. 
Power mb Cat. 




0ARREL KIT ;ll 
SUBMINI RESISTORS 

200 for 
$1.98 

H', uorlarhl type. coU 3 r cod- 
ed. V« watt. Aial values. 
Came m u-h in s baneL 
Cflt No 3 A 27 4« 3 00 ffijgtfBd 




>» 



BARREL KIT ^76 
1 WATT ZENERS 

100 for $1.98 

Factory aame as 400^titw n &. 

Never-to-see^affnin otter. 6, 
ft, tO, li!, LniV. under 

jr!a-H!j. trouble ylyJI. 

Cftt.Nfl. 3A274 1 L'nU-.l-iL. 



BARREL KIT ^«1 
POLYSTYRENE CAP 

100 for 
$1.98 

Finest caps made. As, a Jtam* 
ble we bring tit 1 frarrelEL 
from factory. mi)tfd valued : 
%5t K u4, Cat.Wo, 3A272* 



BARREL KIT ff 
400MW 1ENERS 



100 for $ 1 



BARREL KIT 

TRANSISTOR 
ELECTROS 



Factory out of bia] AmasinK 
uffer: C, S. 10, 12 to lfjV.- 
Vou teat. H^rnnstiflally eenled 
eHitj* puk. Double plug. 

C*t No. 3Ai740~ 



50 for $1.98 

We don't -vifinh to separate 
wid* Os^t voltages A vtdues 
up tu 200 mi. Cat. 3A2T47 



BARREL KIT^Tl 
CAPACITOR SPECIAL, 

100 pes. 
$1.98 

micas, moltkda* ulaat^a. 
cemmloa. dlatfi, fltc^ Nifty 
lOO^KoodCst.No 3A2T39 




BARREL KIT 76B jT 
2 WATTE RS 




BARREL KIT ;5» , J. BARREL K